You are not logged in.   

Forgot password / Verify | Sign up now! | Printer Friendly

The Franklin County Publication Archive Index is constantly updated. By creating an account you can elect to receive notices when new articles are added and when people comment on the articles.

Join today!


Dec 11, 2023
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.

Article Archives: Articles: Gambling

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Tue, Feb 3, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Not a small share of our male population went to the Springfield races on Fri., and we haven't seen one man in the lot who isn't mad clear through. They say they were the victims of an unmitigated "sell", and declare by all that is great and good that you will never catch them on Hampden Park again. Beside the fizzle of the race, their discomfiture was rendered still more intolerable by the inadequate transportation furnished by the railroads. They were out nearly half of the night.

[See a good description of Hampden Park in Google Books "Springfield present and prospective" by James Eaton Tower, 1905].

Subjects: Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Gambling, Greenfield (MA), Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Horses, Literature / Web Pages, Parks, Trains, Transportation

Posted by stew - Sat, Dec 20, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
The social evil in Colorado

The Denver Chronicle of Apr. 25th contains the following:

"Alderman Case, on behalf of the Judiciary Committee, has submitted an ordinance to regulate the social evil in this city, which will come before the council for adoption. Section 1 of said ordinance authorizes the mayor, on application, approved by the city physician and the committee on police, to issue permits to keep houses of prostitution on payment of 50 dollars per quarter, and to sell liquor therein as if provided with liquor license. The applicant is obliged to furnish, with good sureties, a bond, in the penal sum of 300 dollars, for keeping a quiet and orderly house, and not permit any gaming of any name or nature therein, and for the faithful observance of all city ordinances.

Section 2 provides that the inmates of these houses shall, in no manner, hang out any signs to indicate their character, and shall be accessible, at all times, day and night, to the police. Section 3 compels all private prostitutes to take out license as above. Section 4 provides that no virtuous girl under the age of 18, nor male under the age of 21, shall be permitted to enter these houses without the written consent of their parents.

Section 5 forbids the "nymph" from, in any manner or form, plying their vocation upon the streets, or at the door or windows of the house, nor shall they make any open, meretricious display of themselves upon the street or in any public place. Section 6 makes it a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of no less than 10 dollars, no more than 50 dollars, to violate any of the provisions of this ordinance, and authorizes the mayor to revoke the permit.

Section 7 repeals all former ordinances in conflict with the provisions of this ordinance. Section 8 provides that the ordinance shall take effect June 1, 1875. In submitting the report, the committee say that since the public mind had been directed to the necessity of dealing with this social evil question, they felt called upon to frame some provisions to regulate the same and keep the same under proper restrictions".


Subjects: Advertising, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Family, Gambling, Glass / Windows, Government, Households, Law and Lawyers, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Medical Personnel, Police, Prostitution, Roads, Sales, Urbanization / Cities, Vendors and Purchasers, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 8, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 19, 1875
News of the week

In New York Mon., two well dressed men rung the bell at no. 50 West Eleventh Street and were admitted by Mrs. Matthias M. Danser, an old lady, and at the time the only occupant of the building. They represented themselves to be plumbers, and said they came to repair the water pipes. The instant the door was closed they seized the old lady, nearly 60 years of age, and gagged and handcuffed her.

They reopened the door and admitted 5 or 6 other men, who had remained within call. The burglars then proceeded to ransack the house, breaking open everything that was locked, disarranging the wardrobes, bureau drawers and leaving traces of their presence in every room and corner of the dwelling. When they had gone, Mrs. Danser went to the front door and managed, by standing behind the glazed portion and articulating with her handcuffed hands, to attract the attention of a lad, who informed the police.

Mrs. Danser sustained no injury. The handcuffs had to be filed off. About the first of May Danser was robbed of some coupons by a servant girl, and it is thought the thieves were attracted in the hopes of finding the bonds; they were not, however, in the house. Mr. Danser returned home in the eve. and missed $10,000 in Virginia State bonds, worth 37 cents on the dollar. Some $40,000 in New York central bonds were overlooked by the desperadoes.

See the story in the July 13, 1875 issue of the New York Times online. It gives other important details, such as the fact that Mr. Danser was a "professional gambler". A very interesting account of this case and what occurred next can be found in Google Books "Recollections of a New York Chief of Police" by George W. Walling, 1887].

Subjects: Children, Crime, Criminals, Education, Fashion, Furniture, Gambling, Households, Literature / Web Pages, Police, Rich People, Roads, Robbers and Outlaws, Women, Work, Clothing

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

We referred last week to the fact that Republican Lodge was organized under a charter granted by Paul Revere in 1795. The first record book of the lodge is still preserved, and is quite an interesting relic of antiquity. We find that in the original bylaws the fraternity were subjected to very strict rules, as will be seen by the following extract: "Should any Brother be so impudent as to make use of any profane language or indecent behavior during Lodge hours, he or they so offending shall pay a fine of one shilling, lawful money, for every such offense, to be put into the fund for the relief of the poor brethren.

/ And the fraternity were instructed to be cautious, both within and without the lodge, that no reflection be cast against the order. They had a temperance clause in their bylaws, too: "If any Brother should be so void of shame as to disguise himself with liquor, or come to the lodge disguised in liquor, he shall be fined 25 cents and be dismissed for the night, and at the next meeting be reprimanded", and no brother was allowed to play cards or gamble. In 1820, however, we find that at a meeting where only 3 were present, it was voted to pass a bill of 18 cents for refreshments, which would cover the price for 3 glasses of rum; but that was a miserable allowance for those days. We find that as early as 1814, Hon. George Grennell, who is yet with us, held an office in the lodge, and a few years afterward was made Worshipful Master.

Subjects: Charity, Clubs, Drunkenness, Economics, Freemasonry, Gambling, Glass / Windows, Greenfield (MA), History, Law and Lawyers, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Poor, Temperance, Words

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
A colonel whipped by a handsome young widow

A case of some novelty was tried at New Vineyard, Me. last week, on complaint of Col. Columbus Harvey vs. Widow Miriam S. Stewart. It appears for some years that there has been a feud between the Colonel and the respondent, who owned and occupied adjoining lots in New Vineyard village, and on the 3rd, the pent up and simmering fires of hatred burst forth. The Colonel put some poisoned dough where the widow's trespassing hens would find it, but the widow found it first and threw the pan with its contents into the mill pond. The colonel soon after missed it, and went to the house of the respondent, who was at work in her wood shed, and demanded to know the whereabouts of said pan.

/ A few words followed, not of the most pleasing character, when the widow brought to her aid a pole of some 12 feet long, with which she had been brushing down cobwebs in her woodshed, and which then contained a large swab of cobwebs on one end, which she said she used in brushing the Colonel's face fore and aft. But he testified that she belabored him over the head with it until he got hold of that end, and "then commenced the tug of war". Each strove for the possession of the pole, but the colonel said that she pulled him uphill in the dooryard in spite of his exertions, and when she had drawn him up within reaching distance she dropped the pole and sailed into the gallant Colonel for a bear hug. It did not appear which got the "under hold", but the Colonel in an instant found himself the victim of a greatly superior strength, and all his former military glory eclipsed by lying flat on his back on a woodpile with a handsome, young and determined woman bending over him with knees upon his abdomen, hands clenched in the hair on each side of his head, and his head bearing the same relation to the wood pile that an old fashioned churn dasher does to the churn when in use.

/ Notwithstanding the good looks and frank demeanor of the respondent, the trial justice came to the conclusion that though "naughty" words were spoken, that was not a justification for using the pole, and therefore decided that she pay a fine of $5 and costs of prosecution, which sum was readily paid. And now the Colonel offers to bet $100 that his antagonist can place either of the counsel engaged in the case upon the woodpile in the same manner he was placed.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Barber / Hair, Birds, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Fires, Food, Gambling, Households, Insects, Jokes, Law and Lawyers, Masculinity (Machismo), Poisoning, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Sports, Stewarts, Trees, War / Weaponry, Widows and Widowers, Women, Words, Work

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News of the week

A duel in which one of the participants was killed was recently fought in Arizona, near Fort Bayard, N.M. Patrick Mutherway and William Clark had a fight with the fists to settle a quarrel and win $400, but Clark having been beaten, challenged Mutherway to try it with pistols, the fight to continue until one or both are dead, distance 20 paces. Clark was killed at the first discharge.

Subjects: Courts, Economics, Gambling, Murder

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
Some girls at an Illinois seminary set two chickens fighting in their room on a recent Sunday

Some girls at an Illinois seminary set two chickens fighting in their room on a recent Sunday. Bets on the result ran high, and at the conclusion of the contest the winning maiden was 'better' by a gold watch, a pair of silk stockings, a French corset, two rolls of false hair, a patent bustle, and a beautiful bookmark with 'Christ our guide' worked on it in colored silk.

Subjects: Barber / Hair, Birds, Children, Contests, Education, Fashion, French, Gambling, Households, Religion, Women, Jewelry / Gold / Silver / Treasure, Clothing

Posted by stew - Thu, Aug 24, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
Legislative notes

Legislative notes - A bill has passed the House providing that District Attorneys shall prosecute liquor sellers at their discretion. This bill was reported to save several liquor dealers in the eastern part of the State from going to jail. A license bill has been reported, and its provisions are as follows: Section one prohibits any one from selling, exposing or keeping for sale spirituous or intoxicating liquors, save as authorized by this bill, except as regards sales made by any person under any provision of the law requiring him to sell personal property, and sales of elder and native wine by the makers thereof, not to be drunk on the premises. Section 2 provides that druggists and apothecaries may sell pure alcohol for medicinal, mechanical and chemical purposes, their sales to be recorded in a book subject to the inspection of the city and town authorities...No sale of liquor shall be made between 12 o’clock at night and 6 in the morning, nor during any part of the Lord’s day, except inn holders may supply their regular guests; only pure liquor shall be kept or sold; no sales shall be made to a known drunkard, an intoxicated person or a minor; no disorder, indecency, prostitution or gambling shall be allowed on the premises described in the license...Section 15 provides that husband, wife, parent or child, guardian or employer, may recover from $100 to $500 damages from licensees selling to known drunkards, after having been requested in writing not to do so, and that married woman may bring action in heir own name...

Subjects: Children, Drugstores / Drugs, Drunkenness, Economics, Family, Gambling, Government, Hotels, Law and Lawyers, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Massachusetts, Medicine / Hospitals, Names, Prisons, Prostitution, Religion, Sales, Urbanization / Cities, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Jun 19, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
(Shelburne Falls) We see by a copy of the Greenfield Gazette dated Nov. 22, 1802, which Mr. E. DeWolf has handed to us, that it was published by John Denio and had at that time a large circulation. A

(Shelburne Falls) We see by a copy of the Greenfield Gazette dated Nov. 22, 1802, which Mr. E. DeWolf has handed to us, that it was published by John Denio and had at that time a large circulation. A great deal is said in it about religion and liberty. Henry Ewers is advertised as a runaway. J. & L. Russell of Charlemont had just received a fresh supply of brandy, gun, rum and brown sugar. A surtout had been found. Jerome Ripley had got a new stock of goods. The Connecticut River bridge was nearly completed, and the South Hadley Canal lottery was in full blast.

Subjects: Bridges, Canals, Charlemont (MA), Connecticut River, Food, Gambling, Greenfield (MA), Hampshire / Hampden Counties, History, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Missing Persons, Religion, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Stores, Retail, Vendors and Purchasers, Clothing

Posted by stew - Mon, Jun 19, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
(Shelburne Falls) On complaint of Constable Bates, John Murphy of Rowe was brought before Samuel D. Bardswell Esq., on the charge of gambling with and winning from Michael Madden, at the unholy game

(Shelburne Falls) On complaint of Constable Bates, John Murphy of Rowe was brought before Samuel D. Bardswell Esq., on the charge of gambling with and winning from Michael Madden, at the unholy game of "45" , the sum of $5.75. The Justice looked serene and fined him $5 and costs - $15.45 in all, which he cheerfully paid. Before the Court adjourned, the aforesaid Madden was tried for gambling with Michael Burke and fined $5 and costs which he could not pay, and in consequence thereof he now languishes in jail.

Subjects: Amusements, Courts, Crime, Economics, Gambling, Police, Prisons, Religion, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Rowe (MA)

Posted by stew - Mon, Mar 6, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
(Greenfield) C.F. Foster found recently, among family papers, a copy of the Traveller, published by Ansel Phelps in Greenfield in 1811, and a copy of the Greenfield Gazette published by John Denio in

(Greenfield) C.F. Foster found recently, among family papers, a copy of the Traveller, published by Ansel Phelps in Greenfield in 1811, and a copy of the Greenfield Gazette published by John Denio in 1810. In looking over the former, we find that the people were full of fault finding about the administration of the government in those days. President Madison is denounced in unmeasured terms. Gov. Gerry of Massachusetts comes in for a full share of censure too; and we are led to think that the scolding criticism of public officials is an hereditary complaint. We find among the advertisements that a Fourth of July oration, delivered by Mr. George Grennell Jr. at Northampton, was published and for sale. The Gazette, among its foreign news, which occupied a large share of the paper, announced the marriage of Bonaparte, whom it calls an "insolent despot" to Marie Louise, the eldest daughter of the Emperor of
Austria, and it chronicles the death of Col. William Washington, "a kinsman of the illustrious Washington, and whose deeds swelled the revolutionary annals of our country". The "Hatfield Bridge Lottery" was advertised - 10,000 tickets at $2 each, and a first prize of $8000 - tickets for sale at the office of Hooker Leavitt and C.L. Munn. Vermont money was a little shaky then, as will be seen by the following: "Samuel Holland will take Vermont money in payment for debts due him, at a reasonable discount. He must have his pay". The Trustees of Deerfield Academy announced that the school would be closed for 6 months to permit additions to the academy for the accommodation of the pupils. A perusal of these old papers is quite a treat, and conveys a better idea of the condition of affairs 60 or more years ago than can be had from any other source.

Subjects: Advertising, Contests, Deerfield (MA), Economics, Education, Family, French, Gambling, Government, Greenfield (MA), Hampshire / Hampden Counties, History, Holidays, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Marriage and Elopement, Massachusetts, Obituaries, Politics, Royalty, Sales, Vermont, Women, Europe, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Sun, Mar 5, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
Cannibalism at sea

Cannibalism at sea - The http://research.yale...iewdetail.jsp?id=768 Friend of India has received intelligence from Batavia [now Jakarta] regarding the sufferings of some of the survivors from the British ship http://www.clydesite...iewship.asp?id=15137 Euxine [which is the Greek name for the Black Sea], bound from http://portal.pohub....cument.pdf?p_id=1201 Shields to Aden , which caught fire and was abandoned in the South Atlantic. Two boats, containing the captain [ T. Cockburn ] and a member of the crew, reached St. Helena, but a third boat, containing the second mate and several men, remained for 3 weeks in the open sea, being ultimately sighted by a Dutch ship, but not before one of the sailors had been sacrificed to provide his suffering companions with food. "On the 12th of June last, the iron ship Euxine sailed from Shields with a cargo of coal and a crew of 32 men and excellent provisions. Everything went well till the 3rd of August, on which date a storm tossed the vessel about so violently that her cargo was shifted to the starboard side; one man was washed overboard, and considerable damage done to the sails and rigging. All endeavors to right her were fruitless, and after large quantities of the coal had been thrown overboard traces of fire were discovered. Although every hatch and opening was closed as tightly as possible, the flames made such headway that on the 8th the same month the Captain decided on abandoning his ship, whose living freight left in 3 boats; the Captain and 13 men in the long boat, the first mate and 8 others in the second, and the second mate and 7 seamen in the third. It was known that St. Helena was 850 miles distant, and it was determined to make for the island. During the first night the boat commanded by the Second Mate lost sight of the others, and at dawn was alone upon the wide ocean. The little vessel was upon the life boat principle, about 30 ft. long, her sides being protected with a bulwark of sailcloth. She had 10 airtight cases, two masts, besides a foreboom, and carried a set of sails and necesary cordage. The provisions comprised 2 cases of biscuits, a ham, a cheese, 12 tins of meat and two small casks of drinking water. By the 9th day the Mate came to the conclusion that he had beens steering too far to the westward, but as the wind and sea did not admit of any change being made, it was decided to go on as heretofore, in the hope of meeting with a vessel, or reaching the coast of South America. The rations were diminished to half a biscuit and a glass of water once a day, and thus the 24th of August approached with no sign of rescue or land. On this date a stiff breeze sprang up as darkness drew on, and at midnight, while a man named De Jager was at the helm and the rest were asleep, the boat capsized, and its occupants suddenly found themselves struggling for their lives. How the accident occurred is not known, but it is surmised that De Jager placed his charge against the wind, as it is certain that he already threatened to "knock a hole in the raft to put an end to the misery of all". Anyway, he "put an end" to himself and another named Reynolds, both sinking, notwithstanding help rendered them by their more fortunate comrades, who had found safety on the upturned keel. In the morning the boat was righted, but all the food was gone. In order to prevent capsizing in future the masts were cut down and only a small sail set, so that the boat might be steered right before the wind. Hunger and thirst characterized the day - a Sunday - and 24 hours later it was agreed that lots should be cast to see which of the number should be sacrificed for the benefit of the remainder. Early on the same day one Muller, after drinking large quantities of salt water, declared that he offered his body as food for the others, and entreated them to kill him. After a time - we quote from the affidavit of James Archer, Second Mate - Manus Schutt proposed that they should cast lots who should fall as a sacrifice for keeping the others alive. To this all consented. Having no other means to make a lottery we hit upon using small sticks of different sizes, deciding that the one who drew the smallest should be the victim. After having made the sticks ready, I held them in my hand while the others drew. On comparing them together, I found that the Italian, Francis Shufus, held the smallest stick. Having also agreed that the lottery should be thrice repeated and that when it should prove that either two or three of us had drawn the shortest stick, these should cast lots among themselves so that the victim should be singled out, we found that the same man had for a second time picked out the same object. Francis Shufus, when his turn came for the third drawing, hesitated to join, and would not draw, upon which the man Sandstrom proposed he would do it for him. This he did, and the shortest stick was found in Sandstrom's hand. Shufus bore it with great calmness, and showed the utmost resignation. He was left alone for some two hours, while we now and then eagerly looked round the horizon to see whether a sail could be perceived, or any help would come; we stood upon the thwarts. Shufus prepared himself to meet his fate by praying and speaking in Italian. He gave us no parting message to be sent to his friends, most probably as he hardly knew English than to say yes or no. His bearing was that of a man whose mind was made up. Since we were past help and feeling that our hunger and thirst had grown beyond further endurance, we saw ourselves driven to sacrifice Shufus. He laid himself down, but before that August Muller had told him that he would take his place and die for him. This Shufus refused, and laying himself down in the bottom of the boat gave hinself up to be tied; then one man held an empty tin, so as to catch in it the blood. Muller on saying that now someone must die for the others, passed the knife round the man's throat. He did not struggle or scream. The blood was drunk by us all. Muller then cut out his liver and heart. These were cut into small pieces, and we ate them mixed with the blood and salt water. At the last moments of Shufus I was at the helm. The head and feet were thrown away; the trunk and limbs were put into one of the airtight tins of our boat which we had opened. We continued on our way. It might have been 2 o'clock in the afternoon when the man Shufus died. Some 3 hours after a ship was seen which, perceiving the boat, made for us. This vessel turned out to be the Java Packet, bound for Amsterdam, and her commander, Captain Trappen, did all in his power to relieve the misery of the 5 unfortunate waifs - James Archer, August Muller, Victor Sandstrom, Manus Schutt, and Alexander Vermenden, who had been 23 days at sea in an open boat and sailed fully 2000 miles.

Subjects: Accident Victims, Accidents, Beverages, Charlemont (MA), Coal, Disasters, English (and England), Executions and Executioners, Fires, Food, Gambling, Italians, Latin America, Luck, Meat, Murder, Names, Obituaries, Religion, Suicide, Transportation, Trees, Weather, Work, Europe

Posted by stew - Sat, Mar 4, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875 Mr. Oliver Stevens , District Attorney for Suffolk, has decided that the publication of advertisements of the Kentucky http://www.tsha.utex...rticles/TT/ynt5.html Grand Gift Concert are in violation of the laws of Massachusetts. Editors should have principle enough not to advertise this or any other lottery. They are nothing but swindles on the public, as well as being in violation of the laws of this State.

Subjects: Advertising, Courts, Gambling, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Massachusetts, Robbers and Outlaws

Posted by stew - Sat, Jan 14, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 11, 1875
Lady clerks in Washington

Lady clerks in Washington - I am acquainted with a lady who writes Spencerian plays in the Patent Office at Washington, for $900 a year. Her father was a naval officer of long and meritorious service, and died Rear Admiral. Her husband put $70,000 on the wrong side of the stock sale in New York, lost, and sneaked to the hereafter through the back door of the suicide. Patient and lovable, she works steadily as if some mighty reward were near at hand. I suppose it is hope on, hope ever with her, though nobody can see what she has to expect more than a life of routine and an humble grave. In Paris she would have flown first to the streets and then to the charcoal brazier. In London it would have been the Argyl Rooms [i.e. http://www.victorian...ications/seven16.htm Argyll Rooms ], gin, and the waters of Blackfriars' bridge . As you pass the tables of the ladies in the Treasury building, you are moving among better materials for romances than exist in the teeming brains of Hugo or Targen[?] "You see that second woman to your left", whispered Spinner. "Her father was once at the head of the railroad. The panic of '65 laid him out. She married a Baden baron; he left her in a year or two for some Dutch flame. She has a noble little boy 5 years old now. Says she is going to fit him for Harvard by and by, and then make a Senator of him. Watch her count that money. You cannot move your fingers up and down in the air as fast as she brushes off the single notes. Never did a day's work of any kind till she came here". All honor to the lady clerks of Washington for adding the strongest proof yet given of women's power to lose friends and fortune and still retain virtue and independence. God bless the multitude of faithful workers, who are showing each day how possible it is for them to earn their own living, and yet remain esteemed and respected ladies.

Subjects: Astronomy, Bridges, Cemeteries, Charlemont (MA), Children, Coal, Courtship, Economics, Education, English (and England), Family, Fires, French, Furniture, Gambling, Germans, Government, Inventions, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Obituaries, Poor, Prostitution, Religion

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 1, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 4, 1875
Two men, accompanied by the son of Professor Peck, went into the residence of the father at New York, Sunday, while the family were at church, and the men took away a chest full of silver ware togeth

Two men, accompanied by the son of Professor Peck, went into the residence of the father at New York, Sunday, while the family were at church, and the men took away a chest full of silver ware together with bonds, mortgages, money and jewelry, amounting to $10,000. The servant girl, who witnessed the men carrying away the chest, went to church and alarmed the professor and family, who ascertained the above facts. The boy was subsequently taken before the police court, but would confess nothing, and his father has not preferred any complaint against him. The youth is 19 years old, and has of late been the companion of gamblers. His accomplices have not yet been caught.

Subjects: Courts, Crime, Criminals, Cutlery, Economics, Education, Family, Gambling, Households, Police, Religion, Rich People, Robbers and Outlaws, Women, Work, Jewelry / Gold / Silver / Treasure

Posted by stew - Sun, Jun 5, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
The Prince of Wales, the Duke of Egypt and Prince Metternich [Richard Klemens Furst Metternich] are reported to have broken a The Prince of Wales, the Duke of Egypt and Prince Metternich [ Richard Klemens Furst Metternich ] are reported to have broken a faro bank at Baden Baden. The Prince is reported to have won about $15,000 and the Duke $20,000.

Subjects: Economics, English (and England), Gambling, Germans, Rich People, Royalty, Leyden (MA)

Posted by stew - Fri, Jun 3, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
(Shelburne Falls) Captain Frost set up turkeys for the annual shooting match. The old gray

(Shelburne Falls) Captain Frost set up turkeys for the annual shooting match. The old gray-bearded father, having some scruples about such things and thinking to discourage the young man, and not caring to have any left over to be raffled for, is reported to have hired two of our best marksmen, he paying all expenses, to shoot the birds and make the young man sick. The last we knew about it one of the aforesaid marksmen had blazed away 64 times and only killed two old gobblers. All the birds brought good prices and the Cap makes a good thing out of it, having money to loan his father and will engage in the sport another year. The father pulled his beard when he found how much money he had got to pull out of his pocket and went off whistling "Things didn’t use to be so".

Subjects: Amusements, Barber / Hair, Birds, Economics, Family, Food, Gambling, Meat, Music, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Sports, Clothing

Posted by stew - Sun, Apr 17, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
A foolish young Englishman, on his way to Colorado to buy land, gambled away $24,000 in Chicago a few days ago.

A foolish young Englishman, on his way to Colorado to buy land, gambled away $24,000 in Chicago a few days ago.

Subjects: Economics, English (and England), Gambling, Vendors and Purchasers

Posted by stew - Sun, Mar 6, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
The great running race at San Francisco

The great http://www.cityofsan...rical_evaluation.pdf running race at San Francisco - The great four mile running race for a purse of $25,000 in gold, given by the Pacific Jockey Club, took place at San Francisco Sat. The horse was open to all horses in the world, and the purse was the largest ever given in the United States. The first horse received $13,000, the 2nd $5000, the 3rd $4000, and the 4th $3000. The entrance fee was 10% of the purses, and horses which came from east of the Rocky Mountains were allowed $1000 for expenses. http://www.tbheritag...hampOlderFemale.html "Katie Pease" remained the favorite, and so free was the betting that over $100,000 changed hands on the result. The horses entered were http://sunsite.berke...thod/xdt_1880_7.html "Thad Stevens" , "Joe Daniels" , "Katie Pease", "Henry", "Hock Hocking" , "Harwood", and "Alpha". On the first heat the horses got off well together. "Thad Stevens" led for the first 3 miles, closely pushed by "Katie Pease", who went to the front on the last mile and won the heat, "Joe Daniels" coming in second, and "Thad Stevens", who was held in, third, four lengths behind the winner. "Alpha" was withdrawn after the heat, having gone lame. Time: 7:43. The second heat and the race was won by "Katie Pease", "Henry" second, "Harwood" third, and "Thad Stevens" 4th. "Hock Hocking" and "Joe Daniels" were distanced. time: 7:36 1/2. The race was one of the most exciting ever witnessed.

Subjects: Clubs, Contests, Economics, Gambling, Horses, Names, Sports

Posted by stew - Sat, Mar 5, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
There was a most daring express robbery at Cincinnati Sun. A discharged messenger of the American Express Company named Monroe, visited the office of the company in the afternoon, and engaged the day

There was a most daring express robbery at Cincinnati Sun. A discharged messenger of the American Express Company named Monroe, visited the office of the company in the afternoon, and engaged the day watchman in http://www.caymandra...ations/Accommpix.htm drawing straws for cigars. At the same time two men drove up in a wagon containing a trunk which they handled as though very heavy, and left it at the office. The watchman having lost went across the street to get the cigars. During his absence Monroe placed one of the company's small safes in the trunk, and after the watchman had returned, the men also returned, stating that the trunk had been left at the wrong office, and should go to the Adams express. They loaded it on to the wagon, disappeared, but have been arrested and most of the money recovered. Monroe soon afterwards left, and took the eve. train for Indianapolis, where he was captured at midnight. The safe was a valuable one, destined for Chicago, and contained $45,000.

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Gambling, Police, Roads, Robbers and Outlaws, Smoking and Tobacco, Transportation, Work

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 2, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 16, 1874
Have Courage, My Boy, to Say No (poem) Have Courage, My Boy, to Say No (poem) - "You're starting on life's journey my darling / Alone on the highway of life / You'll meet with a thousand temptations / Each city with evil is rife / The world is a stage of excitement / There is danger wherever you go / But if you are tempted in weakness / Have courage my boy to say no / The syren's sweet song may allure you / Beware of her cunning and art / Whenever you see her approaching / Be guarded, and haste to depart / The billiard saloons are inviting / Decked out in their tinsel and show / You may be invited to enter / Have courage, my boy, to say no / The bright, ruby wine may be offered / No matter how tempting it be / From poison that stings like an adder / My boy, have courage to flee / The gambling halls are below you / Their lights how they dance to and fro / If you should be tempted to enter / Think twice, even thrice, ere you go / In courage, alone, lies your safety / I pray, you'll try hard to win / And trust in your heavenly Father / Who will keep you unspotted from sin / Temptations will go on increasing / As streams from a rivulet flow / But if you are true to your manhood / http://sniff.numachi...d/pages/tiSAYNO.html Have courage, my boy, to say no " (signed, Mother).

Subjects: Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Dance, Family, Gambling, Light, Liquors, Poetry, Poisoning, Religion, Roads, Temperance, Urbanization / Cities

Posted by stew - Tue, Jan 18, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Tuesday, November 10, 1874
(Greenfield) C.H. Robbins [Charles H. Robbins], recently of this town, has opened a clothing store in Holyoke.

(Greenfield) C.H. Robbins [Charles H. Robbins], recently of this town, has opened a clothing store in Holyoke.

Subjects: Emigration and Immigration, Fashion, Gambling, Greenfield (MA), Stores, Retail

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 16, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Tuesday, November 10, 1874
Address before the Conway Grange members and others, Oct. 29th, by T.L. Allis. Patrons and friends: It having fallen to

Address before the Conway http://www.geocities...nationalhistory.html Grange members and others, Oct. 29th, by T.L. Allis. Patrons and friends: It having fallen to my lot to request of this association, to open our winter campaign of intellectual exercises this evening, it will be my purpose to call your attention to the fact that it has long been evident to earnest thinkers, that the agricultural interest of the United States, in past years, has been severely oppressed; and in battling for our rights, the Grange is fighting the cause of the whole producing element of the land. When railroad officials meet in convention, those who have had active experience in that line of business, have charge of such meetings and do the talking...But when the producing element of society in general are to be addressed, the custom has been to invite a Lawyer, Politician, Editor, or Doctor to enlighten us in production, farming, or anything else. The idea of a farmer saying anything on such an occasion that would be interesting or instructive, has rarely germinated, and perhaps this occasion will increase your doubts of its practicability...Editorial dissertations to us are, to live more economical, frugal and industrious, must not spend so much time and money to enjoy life, should spend our evenings and rainy days in repairing and remodeling old tools into new ones; that we mustn't harbor such hopes, desires, ambitions and feelings as other classes of humanity exercise; in short, the industrial classes have become too extravagant, so said a manufacturer to me a short time since. How is this?...It is with the farmer in general, that we work too much and think too little...Looking into the halls of Congress, we find that various aspects of the tariff under its present arrangement, constitute one of the serious evils from which the farmers and other consumers are suffering at the present time. For instance, English http://www.holyokema...c/hcv_1879/hadl.html spool cotton , which can be sold in the American market for 4 cents a spool, is burdened with a revenue tax of 85%, which enables the American manufacturer to undersell and competitor and still pocket 50% in his own interest, thus taxing the whole nation for the benefit of a few spool cotton manufacturers. The article of quinine has a 50% duty, thus a 50% tax is exacted from the entire nation as an unreasonable tribute to two or three manufacturers. The price of castor oil about doubled by this system. The heaviest duties are levied upon articles of necessity; 90% on blankets, but 60% on silks; coarse flannels very high, finer grades very light; salt, nearly 100%; diamonds, 10%; woolen goods, 70%; cotton, from 35 to 52. Thus the burden falls heavily upon the middle and poorer classes, struggling people such as cannot afford to use luxuries that make up this enormous tribute to the manufacturers...We want a new Declaration of Independence, one that will require a decided and persistent stand to acquire, a change which money would be freely spent...Next our railroads are made subservient to monopolizing the trade of the locality through which they pass, and their first necessity is to prevent competition...The interests of the road demand that there shall be no interference with it, demonstrating that the interests of the people, and those of railroad companies, to a large extent are antagonistic. Not attempting to go through the details of the nefarious railroad monopolies, there are several self-evident truths which we shall do well to ponder. 1st that the railroad system of these States, which was intended to give the people cheap transportation, has grown into a powerful combination of monopolies; second, that their veritable object seems to be to compel the producer and consumer to pay such rates as they may see fit, and keep them to the highest point. Having gained a decided advantage over the public, they seem determined to resist any efforts of the people to obtain cheap transportation. 3rd that they are systematic in their scheme of plunder, in robbing the nation and individuals, to pay fancy dividends on fictitious stock, regardless of the rights of individuals, practically declaring themselves irresponsible for their doings, by effectually resisting the efforts to render them amenable to the laws. 4th that they are fast making themselves masters of our national and State governments, bribing legislator and purchasing our courts of justice. The boldness of their designs upon the people, of their reckless stock gambling, of their demoralizing of our system of finance, are no imaginary considerations, they are stubborn facts, and as such, the producing and consuming classes must meet intelligently and determinedly, if we expect to secure even a pittance to ourselves. If we would eat the kernel, we must crack the nut. Is this not so? Says a merchant of Philadelphia, a car load of corn was recently shipped to me from central Iowa. The freight and commission charges, with the other expenses, summed up $233.70, and the corn sold for $233.7, leaving a deficit of 7 cents. Another lot sent netted the shippers 5 cents a bushel. A man purchased a bit of corn in Iowa for 13 cents per bushel, sold it in Springfield, Mass. for 69 cents a bushel, making one cent per bushel. The manufacturer can send his goods to the west for 5 to 10%, while the farmer must pay 300% to get his goods to the eastern market. Is there any reason why the Grange organization should be instituted, or why it should be a secret organization?...Perhaps you might step into a room in the great metropolis, about the time of the closing up of navigation in autumn, to behold 3 men representing lines of railways from west to east, sitting around a table with the sparkling wine aboard, considering the pressure of business, do agree to raise freights at the rate of a few cents per bushel; a mere trifle, they say, but to the farmers of the northwest every cent thus added, means taking 6 millions from the value of their product, and scores of millions from the value of their farms. The producers in the hands of such monopolies fares worse than the man of old, who went from http://www.biblereso...7C6A4&method=display Jerusalem to Jericho . Is it any wonder that so large a share of our agriculturists are growing poorer, while those who handle the products of our labor are growing richer? Consider http://www.historyal.../ha20cah/topic18.asp Vanderbilt , for example, was worth scarce his millions 20 years ago, today counts his 50 or 75 millions, who makes no claim of producing scarce a dollar's worth in his life. Is there any evidence here that there is something wrong in this policy; has he rendered a fair and reasonable equivalent for his charges of transportation, and this accumulation? This is the question which he and no other men can dodge. He is considered by no means as a bad man personally, but he represents one of the most despotic monopolies in existence, nor is he the only dangerous character in this line; other corporations have their representatives doing the same thing, only on a smaller scale. Towards what is this class of power drifting? It was said James Fisk, when he had control of 450 miles of the Erie road, through a sparse settled country, could bring 25,000 votes into the field. How much should we be obliged to credit the master of 2150 miles of railway, and 70,000 miles of telegraph? The Central and Hudson River property, which now pays dividends on $115,000,000, is said to have really cost but $35,000,000, so that if there had been no water mixed with the wine, they could have carried passengers for 1 cent a mile and pay the same dividends they do now. The coal trade, from the miner to the producer is monopolized in very much the same strain. How has this state of things been brought about, and who have been the prominent actors to this drama? Brains have been the standpoint from which the present result has emanated, reared up, educated, and cultivated from their youth, in the way of thought and purpose, which has reared high for its motto, acquisition, and is bound to obtain it at all hazards. And what could not be accomplished single handed, combinations and organizations were requisite, and secrecy was found indispensable to the refutation of justice and right in the interchange of trade. Each class of powers, vigilant in their peculiar sphere: Congress framing and enacting such laws as enable the capitalist of whatever occupation, to secure unjust demands through tariffs, fares, freights, agents, taxes and exchange, The greatest of treachery is enacted, confidence secured and then received, the corporations being so defiant, that scarce a man has the boldness or the means to attempt to call them to account, or bring them amenable to the law; now and then a Coleman [possibly William T. Coleman ], who after 5 years of persistent effort for justice, and passing through as many different trials with verdicts in his favor, finally succeeded in getting his damage; of Bartlett & Co. of Boston, whose case is now pending. The corporations are evidently determined to make it so difficult that scarce anyone will dare hazard the attempt to secure justice. Who is to blame for all this? Is there any good reason why the great majority should be oppressed by a small minority? Results are from causes. Consumers, producers, yea, farmers, haven't you had a hand in this? Look at your national government. Who are the men you entrust with this great responsibility? Look at any of the great channels of science, art or industry, and you will find the moving spirit at the head to be a doctor, lawyer, politician; in fact almost any occupation represented but a farmer. These personages rule the nation; they shape the laws to the trade; brains are used by which the world is governed. Of the three kinds of power, wealth, strength and talent, the latter is much the greater. Just think of competing with such men by hoeing corn 14 hours a day and selling it for the small pittance that is realized by our Western farmers. The industrial clauses have had scarce any position or influence in the councils of our nation, being debarred by the want of monied power. We have also debarred ourselves by the want of an exercised and cultivated intellect, And now, brothers and sisters, friends and neighbors of whatever honest pursuit, be assured that the world will use brains, and intelligence will take the places of honor and trust, hoping that honesty will not be wholly ignored in the future; and if we wish to exert an influence on the institutions of the land and have a voice in the price of our commodities, to be in demand for places of honor and trust, we must be more liberal in the expansion of our minds and the cultivation of refined sound, practical thought, and a wise adaption to the exigencies of the age. Such a possessor, be he a farmer or otherwise, will be sought for by the position. The stupidity of being left out in the same old rut by office seekers and designing men, antagonistic to the principle of equal rights and honesty, the settling down with our thoughts and effort enclosed within our own fences will not improve our relation with our fellow men. We must launch forth upon the wave of society, battling with the various schemes of the age, sustaining our agricultural and other institutions designed for the diffusion of science and practical knowledge, enabling us to become acquainted with the various relations of the soil and its productions, and the financial interest which one branch of business is made to exert upon another; the various communities in which we have an interest, both wholesale and retail, the cost of transportation and other items that effect our financial relation with our fellow men; in short, to post ourselves so thoroughly as will enable us to detect any attempt to exorbitancy in demand as has been carried on in the years of the past. Ladies as well as gentlemen, you are all interested in this matter, and the more thoroughly you become acquainted with relative business the less fears you will have, and the more confidence you will possess. Do you ask what course I shall take to gain such ends? I answer you, http://www.nationalg...artments/success.htm join the Grange . Oh! you do not like secret organizations. Have you ever been a member of any? If not, upon what ground do you object to them, mere hearsay or bigoted prejudice? You know nothing about them, and may as well think that your silent neighbor is thinking evil and devising wrong, at that, because men and women of a certain order do not go out and make known to the world their plans and purposes. Any business man who should adopt such a course would be obliged to go begging for appreciative listeners. The secret feature of the order of Patrons is the minding of your own business arrangement; it injures none of the departments of phrenology but the bump of curiosity. How is it that those who join, men who in all other things are honest business men, men who do not have time or taste for trifling, are the most firm friends and advocates of the order, while lovers of improvement and enjoyment have no objection whatever? The inference naturally drawn from the conversation and actions of dealers is that farmers have no right to step outside of the retail channels to make purchases. Nobody denies the right to live, unless criminally forfeited. To merchants, manufacturers, mechanics or laborers, they should be granted this right at any lawful, legitimate calling they may see fit to select. The right to earn a living implies the right to acquire a business upon such inducements as one may hold out to the public in his particular line with the unqualified right on the part of people to buy of whom, and at what price they choose. As long as a dealer can hold out bargains that will draw the crowd he may expect to succeed. The inherent and business right to go from one store to another in town, seeking satisfactory goods and bargains, confines the right to go where we please and in such combinations as we please. The fact that there has been a savings of millions of dollars to the producers in this land by the establishment of the Grange is wonderfully confirmed. It is exerting a powerful influence through the land, and the more thorough its declaration of principles are carried out the greater the benefit to the masses. When the mercantile class are convinced that their customers thoroughly understand the market value of their purchases, policy will bind them within the limits of fair profits in order to secure the trade. Having merely alluded to the principles of secrecy in the carrying out of the many schemes which we have considered, I now propose to pause and consider this item in connection with our order. Charity, though ne'er so secret, finds a just reward against which the deaf ear of prejudice has been voluminous in its ejaculations of the past. Twas not the secrecy of the monopolies' council that produced this unjust state of affairs which we have considered tonight; but the carrying out of the nefarious purposes of the actors. In all charitable institutions, organized for the mutual enjoyment and benefit of each other, there should be an influence cultivated from which savory inhalations may be personified to others. whatever may have been the cause of the reiterations of the past, our basis of principle is not to adopt any code or agreement conflicting with justice or equity towards our fellow beings. Let us strive in all our endeavors to make wrong right, bad good, and good better. Mankind were [sic] never made to think alike in all matters, but let us live the principles we profess in deeds more than years, in thought more than breaths, and I shall have no fears of secrecy in the Grange. Not one moment do I hesitate to consider it justifiable in aiding and abetting all movements and schemes that are for the establishment of justice and equity between man and man; yea, more, I believe it a duty to subvert the schemes of designing men to monopolize trade in its various forms to such a degree as to extract unreasonable and ruinous exactions from the various industries of the land. Still more, that the principles of justice and equity might prevail in our legislative halls, in our court; and that honesty might be unfurled as the motto in high places. These are the principles underlying the Grange secrecy of which some are afraid, but which haven't caused me one wakeful hour. 50 years ago there was but little incentive to secret organizations, no railroads to monopolize, but a slight call for lobbying; corruption was in its infancy of germination. Since then we have built 67,000 miles of railroad, we have grown up a generation of the 18th century vipers who have been installed into railroad kings, salaried officials, monopolies, political intriguers, Credit Mobiliers, salary grabbers, Tammany rings, defalcators, speculators, agencies, and smaller trash, and the whole combined in their various secret causes. Do you believe these organizations would have coupled secrecy with their designs if it were not for the promotion of their purposes? By no means. The producing classes of this country, call them Grangers, Sovereigns or what you please, feel that the exigency of the age has forced the ideal of secrecy upon them, and we don't hesitate to adopt it, men and women; and if necessary to meet secrecy; and to push it into the future, not by party politics, but by the principles of the position, seeking the man, until a more general equity of justice and right shall be exercised among all classes and occupations, and man may be viewed by his fellow man in accordance with the Creator's standard.

Subjects: Art, Boston (MA), Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Charity, Charlemont (MA), Clubs, Coal, Conway (MA), Connecticut, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Education, Elections, English (and England), Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Food, Furniture, Gambling, Government, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Handicapped, History, Law and Lawyers

Posted by stew - Sat, Jan 8, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 2, 1874
(Greenfield) The Committee of the Catholic Fair gratefully acknowledge the receipt of the following donations, omitted in previous acknowledgments: Joslyn & Kimball, $3; C.R. Field, $1; William Metca

(Greenfield) The Committee of the Catholic Fair gratefully acknowledge the receipt of the following donations, omitted in previous acknowledgments: Joslyn & Kimball, $3; C.R. Field, $1; William Metcalf, $1; Mrs. Eals of Deerfield, picture of calla lily. The Fair closed Thurs. eve. after a successful run of 10 days, realizing a handsome profit to the society. All the articles were disposed of by lottery, and the following are a few of the many drawn and the lucky individuals who secured them: chamber set, P. O'Brien, Pittsfield; sewing machine, Mary Donovan, Turners Falls; http://www.literatur...blackbeauty-147.html silver mounted harness , Rev. H.L. Robinson; lounge, P. McLaughlin; large mirror, Katie Sullivan; picture "Mater Dolorosa" , E.D. Merriam; water-proof cloak, Lizzie O'Connell, Shelburne Falls; worsted wreath, Eddy O'Brien; half dozen shirts, Julia E. Brigham, Montague; China tea set, John Mead; smoking chair , A.E. Bruce; case of wax flowers, James Dunnigan; centre table, Mary Murray; stove, James Robinson; baby's cloak, Bridget Doyle; California Carvers, Bridget Keeley, Turners Falls; barrel of flour, Mrs. Nelligan; do., Mrs. Finn; splendid doll, Ellen Sullivan, Deerfield; lady's gold chain, John Murphy, Greenfield; cut of cotton cloth (15 yds.), Timothy Dempsey; elegant trunk, Mrs. Michael Burke; lady's hat, Mary A. Tighe; dozen silver plated knives, Sarah Breen; baby's dress and bonnet, Richard Phillips, Whately; pair of blankets, 1st, Chauncey Hill; 2nd, John Putnam; frosted cake, John Donovan; cloth for gent's overcoat, Frank McManus; chromo of St. Patrick, Kate Stack, Whately; Scripture motto, Norah Cremin; paisley shawl, Mrs. Ellen Bazin; extension table, E.P. Wingrass; patch quilt, Nellie Palton, Turners Falls; pair of vases, L.S. Williams; picture of Father T.N. Burke [ http://www.pgil-eird.../b/Burke,TN/life.htm Rev. Thomas Nicholas Burke ], Ellen Healy, South Deerfield; reception chair, John Shaw, Deerfield; picture of http://www.celticcou...o/martinpagenine.htm Father Hennebery [usually seen as http://www.sunnyfort...nerville/college.htm Rev. Patrick Henneberry ], Mary Mahoney, Whately. The receipts of the fair, which continued for 10 nights, was $2161.07. This money is to be used for the erection of a new house to be occupied by the Priest. It is proposed to build it another season, in the rear of the church, and remove the present house near the street, and so improving the appearance of the property. The young people of the Catholic Society supplemented the Fair with a ball on Thurs. eve.

Subjects: Beverages, Charity, Charlemont (MA), Children, Chinese, Cutlery, Deerfield (MA), Economics, Fairs, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fashion, Food, Furniture, Gambling, Greenfield (MA), Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Households, Irish, Literature / Web Pages, Luck, Montague (MA), Pottery / Crockery, Religion, Roads, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA)

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, October 12, 1874
A squirrel hunt came off at Florence Mon., followed by a game supper at the Florence House Tues. eve., the losing side paying the bill. DeWitt Davis and Jack Ward were appointed captains, each leader

A squirrel hunt came off at Florence Mon., followed by a game supper at the Florence House Tues. eve., the losing side paying the bill. DeWitt Davis and Jack Ward were appointed captains, each leader being assisted by about 30 huntsmen.Ed Allen and Samuel Bowman [? - Can’t make out w clearly] were chosen to count the game, chipmunks being excluded from the list. Captain Davis and his party made a count of 3015, while the opposite side footed up 4915. The game counted as follows: coons, 200; gray squirrels, 50; red squirrels, 25; pigeons, 30; woodcocks, 75; crows, 100; hen hawks, 100; rabbits, 50; foxes, 200; partridges, 75; and other game in about the same ratio.

Subjects: Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Birds, Economics, Food, Gambling, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Hotels, Meat

Powered by