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Sep 25, 2021
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

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Article Archives: Articles: Government

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 24, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
The first colored Senator Reverend H.R. Revels



The first colored Senator Reverend H.R. Revels [Hiram R. Revels] - A correspondent of the Cincinnati Commercial writes from Holly Springs, Mississippi, as follows concerning ex-Senator Revels, now a Methodist minister near there: "When we entered the door of the plain white frame meeting house, it was filled with worshipers. The Pastor is held in high esteem by his flock at home.

He is both law maker and shepard [i.e. shepherd], statesman and preacher. His party has put an "Hon." [Honorable] before his name, and a college of his church has put a "D.D." [Doctor of Divinity" behind it. He cane home from Washington City as pure as he went,which cannot be said of every white Senator [or ANY Senator these days]...



Pastor Revels is a man of about 30, rather below medium height, with wide perceptive faculties, and a face remarkably bland and winning. He is a light mulatto,with eyes tinged with blue. He is comely, graceful and dignified, and in manner as polite as Chesterfield, without the least affectation.

His voice is strong and rich of accordant tones, his modulation distinct, his sentences models of compact English. You can almost see his punctuation points as he speaks, so exactly measured and as symmetrical as his diction. His gestures are mostly with the forearm, hand and finger, as if he would paint on canvas every shade of his meaning, and touch delicately every color of flower in his rhetoric.

There is no bombast, no trick of syllable or scare of sound. He just talks to you right out in an earnest, straightforward way, and you are arrested, interested, affected and helped by what he says. All this from a farm chattel - a United States Senator, a self-made man.

But he is far in advance of his race. He is a pioneer. Well might his colored substitute in the pulpit, a preacher black as ebony, referring to Pastor Revels in his public prayer, beseech blessings upon the head of "de old, leader of the army". We "heard a white amen to that. And he has an army of a congregation!"

It is much above the average in intelligence, and the order and attention excellent. The Pastor’s influence over the people is marvelous. He can sway a thousand people by a gesture or a word. He said to us that strange as certain demonstrations might seem, it was paradise in order and sweetness to what it had been in former days.


 

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Art, Education, Eye, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Government, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Noise, Politics, Racism, Religion, Scandals, War / Weaponry, Words, Work

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 13, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Obituaries

Died, in Vernon, Vt. Aug. 12, John Stebbins Esq., aged 81. He was the son of Eliakim and Rebekah Hawks Stebbins, and the grandson of Col. John Hawks, formerly of Deerfield, Mass., who was known to history as the "hero of Fort Massachusetts" [located in North Adams], from the fact of his having [?] two soldiers in the Indian Wars of 1746, and successfully defended it for 48 hours, against a combined force of 800 French and Indians, who surrounded and sought to take it. Mr. Stebbins represented his native town in the Legislature 4 years, and held the office of Justice of the Peace and other positions for a great many years.
 

Subjects: Deerfield (MA), Emigration and Immigration, Family, French, Government, History, Massachusetts, Native Americans, Obituaries, Vermont, War / Weaponry, Berkshire County (MA)

Posted by stew - Fri, Feb 12, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Wendell

Wendell - There are growing signs of an upward tendency, all things included. A new hearse house has just been completed, and a new hearse is, we are assured, under way, and it is time, for the old one had become so frightful that no one would consent to be put into it on any condition.

The remark has often been made that there has been a decided improvement within the last few years in the expectation of men regarding the near future of these old hills, and in the actual effort that is being made to restore the place to its former relations, so far as that may be done. Although our population is the lowest that it has reached for 6 decades, yet there is a future for these hills and valleys that but few dream of at the present day of trial and tramps.


In the mercantile line a new change has occurred. J.N. Beach, successor of Danforth Putnam and the company he represented, as the legitimate successors of O.H.H. Powers, himself the successor of Messrs. Oatman & Fisk, who succeeded Mr. Creagh after the fire, who came in after M.M. Stebbins made the mistake in leaving the place and O. Leach, his immediate successor in quitting the business when it was prospering in his hands.

There is no trouble in trade here except the scarcity of paying, ready paying customers, and this seems to be the general complaint all around. There is one item in this matter which the welfare of the place requires to be stated. It is this: Orange and elsewhere have completely succeeded in deluding a large class of the people with the notion that they are, in coming to them with their trade, doing first rate when they just fleece them, with the expectation that they are getting things cheap.



But there is the other side to this matter. Where did the money come from to build up those fine blocks and shops and sich [sic]? Now quite a large slice of it came off from these hills. But Orange and elsewhere don’t pay any taxes to keep things up here moving; don’t build up anything here and don’t propose to do it.

What these greedy places evidently want is to have us get what we can and run down and bring it to them at the price they think best to give, and take their truck and dicker at their own price.Don’t suppose they feel any pangs of guilt in the matter; but this past and present state of things up here shows that there is a screw loose somewhere.But things will change sometime, if not sooner, when the valleys will be obliged to conform to the old hills, or go without potatoes.
 

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Dreams / Sleep, Economics, Fires, Food, Government, Mourning Customs, Orange (MA), Robbers and Outlaws, Stores, Retail, Tramps, Transportation, Vendors and Purchasers, Vital Statistics, Wendell (MA), Clothing

Posted by stew - Mon, Jan 18, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
News of the week



New Commissioner of Patents to take the place of Mr. Thatcher, just resigned, to enter into the patent business in Chicago. Hon. R.H. Buell of Cortland, N.Y....

[See R. Holland Duell in Wikipedia].
 

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Government, Inventions, Science

Posted by stew - Mon, Jan 18, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
News of the week

Prof. Marsh was examined Mon. by the Red Cloud Investigating Commission. The cross examination was quite rigid and left the Professor in a very embarrassing position. He was unable to sustain any of the charges from his own personal knowledge.

He was pressed particularly close to ascertain whether he had any specific evidence to sustain the charge of criminal negligence on the part of Secretary Delano. He had only hearsay evidence...

[See Google Books "The Magazine of American History with notes and queries, Volume 23" for an explanation of this issue].

 

Subjects: Archaeology, Crime, Criminals, Education, Food, Government, History, Literature / Web Pages, Native Americans, Politics, Science

Posted by stew - Mon, Jan 18, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
News of the week

The United States detectives have recently captured another lot of the Alabama and Tennessee counterfeiters, among them J.C.Graham of Gainesville, Sumter County, ...
 

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Economics, Government, Police

Posted by stew - Mon, Jan 18, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
News of the week

The government won its first suit against the whisky [i.e. whiskey] ring at St. Josephs, Mo. Sat., when John Shenan was convicted; he had pleaded guilty, however the penalty in this case is not less than 2 year's imprisonment, and not less than $5,000 fine. Shenan's case is regarded at the Treasury Dept. as a type of those to follow, the evidence in possession of the government in this class of cases being of the same character.
 

Subjects: Courts, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Government, Law and Lawyers, Prisons

Posted by stew - Mon, Feb 23, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875

Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875 - Fellow citizens: 200 years ago an event occurred on this spot, which on account of its significance and its touching details, has passed into that long heroic line over which the mind of man is compelled to pause and ponder...At the name of Bloody Brook the men, women, and children of New England started and held their breath in horror, in that primeval time when the sickening tidings were borne on the wings of the wind as it were from hamlet to hamlet...

The sad event of the 18th of September 1675, calls upon us still to remember the trials through which our fathers passed and to rejoice over that fraternal spirit which bound them together in their day of sorrow, and watered the soil of this charming valley with the choicest blood of the sons of Essex. I stand on ground made sacred to you by the sacrifices of your hardy and devoted progenitors; but I meet here the names of Lothrop and Stevens and Hobbs and Manning and Dodge and Kimball and Trask and Tufts and Mudge and Pickering, of the three-score braves who died that you might possess this goodly land and these pleasant homes...

How would they who were familiar with the cruel warfare of the savage; whose ears had heard the shrieks of the tortured mother mingling with the groans of her dying child, and whose eyes had beheld her fear, her patience and her despair; whose highway was an Indian trail, and whose home was a frontier block-house - how would they rejoice over these sunny fields, these laughing harvests, these busy towns, these tasteful homes, this cultivated landscape adorned with these institutions of learning and religion; and how would they count their own sufferings but small when compared with the manifold blessings which have descended upon the spot made sacred with their blood?

...Deerfield two centuries ago, was on the very confines of civilization - one of the outposts of a feeble Christian people, who had hardly a foothold on this continent, and between whom and the strongholds of power and wealth and learning, rolled 3000 miles of stormy and almost unknown sea. The fate of a great and wide spread empire rested then in the hands of a few colonists scattered along the Atlantic seaboard, divided in interests and tastes, perishing continually from exposure and want, not all actuated by the highest motives, but all recognizing, as by an unerring instinct, the fundamental principle out of which was to grow the American government, and all in danger of being exterminated at any time by the "pestilence which walketh in darkness and the destruction which wasteth at noonday".

Scattered up and down the great extent of territory stretching from the Passamaquoddy Bay to the capes of Florida were but about 200,000 souls, of whom Massachusetts, with Plymouth and Maine, may have had 44,000; New Hampshire and Rhode Island, with Providence each 6000; Connecticut from 17,000 to 20,000; that is, all New England, 75,000...

These people had come largely from that "Germanic race most famed for the love of personal independence". They were not men of high estate, but they were men who possessed an inherent love of land, with all the individual honor and freedom which go along with it...

Of one colony said "Spotswood, a royalist, a High churchman, a traveler", "I have observed here less swearing and profaneness, less drunkenness and debauchery, less uncharitable feuds and animosities, and less knaverys and villanys than in any part of the world where my lot has been"...

In all their customs they were obliged to exercise the utmost simplicity and they voluntarily regulated their conduct by those formal rules, which, in their day, constituted the Puritan’s guide through the world. We are told, as an illustraton of their character and manners, that by the laws of the Plymouth Colony, in 1651, "dancing at weddings was forbidden". In 1660, one William Walker was imprisoned one month for courting "a maid without the leave of her parents".

In 1675, because "there is manifest pride appearing in our streets", the "wearing of long hair or periwigs", and so "superstitious ribands, used to tie up and decorate the hair were forbidden under severe penalty"; the keeping of Christmas was also forbidden "because it was a popish custom". In 1677 an act was passed "to prevent the profaneness of turning the back upon the public worship before it was finished and the blessing pronounced".

Towns were directed to erect a cage near the meeting house, and in all this all offenders against the sanctity of the Sabbath were confined. At the same time children were directed to be placed in a particular part of the meeting house, apart by themselves, and tything-men were ordered to be chosen, whose duty it shall be to take care of them. So strict were they in their observance of the Sabbath that "John Atherton, a soldier of Col. Tyng’s Company", was fined 40 shillings for wetting a piece of an old hat to put into his shoes, which chafed his feet on the march; and those who neglected to attend meeting for 3 months were publicly whipped.

Even in Harvard College students were whipped for gross offenses in the Chapel, in presence of students and professors, and prayers were had before and after the infliction of the punishment. As the settlers of Deerfield are described as being of "sober and orderly conversation", we may suppose that these laws and customs were here rigidly enforced.

[Here follows a section on "subsistence and diet of your ancestors". Also talks about how they were good farmers, fishermen and readers]...

...Possessed evidently of a common origin, for "between the Indians of Florida and Canada the difference was scarcely perceptible", they were divided into tribes, which differed from each other mainly in their fighting capacity, and the vigor with which they roamed from place to place; and they were liable at any time to be swept off by disease, or exterminated by war, or absorbed by other and more powerful tribes.

In language, the North American Indian was limited by the material world, an abstract idea finding no birthplace in his brain and no expression on his tongue. "In marriage the Indian abhorred restraint, and from Florida to the S. Lawrence polygamy was permitted". Divorce meant merely desertion. The wife was a slave. Domestic government was unknown. The Indian youth grew up a warrior, adorned with vermilion and eagle’s feather, as fleet of foot as the deer, and as tolerant of hunger as the wolf; the Indian girl grew up a squaw, degraded and squalid and servile.

A rude agriculture, resulting in a weedy corn crop, and a few squashes and beans, was the Indian’s, or rather the Indian woman’s occupation; he had neither trade nor manufactures. "There can be no society without government; but among the Indian tribes on the soil of our republic, there was not only no written law - there was no traditionary [sic] expression of law; government rested on opinion and usage and the motives to the usage were never imbodied [sic] in language; they gained utterance only in the fact, and power only from opinion...

The Indian had a government without laws; a State without institutions; a church without faith, or creed, or head; a town without schoohouse or meeting house; a punitive system without jails or gibbets; a history based on tradition; a religion based on superstition; he was ignorant of the ownership of land; and knew nothing of a system of inheritance.

As in peace he was an idler - so in war he was a marauder. An organized army was to him unknown. He fought in small bands, seldom over 50 in number, to surprise and slaughter. He pursued, and killed, and scalped. He had neither commissariat nor hospital. He fought his enemy in the rear and in ambush; and he tortured and roasted and devoured his captives. These were the national characteristics which our fathers found on this continent.

Nor did their attempts to modify and humanize and Christianize them meet with much success. The Indian could be tamed, but he was the Indian still...Neither John Eliot nor Roger Williams was able to change essentially the habits and character of the New England tribes..."They are unspeakably indolent and slothful; they deserve little gratitude; they seem to have no sentiments of generosity, benevolence or goodness".

The Moravian Loskiel could not change their character...In New Hampshire and elsewhere schools for Indian children were established; but as they became fledged they all escaped, refusing to be caged. Harvard College enrolls the name of an Algonquin youth among her pupils; but the college parchment could not close the gulf between the Indian character and the Anglo American.

The copper colored men are characterized by a moral inflexibility, a rigidity of attachment to their hereditary customs and manners. The birds and brooks, as they chime forth their unwearied canticles, chime them ever to the same ancient melodies; and the Indian child, as it grows up, displays a propensity to the habits of its ancestors...

The trouble lay deeper. Year after year the Indian discovered an irreconcilable difference between himself and the stranger...When he entered the home of the settler, he discovered that the joys of the fireside could never be found in the group squatted beneath the shelter of the wigwam. He felt the antagonism - and his soul burned within him. The strife was not for land...It was for supremacy. And as revenge is stronger than ambition, and hate is stronger than avarice, so the war raged with unspeakable fury, and was as cruel as the passions of a desperate savage could make it.

The great contest which grew out of this antagonism, and lasted more than a year, unabated either by the heat of summer or the frosts of winter, threatening destruction to the New England colonies, was known as Philip’s War. With the story of this conflict you are all familiar. The peaceful death of Massasoit at a good old age, after a long life of friendly relations with the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies; the sadder death of his son Alexander, worried out of life by the failure of his intrigues against the colony, and the exposure of his meanness and his crimes; the gradual development of the worst of passions in the breast of Philip, and his passage from treachery to war are all fresh in the memory of all who have traced the hard path which our fathers traveled in the work of settling these shores.

The war which began in Swanzey on the 24th of June, 1675, reached this spot on the 18th of September - three months of murder, and fire, and all the bloody horrors of savage warfare. At the time the war broke out Deerfield had been settled 10 years, or had been deeded for the purposes of settlement to John Pynchon that length of time. It was then, as it is now, one of the most delightful spots in New England...

http://images.nypl.org/index.php?id=808204&t=w

And here in the luxurience of that natural beauty, and in the wealth of wood and stream, the Indian found his favorite resort. In this town and in the towns of Hadley and Hatfield he mustered a numerous and a powerful tribe. And upon these lands purchased by the settlers, with titles confirmed by the court, the whites and Indians lived together in peace for years. It is amazing with what rapidity the war, once opened, spread from village to village, and from tribe to tribe in this wilderness...

The Pocumtucks had received their orders - and in a day had stepped from the blessings of peace to the misery of war. having promsied to deliver up their arms, on suspicion that they might misuse them, they broke their promise, fled to Sugar loaf Hill, engaged with Captains Beers and Lothrop commanding the English here, lost 26 of their number, and then sought shelter under the standard of King Philip...

Deerfield too was abandoned; and the attempt to secure a quantity of wheat which had just been partially threshed by the farmers there before their flight, resulted in the massacre which still thrills me with horror, and the anniversary of which we have met to commemorate...From behind hundreds of trees the savages poured their deadily [sic] fire. At the first volley many were killed, and the remainder were panic stricken...Lothrop...was among the first to fall. The savages, numbering nearly 700, "rushed upon the defenceless men, and the work of slaughter was soon complete.

But 6 or 7 Englishmen escaped to tell the tale, of whom one had been shot and tomahawked and left for dead, and another forced his way through the yelling ranks of the savages with the but [sic] of his musket...

While the Indians were employed in mangling, scalping and stripping the dying and the dead, Captain Moseley, who, as has been observed, was ranging the woods, hearing the report of musketry, hastened by a forced march to the relief of his brethren. The Indians, confiding in their superior numbers, taunted him as he advanced, and dared him to the contest. Moseley came on with firmness, repeatedly charged through them, and destroyed a large number with the loss on his side of but 2 killed and 11 wounded...

A quantity of bones lately found in that quarter is very probably the remains of the Indians who fell there at the close of the action. The united English force encamped for the night at Deerfield. They returned in the morning to bury the dead and found a party of the Indians upon the field stripping the bodies of their victims. These they quickly dispatched, and the remains of the brave young men, or some portion of them, were committed to the earth near the spot which we have this day consecrated anew to their memory.

The stream on whose banks they fell, and whose water ran red with their blood, has been called from that day, in memory of the disaster, Bloody Brook...[Two more entire columns follow, but they are quite blurry and unreadable].
 

Subjects: Archaeology, Barber / Hair, Birds, Business Enterprises, Cemeteries, Children, Connecticut, Connecticut River, Courtship, Crime, Criminals, Dance, Deerfield (MA), Diseases, Divorce, Drunkenness, Economics, Education, English (and England), Eye, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Fishes and Fishing, Food

Posted by stew - Mon, Feb 23, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Stop the murderer!

Stop the murderer! $500 reward! The above reward will be paid for the arrest and conviction of the person or persons who murdered Joseph R. Farnsworth of Coleraine, on the eve. of Sept. 7th.

Daniel J. Dwight and Herbert Davenport are suspected of being the parties who committed the deed. Dwight is a young man about 5 ft. 8 inches tall , 19 years of age, weighing about 140 lbs, light complexion, light hair, light eyes; he usually carries his head a little on one side, with a downward look.

Davenport is 17 years of age, not so heavy or tall as Dwight, with light complexion, light eyes and very light hair; head and shoulders quite stooping, eyes usually turned to the ground. Joseph B. Clark, Chairmen of Selectmen of Coleraine.
 

Subjects: Advertising, Barber / Hair, Coleraine [now Colrain] (MA), Crime, Criminals, Economics, Eye, Government, Murder

Posted by stew - Mon, Feb 23, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Stop the murderer!

Stop the murderer! $500 reward! The above reward will be paid for the arrest and conviction of the person or persons who murdered Jseph R. Farnsworth of Coleraine, on the eve. of Sept. 7th.

Daniel J. Dwight and Herbert Davenport are suspected of being the parties who committed the deed. Dwight is a young man about 5 ft. 8 inches tall , 19 years of age, weighing about 140 lbs, light complexion, light hair, light eyes; he usually carries his head a little on one side, with a downward look.

Davenport is 17 years of age, not so heavy or tall as Dwight, with light complexion, light eyes and very light hair; head and shoulders quite stooping, eyes usually turned to the ground. Joseph B. Clark, Chairmen of Selectmen of Coleraine.
 

Subjects: Advertising, Barber / Hair, Coleraine [now Colrain] (MA), Crime, Criminals, Economics, Eye, Government, Murder

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 22, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Hoosac Tunnel

Hoosac Tunnel - The enlargement of the little tunnel, to meet the requirements of the increased travel, was begun Mar. 1, and it is hoped to finish the work in two months’ more. The objects of the undertaking are to lower the grade 8 ft., to widen the roadway so as to accommodate two tracks, and to alter the direction in order to lessen the sharp curves of the road at both approaches.

The new tracks will curve slightly through the tunnel, and the curves at the entrances will be reduced. The new width at the level of the tracks will be 24 ft. B.N. Farren took the contract for the whole job and sublet the work of deepening, which requires an excavation of 10 ft., to Michael Ryan of New York. Mr. Ryan is now setting an 8 horse power steam engine and will begin running it for hoisting and for the steam drill next week.

Mica powder is used in the sides and roof, and glycerine in the bottom. The debris is taken seven or eight miles down the road and used for rip rapping. The rock is mica slate and needs no arching.

The Governor and Council are about closing another contract with B.N. Farren to continue the work on the big tunnel under the appropriations of the last Legislature. The old and new contracts amount together to about $600,000. The work is progressing at the rate of about 275 feet a month, and consists of enlarging, both in width and height, and arching with brick where the stone is soft and liable to fall.

Mr. Farren found the bore 24 ft. wide and 20 ft. high, and leaves it 30 ft. wide and 23 high. The work will probably be done in about a year from now, it being expected that the new appropriation will finish it up...

[One more long article follows, containing reports on budget items].
 

Subjects: Economics, Government, Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Horses, Law and Lawyers, Recycled Products, Trains, Transportation, Work, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 22, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Shelburne Falls

Shelburne Falls - C.C. Puffer and his family from Charleston, S.C. are visiting at the residence of his father, Dr. S. Puffer. He was an earnest supporter of Governor Chamberlain, and largely instrumental in his nomination and election.

http://www.clements....ides/NP/PufferM.html
 

Subjects: Amusements, Elections, Emigration and Immigration, Family, Government, Households, Politics, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA)

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 21, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Court record

Court record - The fifth week of the Superior Court continued the business of the term, beginning Tues. with the following trials before the court:

John O’Donnell vs. Bartholomew Reardon & Trustees - Finding for the plaintiff, amount $68.68, and the charging of the Trustee (the Keith Paper Co.) with $76.07...Erastus Cowles vs. Edwin A. Ball - This was an action of trespass, wherein the plaintiff alleged that the defendant, who, being a highway surveyor, had, in repairing the highway on Deerfield Meadow, trespassed upon the plaintiff’s land, plowing into the Broughton Pond road, a turf embankment some 3 ft. wide and 68 rods in length.

Also, by removing a stone at the western terminus of the road. The question at issue being the true location of the northern line of said road. The defendant claimed that he had not exceeded the original limits of the road, which was laid out in 1796. The case developed the fact that the race of old men were not yet extinct, and the remembrances of the greater portion of Deerfield were required on the pros and cons of the matter in dispute. Finding for the defendant...

Henry Couillard vs. Elihu Smead - This was an action by the plaintiff, as tax collector of Shelburne, to recover $33.85, being a tax assessed in 1871. The defendant claimed that the tax had already been paid by J.B. Whitney, who, acting as his agent, handed the plaintiff the money in the yard of his livery stable at Shelburne Falls, and moreover, fixed the date as Apr. 29, 1871.

The circumstances attending the alleged payment were detailed by Mr. Whitney, while the plaintiff, while testifying that at the date named he was at Winchester N.H., engaged in the joint occupation of "courting a woman and trading horses", succeeded in raising an issue of fact, which, after a subsequent attempt by the plaintiff’s side to show the true status of the witness Whitney, for truth and veracity, and the counter attempt of the defense to discredit Couillard on the same ground; the truth might be said to indeed be "trembling in the balance". Finding for the plaintiff, amount $40.78...

The inhabitants of Leverett vs. the inhabitants of Rowe - This was an action to recover for money expended by the town of Leverett in assisting a pauper by the name of Rice, and whom it was claimed, had a legal settlement in the town of Rowe. The circumstances of the case were quite peculiar. One of the ways by which a person gains a settlement in a town is by the possession and residence on an estate of freehold for 3 years.

A settlement once gained of course continuing until a new one is gained elsewhere. In this case, Mr. Rice owned and lived upon a place in Rowe, but a few days previous to the expiration of 3 years he returned the deed of land to the original grantor, who then conveyed the property to a new party. Mr. Rice continued to live upon the land for some few weeks after giving up the deed as mentioned.

The new party who took the property did not take possession; neither did the original grantor exercise any act of ownership except the mere transferring of the deeds till after the expiration of 3 years. The question arises whether the fact of giving the deed back by Rice to his grantor, did moderate the circumstances, divest Rice of his seizin of the freehold. If not, of course he gained a settlement; while if the residence or the seizin were cut short by a few days, the statute would not be complied with and the town would not be liable. The point raised was so peculiar that the Judge reserved his decision...

Lucius Smith vs. Austin Drake, appt. The case came up on appeal from a magistrate’s findings. The court found for the plaintiff and assessed damages of $7.42...

The following cases were disposed of by judgment without trial: Samuel B. Fletcher vs. Henry Herring - This case has stood upon the docket for a long time, having been tried by a jury in 1873. It was settled on agreement by a verdict for the plaintiff, amount $19...Moses Stebbins vs. Jasper Gillett - This was another of the old cases consisting of many items of an account with offsets. Judgment was granted on award of referee...Edward H. Fitts vs. Samuel Sugland - Judgment on award of referee for plff. Damages, $4. Each party to pay their own cost...

Turners Falls Lumber Co. vs. David A. Wood - This was an action on 2 promissory notes, one of $1200...and the other of $518...Judgment for plaintiffs on both...Edwin Pierce et al. vs. Levi A. Bates Jr. et al. Judgment for plaintiffs against Bates for account of $52.50...Edwin Pierce et al. vs. Allen Mansfield - Judgment for plaintiff on a promissory note...for $58...

William L. Bradley vs. Edward Barney - Judgment for plaintiff on a promissory note...for $212...Bradley Fertilizer Co. vs. Edward Barney - This was an action on a note given by George Fuller of Deerfield, upon which the defendant was sued as surety, for $300. Judgment for plaintiff on the same...

Asa C. Lewis vs. Lorenzo D. Joslyn appt. Judgment for plaintiff, amount $30...Nathaniel Holmes et al. vs. Stephen L. Pratt - Judgment for plaintiff on note...for $59.10, upon which $40 had been paid before suit. William R. Armstrong vs. R.L. Goss. Judgment for plaintiff...for $400...Nathaniel Holmes et al. vs. Thomas Lap[?]. Judgment for plaintiff for $11...

George W. Potter et al. vs. R.J. Goss. Judgment for plaintiff on 2 notes, one for $732 and another for $82.89, also an account of $319. Total, $1134.52. Frank L. Eldridge vs. R.L. Goss et al - Judgment for plaintiff on note, amount $350...In the case of S.L. Shattuck et al. vs. George Jones, in which a verdict for plaintiff was given by the jury, a motion was filed for a new trial. But the motion has been overruled.

The docket has been well cleared of old cases this term, some 40 being settled out of court, to which no reference has been made in our reports. Judge Aldrich has earned the thanks of suiters by his persistent labors in holding this, the longest term of the Superior Court, known for many years. The court adjourned for the term Fri...The law term of the Supreme Judicial Court will begin Sept. 28, with the full bench.
 

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Business Enterprises, Courts, Courtship, Crime, Deerfield (MA), Economics, Government, Greenfield (MA), History, Horses, Law and Lawyers, Leverett (MA), Montague (MA), New Hampshire, Old Age, Outhouses, Poor, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Roads, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Turners Falls (MA), Vendors and Purchasers, Work, Rowe (MA)

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 21, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Heath

Heath - We are called upon to record another fire in the town of Heath, of the barn of Henry Barker, which was burned about 9 o'clock on the night of Sept. 1., it being the 4th fire which we have had within the space of 2 years, with all its contents, consisting of some 23 tons of hay, some 75 bushels of barley and oats, 3 wagons, mowing machine, and all his farming tools.

It was with great difficulty that the house was saved, it being about 12 ft. from the corner of the barn, the wind being favorable, and the timely aid of the neighbors served in saving it. It caught fire several times upon the roof, but was extinguished before much damage was done. The house was cleared of most of its contents, and many things were somewhat injured in their haste to remove them.

The cause of the fire is unknown, but was without doubt set by tramps who were seen lurking about the premises the previous eve. Mr. Barker and family have our sincere sympathy, and hope that he may receive timely aid in this time of trouble. We appeal to the authorities, and ask what shall be done with tramps who are infesting our lands, burning our buildings, injuring our property, insulting our families, heaping insult upon insult upon all they meet?

We again ask, what shall be done with tramps? S.B.
 

Subjects: Accidents, Crime, Criminals, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Furniture, Government, Households, Tramps, Transportation, Weather, Heath (MA)

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 21, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
A man murdered in Coleraine

A man murdered in Coleraine - He is killed and robbed by two young ruffians - It is now 8 years since Simeon Peck killed Miss Cheney at Griswoldville, and Coleraine is again the scene of a tragedy, which in all its details has never had a parallel in the criminal annals of the County. The victim of this terrible crime is Joseph R. Farnsworth [i.e. Joseph Riley Farnsworth], known among his townsmen as "Riley", a quiet, inoffensive man, who dwelt with his wife and two children on his mother’s farm, on what is known as "Catamount Hill", some 2 miles and a half from Shelburne Falls.

The circumstances of the affair are these: On Tues. last Farnsworth, who served in the late war, went to Greenfield to be examined by a surgeon, as required, before making out an application for pension. He went back to Shelburne Falls on the train, and at the office of H.M. Puffer Esq., had his pension paper made out. When this business was finished, he started for home, getting a chance to ride with Levi Davenport, a neighbor.

They rode together until they came to the fork of two roads which led to the mountain. Farnsworth took the road up the ravine on the easterly side, while Davenport went the other way to his home. It had by this time begun to grow dark, and Farnsworth pushed along alone through a wood and came to a place where the road separates, a path leading up to Jack Woodard’s on the one hand and to his mother’s place on the other.

At this point someone steps suddenly from the cover of bushes by the roadside and, without a word of warning, strikes him a blow upon the forehead with a stick which prostrates him upon the ground. The blow is followed up with others or with kicks, until the man’s head is covered with ghastly wounds. He is then robbed of the few dollars which he had in his pocket book.

Farnsworth was not long wholly unconscious. Within half an hour he must have rallied sufficient strength to get upon his feet, and staggering and frequently falling, he made his way home, some one hundred rods distant, and which he reached by half past 7. He was able to tell his mother and a neighbor present a part of what had happened, and Dr. Canedy of Shelburne Falls was immediately sent for.

He arrived in the evening, but found the man so badly wounded there was little that could be done for him. Farnsworth could not tell who struck him, and becoming unconscious, he lingered until about 10 o’clock Wed. morning, when he died.

The news of the affair had by this time spread over the town, and efforts made to ascertain who were the perpetrators of the crime. Suspicion soon rested upon two young men who live in the vicinity, and who had not been seen since the murder. These were Daniel Dwight, a son of Josiah J. Dwight, and Herbert Davenport, a son of widow Roxana Davenport, and a nephew of the murdered man.

The former is 19 years of age and the latter 18, and both had borne a hard name among the people of the town. Going to the scene of the assault, a heavy print of a shoe was found, where the desperado stood when he gave the murderous blow, and a few feet in front was found the pool of blood which flowed from the wounds of his victim, and a bloody trail was made by Farnsworth as he rested and stumbled home.

Not far from his place a hickory stub was found where the stick, about an inch in diameter, had been cut; and in another direction the stick itself was discovered, which corresponded with the stub, and which had been thrown away after the assault. The stick, which is in the possession of one of the officers, was evidently cut by a left handed person. Dwight is known to be left handed.

It seems that the two boys had been to Farnsworth’s house the afternoon that he was away, borrowed fifty cents from his wife, all the money that she had - they agreeing to pay her back before the time of the county fair, when she wanted to spend it. They also took away a cheap watch which belonged to Farnsworth.

Before going to Greenfield Farnsworth had made known his errand to the neighbors, and the boys probably thought that he was going to bring home his pension money and so made their plans to waylay and rob him. But the money Farnsworth had on his person could not have exceeded 2 or 3 dollars. There had been ill feeling between the boys and Farnsworth before. He had not got along happily with his wife, being frequently jealous, it is thought by some, without cause, and the fellows had taken her part.

They have been heard to threaten him on her account. Dwight, who was married and lived with his wife in a house on his father’s farm, took away with him two suits of clothes, but young Davenport is not known to have carried away only such clothes as he happened to have on, and left behind a little money and a bank book.

Wed. aft. upwards of 50 men were out scouring the woods of Coleraine, Whitingham and Heath, under Officers Henry A. Howard of Coleraine and Deputy Sheriff [?] S. Frost of Shelburne Falls, and the search by some of the party was kept up all night, but was fruitless. Dwight and Davenport are both familiar with the woods for miles around, having hunted and roamed over them together.

http://www.franklins...hotossmcleodpond.php

It was thought that perhaps the fugitives had gone in the direction of North Adams, and an officer was sent there Thurs. morning, while the general search was partly abandoned. Though the young ruffians may evade their pursuers for a while, it is hardly possible to make a successful escape. Their photographs and descriptions will be sent broadcast. The Selectmen have offered a reward of $500 for their recovery, and mean to bring them to justice.

As there is no coroner in the vicinity, S.D. Bardwell Esq. of Shelburne Falls, as a Justice of the Peace, summoned a jury to view the remains. The jury consists of Hezekiah Smith, C.W. Shattuck, A.A. Smith, Thomas D. Purrington, H.C. Millington and Russell J. Smith. They visited the scene of the murder Wed. aft., and will meet again today, when probably a verdict in accordance with the facts we have related will be rendered.

Farnsworth’s funeral took place Thurs. morning and was largely attended by the people of the town. Rev. Mr. Cole, the Methodist clergyman of Coleraine, conducted the services. Farnsworth leaves a boy of 9 and a girl of 7. His age was about 35, and his mother, with whom he lived, is about 75. The family, though poor and ignorant, were considered of average respectability. The mother of the Davenport boy has always opposed his keeping company with Dwight, who is generally supposed to have been the leader in the matter, but the two were together a great deal, and had become hardened and desperate.

A note received by J.B. Clark, one of the Selectmen of the town on Sat., stated that there was no trace then of the murderers, but that the watch supposed to have been stolen by one of the boys, was found, and was in his possession.

Latest - Intelligence from Shelburne Falls yesterday, states that Dwight was caught about half past 10 Sat. eve. Half a dozen men were laying in wait for him around his house, and he came home at that time and fell into their clutches. The whereabouts of Davenport is not known. Dwight was put into the lock-up at Shelburne Falls yesterday morning.

[A followup to this murder can be found on p. 371 of Google Books "Publications of the American Statistical Association", 1892 - 1893. There is also mention of the sentence on p. 5 of Google Books "Public Documents of Massachusetts", 1876].
 

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Children, Coleraine [now Colrain] (MA), Crime, Criminals, Economics, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Government, Greenfield (MA), History, Households, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Massachusetts, Medical Personnel, Missing Persons, Mourning Customs, Murder, Names, Photographs, Police, Poor, Prisons

Posted by stew - Mon, Feb 16, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Greenfield - We understand that the Greenfield Cornet Band, after their few weeks' vacation, propose to reorganize, as the Selectmen have offered for their use a suitable room. The band will have some accessions to its membership and will be put in good shape. Our people should extend to the boys as much aid and encouragement as they can afford.
 

Subjects: Economics, Government, Greenfield (MA), Music

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 14, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
The Turners Falls bridge

The Turners Falls bridge - A prayer for an injunction was filed by the Montague Paper Co. at the office of the Clerk of Courts, to prevent the County Commissioners from building the new bridge at Turners Falls, as located by the Board, which will bring the matter before the Supreme Judicial Court, which will be in session in Greenfield on the 29th. The company claims that the commissioners had no right to lay out the highway and bridge without first ascertaining that the expenses to be incurred under the act of the Legislature would not exceed $42,000...

That if the bridge is built as located, cutting off the easterly end of the company's paper mill, heavy damages will be sustained, not only by the appropriation of the company's property, but also by the interruption and permanent injury which will thereby be caused to the business; the damage, the company claims, amounting to many thousands of dollars...The company claims that its land and property cannot be lawfully taken.
 

Subjects: Bridges, Business Enterprises, Courts, Economics, Government, Law and Lawyers, Montague (MA), Roads, Trees, Turners Falls (MA), Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Fri, Feb 13, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Greenfield - A witness who was summoned to appear at a Justice Trial the other day, claimed payment for 500 miles travel, having come from Quebec. The item was reduced somewhat before it was paid by the County.
 

Subjects: Courts, Economics, Government, Greenfield (MA), Canada

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 11, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Died

Bardwell, George W., age 39, died of Bright's disease of the kidneys in South Deerfield on Sept. 1. He was a member of the 52nd regiment, and a member of the Legislature in 1873.
 

Subjects: Deerfield (MA), Diseases, Government, Law and Lawyers, Massachusetts, Obituaries, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Tue, Feb 10, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Vernon Vt.



Vernon Vt. - The town has just completed a very nice tomb, 8 ft. by 10, and 7 ft. high, inside. The front wall is of granite, 25 tons from Black Mountain, Dummerston. The work is done in a neat and substantial way by David J. Bailey of West Dummerston. The back and side walls are 2 or more ft. thick, of coarse slate laid in water cement, plastered with same on inside and lined with 4 or 5 large flag stones, also floor of the same material.

The roof consists of 2 heavy flagstones, resting in the center on 2 large bars of iron. The shelves on either side are of slate planed smooth, 2 ft. wide, 2 inches thick and 2 ft. space between them. Shelves from Granby Center, N.Y., door from New Haven, Ct. of boiler iron with space in centre [sic].

The whole, except the front wall, is neatly covered with earth. The estimated weight of stone used is 100 tons. The structure is pronounced as good as the best and reflects great credit to the builder, Tyler L. Johnson. It costs the town about $700. The building committee were W. Whithed, J.F. Burrows, and L. Brown (Vermont Record).
 

Subjects: Cemeteries, Connecticut, Economics, Government, Literature / Web Pages, Mourning Customs, Vermont, Work, Architecture / Construction, Water

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The Old Brick School house rejoices

The Old Brick School house rejoices - Ha ha! I am pleased. Relief has come: my eyes are partially in use. I am certainly improving, inwardly and outwardly. Past neglect has given way to present attention, and I am in high glee. In a few days I expect lots of company; and now that "Richard is himself again" all will go well.

The "five score of dollars" has been well laid out to help me in my declining years. Be assured, ye Fathers of the Town, and the School Committee, your labors in my behalf are fully appreciated, and I will serve you to the best of my ability. So send in the short folks. I will make room for them; they shall be well cared for.

Now I ask in closing, that I may have the "full use" of my eyes. Don't excuse the matter by saying that the boys will pelt me if I look at them. No such thing. The boys have too much respect for me at my time of life, to treat me ill. "Old Brick"

*Some windows are boarded up yet, and present a prison-like appearance.
 

Subjects: Children, Economics, Education, Eye, Glass / Windows, Government, Greenfield (MA), Jokes, Prisons, Trees, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Shutesbury tax list

Shutesbury tax list (medium sized list of names).
 

Subjects: Economics, Government, Names, Shutesbury (MA)

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The town of Rowe

(Rowe) It is well known among botanists that many notable plants grow on sterile soil, so from some of our small and sequestered country towns have come many of our now prominent and useful men. I well remember when a boy, of living in the town of Rowe 40 years ago, just how it appeared.

I was a poor farmer’s boy, at work on a farm for wages, at 12 dollars per month. I had been well schooled in the village schools of the time, but they said "there was to be a select school in the center of the town, to be taught by Mr. John Wells, a son of Hon. Noah Wells of Rowe, who had just graduated at Williamstown, taking the highest honors in his class".

John succeeded in getting a large class, made up of the young ladies and gentlemen of his native town. I was a pupil among the others, and here I wish to say that a more successful school was never taught by any man. John Wells was then a young man, tall, straight as an arrow, with a beautiful face, and an expression like a modest girl. At the close of the school, we had an exhibition in the old Unitarian Church. It was filled to overflowing, and all the scholars took a part. The whole thing was a great success for Mr. Wells and a credit to his pupils.

The succeeding winter I taught the "winter school" in the center of the town, having among my scholars a small boy, the son of Rev. William Stearns, named George Stearns. George was a bright, blue-eyed boy of about 10 years old, good, but very mischievous. I gave him his first lesson in Latin grammar. I well remember how he used to recite in such a way as to make fun for the other scholars.

Well, Mr. John Wells is now Hon. John Wells of the Supreme court; and little Georgie Stearns is the celebrated Springfield lawyer, one of the most eminent of his profession in the State. The following year I taught a school in the north west part of the town, in a little "hut of a school house", and among my scholars was a little boy by the name of Noah Cressy.

[See Google Books "American Law Review: 1875 - 1876" for a long biographical entry on John Wells].

[See Google Books "Second annual report on the diseases of the domestic animals in Connecticut" by Noah Cressy].

There were 3 brothers of the Cressy family living in the district, and their children constituted the greater part of the school. the following year I went away to study medicine, and lost sight of little Noah, and the next I heard of him he was "Professor Noah Cressy of the Massachusetts Agricultural college, and veterinary surgeon to the State of Connecticut".

A chum went with me from Rowe to study medicine in the same office with me, the office of Moses Barrett M.D., located in the town of Charlemont. Dr. Barrett was a native of Rowe and had studied medicine and graduated with high honors. My chum was C.K. Fiske of Rowe, who graduated with me at the Berkshire Medical college in 1842. Dr. Fiske became an eminent dentist and settled in St. Johns, New Brunswick.

The late Major Reed, sheriff of this county, was for a long time a merchant in Rowe, if not born there. He had a son by the name of Samuel Reed, a scholar in my school, who afterward studied medicine, graduated, started for California, and died on the passage.

I frequently meet Prof. Cressy. He is a wide awake, congenial, friendly man, but eminently learned in his profession. Last week we exchanged some books, I giving him Harris on Insects, and he giving me "The Elements of General and Pathological Anatomy" by David Craige, M.D., published in Edinburg in 1828.

On the fly leaf is this, written in pencil: "To Dr. Craige, belongs the merit of having written the first distinct and comprehensive work on general anatomy" signed George Gulliver, M.D. There is probably not more than one or two other works of the kind and edition in this country. David Rice, M.D.
 

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Charlemont (MA), Children, Connecticut, Courts, Diseases, Economics, Education, Emigration and Immigration, Eye, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Government, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, History, Insects, Jokes, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Massachusetts, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Obituaries, Police, Poor

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

(Greenfield) George Woodard, son of Elbridge G. Woodard, was arrested by Officer Bryant on Sat. and brought before Judge Conant for stealing a gun and powder flask at the tool shop, the property of Simeon Phillips, last March. The robbery was traced to the boy who is 11 years old a few days ago. His case was continued until Wed. noon, to permit the presence of a member of the State Board, who look after juvenile offenders.
 

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Children, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Government, Greenfield (MA), Juvenile Delinquents, Massachusetts, Police, Robbers and Outlaws, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Our long continued suspense in reference to the location of the railroad is at last ended. At a meeting of the Governor and Council on Wed., it was determined to adopt substantially the route known as no. 2 in the report of the Corporators of the Boston, Hoosac Tunnel and Western Railroad, in the relocation of the Troy and Greenfield Railroad between Bardwell's Ferry and the village of Greenfield.

Manager Prescott was authorized to purchase an engine and repair train at an expense of $4000 and to submit to referees the question between the Troy & Greenfield and the Connecticut River roads, relative to depot and crossings in Greenfield. The contracts for building the new roads have been awarded.

Sections 1 and 2, which take the road east from Bardwell's, have been given to John A. Green & Co. of New York; sections 3 and 4, the portion of the road leading into our village, and including the bridge across Green River, to N.S. Munson of Shirley, who has had extensive contracts on the road east of the Tunnel.

Work is to be commenced as speedily as possible, and until August 1, 1876, is given the contractors to complete the road. The committees appointed by the town are now engaged in fixing the amount of damages with individual land owners. Where a satisfactory price is agreed upon, the land is bonded, but where owners are disposed to take advantage of the condition of things and demand more than the committee think is right and fair, the question will be left to the commissioners for adjustment.

But we hope there will be few cases of this kind. Every inhabitant of Greenfield should see the great benefit to the village that is to result from the location, and be willing to do all they can afford to help the matter. they should understand that it is the town, their tax paying neighbors, who are to bear the burden, which they should make as light as possible. This is a turning point in the affairs of the town, and we have reason for great rejoicing.
 

Subjects: Boston (MA), Economics, Government, Greenfield (MA), Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Massachusetts, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Trains, Transportation, Vendors and Purchasers, Work


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