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Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics

Revised Jan. 10, 2009

Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to  pull up all articles mentioning Athol.

The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births   That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!

ACCIDENT VICTIMS     Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.

     Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes.

   One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here.

   Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.

AMUSEMENTS  is kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.

ANIMALS / REPTILES  From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.

ARABS  Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s.

  is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.

ARCHITECTURE / CONSTRUCTION  Styles of buildings, as well as the building of houses, larger buildings, bridges, train tracks, etc.

ART    contains the sublime, and the mundane. Famous statues and portraits are always being commissioned. It was also during this time period that art classes began to be required in the schools.


    Post Lincoln.

ASTRONOMY   Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.


   includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc.

   Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.



   Anything drinkable. Includes water, milk, soda, coffee, tea, cider, as well as beer, liquor, etc.

BICYCLES AND BICYCLING - The craze hasn’t hit yet.  When it does, though, we’re on top of it!

BIRDS   All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird].

   A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc.

   Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.


   Free bridges, toll bridges, railroad bridges, etc.

   Any new business, old business, capitalist venture, etc. is covered.

    Women are people too!


CANALS - past their heydey (1830’s and 40’s) but still around and of interest.

CARICATURES AND CARTOONS - Haven’t started yet but I am awaiting them with great anticipation.


CHARITY   One of the main reasons fraternal clubs and organizations came into being.


  Only the very worst cases ever make it into print.

CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.

CHINA AND CHINESE   None locally as yet, but plenty of interest in the national news.

CIRCUS - One of my favorite sections. The hype, the sound, the fun! The ads are exceptional.

CLUBS   There are clubs for everything; they serve a major community function. Remember, no TV’s, no radios, etc.




CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work.

   Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.


- Soaps, hairdyes, perfumes, face creams, etc.

COURTS  One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity.

- The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well.

- Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness.

- Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].

CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band].

is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-).

- Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.

DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.


- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.

DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em.

- the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.

DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here.

- From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.



ECONOMICS - Not one of my favorite subjects, but you will find here any articles about money, banks, every day economics, etc.

- a special place for UMass, then the Agricultural College.

ELECTIONS - only the major ones.

EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - New England still pretty unhomogenous, but there are sections about German, Chinese and Irish migrations.

- Still a strong connection to the homeland.


ETIQUETTE - Always a topic of interest for the Victorians.


EXECUTIONS AND EXECUTIONERS - A morbid but interesting section.

EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.

EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.

FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.

FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.

FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers.

- A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.

FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.

FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.

FLOODS - Also quite prevalent.

FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.

FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section.

- Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc.

- Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".

GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.

GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.

GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.

GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section.

- one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.

GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.


GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure.

- usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.



GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.

HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA)    A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).

HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc.



HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.

HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.

HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.

HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet.

is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig".

- I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.

HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes.

is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.

HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.

ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.




















Jun 30, 2022
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.

Article Archives: Articles: Explorers

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 7, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The search for the North Pole

Short article. [See the article entitled "British Arctic Expedition" Wikipedia].

Subjects: English (and England), Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Geography

Posted by stew - Thu, Jan 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
Black King of Niam Niam

In an account of his adventures in the Upper Nile, Col. Long of the Egyptian Army, says that the black king of Niam Niam decapitated 30 of his subjects in honor of the visitor, who also accepted a girl as a royal gift. Through an interpreter she said "I want very much to go with you, but it must be on condition that you will not eat me". The colonel said he wouldn’t eat her on any consideration.

[This little gem appears to be taken from a book entitled "Centennial skyrockets: a series of flights, fancies and facts" by Rev. Titus Joslin. Wikipedia has an explanatory page about the Azande: "This name is probably of Dinka origin, and means great eaters in that language (as well as being an onomatopoeia), supposedly referring to cannibalistic propensities. This name for the Azande was in use by other tribes in Sudan, and later adopted by westerners. Naturally, today the name Niam-Niam is considered pejorative"].

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Explorers, Heritage Activities, History, Literature / Web Pages, Murder, Names, Racism, Religion, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Royalty, War / Weaponry, Women, Words, Arabs

Posted by stew - Sat, Jan 3, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
News of the week

Six Niagara people visited the Cave of the Winds Mon. aft. without a guide, as they had frequently done before, and after passing through it, two of them, Ethelbert Parsons, 29 years old, and Miss Lottie C. Philpott, 25, descended to an eddy which is never visited by the guides. While bathing, the lady lost her foothold and was caught by the gentleman, but the current carried both into the river below, where they were drowned. They were soon to be married.

[See the whole sad story in the Aug. 13, 1875 New York Times Archives, entitled "Accident at the Falls. Also check out Cave of the Winds on Wikipedia].


Subjects: Accident Victims, Accidents, Amusements, Courtship, Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Obituaries, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Sports, Women

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 21, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
Lady Jane Franklin


Subjects: Explorers, Obituaries, Rich People, Widows and Widowers, Women

Posted by stew - Sat, Dec 13, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875

Lady Franklin is dead. [See Wikipedia].

Subjects: Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Obituaries, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 21, 1875

It is well enough to keep track of the difficulty between the English and the King of Burmah, as a very lively war is likely to grow out of it before long, the result of which will probably be one of the most important territorial acquisitions the English in India have made for a quarter of a century. The grounds of the dispute are twofold: a little doubt about boundary lines, and the charge that the Burmese government sympathized with and assisted the Chinese who recently massacred in Western China a British exploring party of 80 persons.

/ The fact that the Chinese general who was responsible for this affair was recently received with honors in Burmah [See Burma or Myanmar in Wikipedia], has rendered the English highly indignant. The English papers intimate that war is scarcely avoidable. This is very likely to be true, for the reason that the English want a war, but certainly not because the provocation is sufficient to justify it. For according to the accounts received hitherto, the Burmese government cannot fairly be held responsible for sympathizing with an atrocity committed in China by Chinese. But the English want to annex Burmah, and that will be the secret of any war that is undertaken.

/ Disraeli is willing to add a little military glory to his administration, and British merchants sigh after the Chinese overland trade which the acquisition of Burmah would open to them. Negotiations are now pending between the two governments, and the English and Burmans are collecting armies. Of course the result of a war would be a foregone conclusion. Hostilities in that region will make it lively for the missionaries.

Subjects: Chinese, Crime, Criminals, Economics, English (and England), Explorers, Government, Murder, Politics, Religion, Royalty, Vendors and Purchasers, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 21, 1875

A memorial tablet , on which is the following inscription, now marks the spot in Westminster Abbey where the remains of Dr. Livingstone are deposited: Brought by faithful hands over land and sea, David Livingstone: missionary, traveler, philanthropist. For 30 years his life was spent in an unwearied effort to evangelize the native races, to explore the undiscovered secrets, and to abolish the slave trade. Born March 19, 1813; died May 1, 1873 at Chitambo's Village, Ulala"...

Subjects: Cemeteries, English (and England), Explorers, Mourning Customs, Obituaries, Religion, Transportation, Vendors and Purchasers

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 17, 1875

Dr. Livingstone found that the ostrich could run at the astonishing speed of 26 miles an hour.

Subjects: Birds, Explorers, Transportation

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 12, 1875
The tunnel by the head-light of an engine

There is no better introduction to the tunnel than that which an accommodating engineer, an old iron horse and a bright headlight afford (long article).

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Explorers, Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Horses, Light, Trains

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 5, 1875
News of the week

Gen. John C. Fremont is going to take up his permanent residence in Virginia City, Nevada.

Subjects: Emigration and Immigration, Explorers, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Sat, Aug 26, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
The African chiefs have a way of their own of expressing their gratification at seeing foreign visitors. A letter from The African chiefs have a way of their own of expressing their gratification at seeing foreign visitors. A letter from Col. Long [ http://www.era.anthr...shieweap/zande3.html>Colonel Charles Chaille Long ], an American in the employ of the Khedive of Egypt , recounts http://www.arlington...les-chaille-long.htm his reception recently, by a native African King, who manifested his joy by beheading 30 of his subjects, and subsequently decapitating 77 more. Col. Long's letter also reiterates a former statement that he visited Lake Victoria Nyanza , believed to be the newly discovered headwaters of the Nile, and mentions his defeat of 400 hostile natives who attacked him.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Charlemont (MA), Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Murder, Racism, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Royalty, War / Weaponry, Work, Leyden (MA)

Posted by stew - Mon, May 22, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
Drs. Peters and Harkness [Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters and Willia

Drs. Peters and Harkness [ Christian Heinrich Friedrich Peters and William Harkness ] of the American expedition were the only successful observers of the transit of Venus in New Zealand. The observations at Hobart Town and Campbelltown, Tasmania, were obstructed by clouds, and the first part of the transit was lost. The German party at the Auckland Islands had a successful observation.

Subjects: Astronomy, Explorers, Germans, Medical Personnel, Science, Weather

Posted by stew - Sat, Apr 29, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
Winter in Niagara Falls

Winter in Niagara Falls - A correspondent of the Rochester Express writes from Niagara Falls: "The http://www.cliftonhi...s_history_icebridge/ ice bridge is formed in all its perfection, more so than it has been for at least the past 12 or 15 years. The ice columns rear their heads in all their majesty below the American and Horseshoe Falls to the height of over 100 ft. Those at the base of the http://www.niagarafa...ut_Niagara_Falls.htm American Falls reach nearly to the top of the falls, and are as clear as crystal. On visiting Table Rock the visitor passes between the ice columns and the falls, and they present to the view of the beholder a magnificent spectacle. The ice bridge above the falls, extending at least a mile or more on the river, varies in thickness from 2 inches to 5 or 6 ft. Monday a party of 7 young gentlemen, started from th head of the Third Sister Island - went up the river opposite Grass Island , which is nearly a mile from their starting point, and stopped at the old scow which is anchored in the river above the rapids; returning they went under the Second Sister Island bridge down to McCullough's Rock , broke some of the rock off as a memento, went over to the old scow below the Third Sister Island, and returned home. The distance traveled on the ice bridge was over 5 miles, and this, it will be remembered, is located over a portion of the swiftest rapids approaching the cataract. It is said the distance traversed has not been frozen over before in 12 or 15 years. In some places the ice seemed frozen to the rocks, leaving but little room for the water to flow between the ice and the bed of the river. The ice gorge below the falls is very ragged. It is supposed to be in some places, piled up to the thickness of 20 or 30 ft. One gentleman told this correspondent that in one locality it was 40 ft. thick. But we took the story with a great deal of allowance. The bridge below the falls is very rough, making traveling tiresome in the extreme to pedestrians, though this does not deter people from crossing and recrossing the river up to a stone's throw of the great cataract. The scenery from both the Park and Goat Island is magnificently grand.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Bridges, Charlemont (MA), Curiosities and Wonders, Explorers, Furniture, Horses, Ice, Literature / Web Pages, Natural Resources, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Transportation, Weather, Women, Geography

Posted by stew - Fri, Mar 3, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
The Soko

The Soko - The geography of the region through which Livingstone traveled in Africa, the customs peculiar to the different tribes, and the habits of the various animals which he enumerated are described in this journal with his usual care, accuracy and fullness. The soko, which Livingstone speaks of interchangeably with the gorilla, seems after all to be an entirely new species of chimpanzee, and as such is entitled to the distinction of having his portrait reproduced at length, just as the explorer graphically sketches it.

In the Manyuema country, under date of Aug. 24, 1870, he writes: "Four gorillas, or sokos, were killed yesterday: an extensive grass-burning forced them out of their usual haunt, and coming on the plain, they were speared. They often go erect, but place the hand on the head, as if to steady the body. When seen thus, the soko is an ungainly beast. The most sentimental young lady would not call him a ’dear’, but a bandy-legged, pot-bellied, low-looking villain, without a particle of the gentlemen in him.

Other animals are graceful, especially the antelope, and it is pleasant to see them, either at rest or in motion. The natives are also well made, lithe, and comely to behold, but the soko, if large, would do well to stand for a picture of the devil. He takes away my appetite by his disgusting bestiality of appearance. His light-yellow face shows off his ugly whiskers and faint apology of a beard; the forehead, villainously low, with high ears, is well in the background of the great dog-mouth; the teeth are slightly human, but the canines show the beast by their large development. The hands, or rather the fingers, are like those of the natives. The flesh of the feet is yellow, and the eagerness with which the Manyuemas devour it leaves the impression that eating sokos was the first stage by which they arrived at being cannibals; they say the flesh is delicious. The soko is represented by some to be extremely knowing, successfully stalking men and women while at their work, kidnapping children and running up trees with them: he seems to be amused by the sight of the young native in his arms, but comes down when tempted by a bunch of bananas, and as he lifts that, drops the child: the young soko in such a case would cling closely to the arm-pit of the elder.

One man was cutting out honey from a tree, and naked, when a soko suddenly appeared and caught him, then let him go. Another man was hunting, and missed in his attempt to stab a soko: it seized the spear and broke it, then grappled with the man, who called to his companions, "Soko has caught me". The soko bit off the ends of his fingers and escaped unharmed. Both men are now alive at Bambarre. The soko is so cunning, and has such sharp eyes, that no one can stalk him in front without being seen; hence, when shot it is always in the back; when surrounded by men and nets, he is generally speared in the back, too; otherwise he is not a very formidable beast; he is nothing, as compared in power of damaging his assailant, to a leopard or lion, but is more like a man unarmed, for it does not occur to him to use his canine teeth, which are long and formidable.

Numbers of them come down in the forest within a hundred yards of our camp, and would be unknown but for giving tongue like fox-hounds: this is their nearest approach to speech. A man hoeing was stalked by a soko and seized; he roared out, but the soko giggled and grinned, and left him as if he had done it in play. A child caught up by a soko is often abused by being pinched and scratched, and let fall. The soko kills the leopard occasionally, by seizing both paws and biting them so as to disable them; he then goes up a tree, groans over his wounds, and sometimes recovers, while the leopard dies: at other times both soko and leopard die.

The lion kills him at once, and sometimes tears his limbs off, but does not eat him. The soko eats no flesh; small bananas are his dainties, but not maize. His food consists of wild fruits, which abound. The soko brings forth at times twins. A very large soko was seen by Mohamed’s hunters sitting picking his nails: they tried to stalk him, but he vanished. Some Manyuema think that their buried dead rise up as sokos, and one was killed with holes in his ears, as if he had been a man. He is very strong, and fears guns, but not spears; he never catches women. He draws out a spear (but never uses it), and takes some leaves and stuffs them into his wound to staunch the blood; he does not wish an encounter with an armed man.

He sees women do him no harm, and never molests them: a man with out a spear is nearly safe from him. They live in communities of about ten, each having his own female: an intruder from another camp is beaten off with their fists and loud yells. If one tries to seize the female of another, he is caught on the ground, and all unite in boxing and biting the offender. A male often carries a child, especially if they are passing from one patch of forest to another over a grassy space; he then gives it to the mother."

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Animals / Reptiles, Barber / Hair, Births, Cemeteries, Child Abuse, Children, Explorers, Eye, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Food, Jokes, Kidnapping, Literature / Web Pages, Meat, Medicine / Hospitals, Noise, Obituaries, Religion, Sex Crimes, Trees, Women, Work

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 12, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
Southern correspondence

Southern correspondence - Jacksonville, Florida - Editors of Gazette & Courier: It is possible I have a few friends who would like to know whether I am on the land or under the ocean, and I take this method of informing them that I am alive, and taking my rations as usual. I left New York the 29th ult. on steamer Vicksburg , via Port Royal and Fernandina , thence by rail to this place. The steamer is a propeller, was built for government service and has since been remodeled to fit it for a freight and passenger boat, and is much better for freight than passengers. The 30th was cold and windy, too uncomfortable to be on deck. I considered myself proof against sea sickness and congratulated myself on the fun I should have with others of our company, as they were obliged to pay tribute to old Neptune . Alas, how uncertain human expectations are, that miserable ship concluded to roll from side to side, until I could not tell whether she was rolling sideways like a carriage wheel, or bottomside up; but I do remember I had to pay tribute with all the others and a fine in addition, for escaping last year. A storm set in from the north east, and the way it rushed us over the brine was a caution to timid ones. Our Captain judged we were off Port Royal on Friday. A heavy fog encompassed us and we drifted 24 hours; the fog lifted and we made Hilton Head, then it settled down again and we waited until morning, then steamed up to Port Royal, thence to Fernandina Mon. morning at 8 a.m. I think most of our company were glad to set their feet on solid ground again. It was a stormy trip, but we had a pleasant time after the sea sickness passed off. One of our company, who received the unanimous appellation of uncle, kept the passengers and crew in an uproar continually, with his oddities and jokes. He could sucker the boys just as easy as rollin' off from a log, and when he sat at dinner at Port Royal, the Captain says "Well, Uncle, what do you think of Port Royal?" ' Wal Capt., tell you what 'tis, I think there is a good deal of land to the acre down here' - I think the reply was a very good description of the place. Our party of 8 are residents of the "sunny south" in the city of Jacksonville, all boarding at one place; we have not been able to learn where the sunny part comes in as we have not seen that luminous body since the 30th of December; they say it will shine again soon, and we hope the time is not too far distant. It is mild and comfortable here without an overcoat. The trees and shrubs look green and fresh. Saw some white trumpet lilies in bunches about 3 ft. high, the blossoms hanging down like white bells, 8 inches in length; they were beautiful, and attracted much attention from Northern people. Oranges are plenty and delicious, and the way our boys go for them will make prices rule higher soon. Five of our party will go up the river on a hunting, fishing, and exploring tour. We are waiting for our boats; two of them to be put in order and other arrangements to be completed; expect to start the 12th and go up the St. Johns to Salt Lake, then cross 6 miles of land. Our boats will have to be taken over by teams to Indian River, down said river to the southern part of the state. I must tell you of my railroad trip from Fernandina to Jacksonville , for we made the greatest time on record so far as my rail traveling extends. The Florida Railroad extends from Fernandina to Cedar Keys and intersects with the Gulf Railroad at Baldwin . The distance to this station from Fernandina is 17 miles and we made it the whole distance in the astonishing time of 7 hours. I felt a little nervous about trusting my precious self on this road, for I had been out and examined it a short distance, and as they were switching some cars onto a side track near the station I noticed the engine had a greater affinity for the sleepers than for the rails, and to be sure everything was all right, went out just at night to see if they had got it on the track again. It was all right, and the train was to start precisely at 12 o'clock at night, and I dismissed my fears, as this was a common occurrence and attended with no danger whatever. When it happens, all you have to do is to go out into the woods hunting, and they will whistle for you when they are ready to start again. We got under way between 1 and 2, and before the train had made half the distance, I made up my mind it was the safest road I ever traveled over, and the only real danger to be anticipated is if you are sharp-sighted like myself, and fail to lay in a good stock of provisions, you may be somewhat emaciated when you get to the end of the route. They don't check any baggage on this road as it would be entirely useless, for they could not afford to pay for it if lost, and would not if they could. I would advise all my friends who don't want too much experience crowded in one trip, to take the Savannah steamer from New York to Savannah, and Florida and Savannah boats to Jacksonville and points up the river. They have fine accommodations, good fare, and are sure to go somewhere, which is more than you can say of any other routes (O.F.S.) [O.F. Swift].

Subjects: Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Astronomy, Charlemont (MA), Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Economics, Explorers, Eye, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fishes and Fishing, Food, Government, Horses, Hotels, Jokes, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Names, Native Americans, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Royalty, Trains, Transportation

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 12, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 18, 1875
Agents wanted

Agents wanted - to sell the http://www.unlocking...06&idrepresents=page "Life and Explorations of Dr. Livingstone" ; complete, authentic, a fresh book; price suited to the times. http://history.rays-...bangor-me-insert.htm B.B. Russell , Publisher, Boston, Mass.

Subjects: Advertising, African-Americans / Blacks, Boston (MA), Business Enterprises, Economics, Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Medical Personnel, Missing Persons, Sales, Work, Geography

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 15, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 11, 1875
The last days of Dr. Livingstone (long article).

The last days of http://www.wholesome...ssions/bliving9.html Dr. Livingstone (long article).

Subjects: Explorers, Obituaries, Religion, Geography

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 8, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 4, 1875
A Portsmouth paper says that affairs are now taking a definite form with regard to the British Arctic Expedition. The A Portsmouth paper says that affairs are now taking a definite form with regard to the British Arctic Expedition . The http://www.worldthro...rth-west-passage.php Pandora (5 screw gun vessel), is undertaking a survey for the purpose. She is 140 ft. long with 25 ft. beam, and at her last measured mile trial attained a speed of 4 knots. She has had two commissions, from the second of which she returned just over 2 years ago, since which time she has been in the steam reserve. It is understood that she will be planked round with square timber to enable her to successfully resist the pressure of the ice. The Columbine, which has been selected at Chatham, is 160 ft. long and [?] ft. broad, her speed being about the same as that of the Pandora. She returned from the East India Station in May last. Government surveyors are also engaged in Scotland inspecting the whalers there. The expedition will start in May next at the same time as the whaling fleets. The object in leaving at this early period is to reach the ice in time to pass through Melville Bay at the first opening, which occurs generally about the 5th of June.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Charlemont (MA), English (and England), Explorers, Fishes and Fishing, Government, Ice, Literature / Web Pages, Transportation, Work, Scots and Scotland, Geography

Posted by stew - Tue, Oct 25, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 14, 1874
Success of Prof. Marsh's expedition

Success of Prof. Marsh 's expedition - Prof. Othniel C. Marsh of Yale College and his party reached Fort Laramie, Wyoming, Sun. the 29th, on their return from their expedition to the Bad Lands, south of the Black Hills, and notwithstanding a good deal of trouble from hostile Indians and very severe weather - the thermometer being several days below zero - their explorations have been very successful. The fossil beds explored there were of the micocene age, and though limited in extent, proved to be rich beyond expectation. Nearly two tons of fossil bones were collected, most of them rare specimens, and many of them unknown to science. These remains were all of tropical animals entombed in the bed of an ancient lake. Some of them are as large as elephants; others are allied to the camel, the rhinoceros and the horse. This collection, one of the finest ever made in the West, goes to Yale College, and when fully described by http://www.geocities...b/3773/OC_Marsh.html Prof. Marsh , will settle many doubtful points in paleontology and add an important chapter to the science. The researches resulted also in new geological information in regard to the subdivisions of the tertiary and their geographical extent.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Archaeology, Cemeteries, Charlemont (MA), Connecticut, Education, Explorers, Native Americans, Science, Weather, Work, Geography

Posted by stew - Mon, Sep 26, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
Lady Franklin has renewed the offer of $100,000 to anyone who will find the official records of her lost husband's expedition. Lady Franklin has renewed the offer of $100,000 to anyone who will find the official records of her lost husband's expedition.

Subjects: Economics, Explorers, Ice, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Obituaries, Women

Posted by stew - Sun, Jun 5, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
Lady Franklin [Jane Franklin] has renewed the offer of $100,000 to any one who will find the official records of her lost husband's exped

Lady Franklin [ Jane Franklin ] has renewed the offer of $100,000 to any one who will find the official records of her lost husband's expedition [ http://www.factmonst...people/A0819489.html Sir John Franklin , lost in the Arctic in 1847.

Subjects: Economics, Explorers, Literature / Web Pages, Lost and Found, Rich People, Widows and Widowers, Women

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 21, 1874
A party of adventurers are starting at New York for the new Eldorado, so glowingly depicted by some of General Custer's party.

A party of adventurers are starting at New York for the new Eldorado, so glowingly depicted by some of General Custer’s party.

Subjects: Economics, Explorers, Native Americans, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Sat, Oct 30, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 19, 1872
Dr. Livingstone is alive again. He is within 20 days' march of the place which he was trying to reach at the same distance a year ago. He is apparen Dr. Livingstone is alive again. He is within 20 days' march of the place which he was trying to reach at the same distance a year ago. He is apparently swinging round a circle.

Subjects: Explorers, Lost and Found, Transportation

Posted by stew - Sat, Oct 30, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 29, 1870
Dr. Livingstone's adventure with the lion (story)(story).

http://www.gutenberg...adfile?fk_files=2565 Dr. Livingstone 's adventure with the lion (story)(story).

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Explorers

Posted by stew - Wed, Oct 20, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 1, 1874
Congressional notes...The Senate passed the civil rights bill by the large vote of 20 to 19 at an early hour on Sat. morning 23rd...The bill is not toned down at all from what Mr. Sumner intended. 19

Congressional notes...The Senate passed the civil rights bill by the large vote of 20 to 19 at an early hour on Sat. morning 23rd...The bill is not toned down at all from what Mr. Sumner intended. 19 Senators recorded their votes Thurs. in favor of admitting women to political equality with men. Among them were Mr. Morton of Indiana and Mr. Washburn of Massachusetts. Colleague Boutwell voted "no" as did Mr. Roscoe Conkling of New York. It has been resolved to send a select Congressional committee of 5 to visit Arkansas for the purpose of discovering whether or not a republican form of government exists there. A bill has passed giving the widow of Capt. Hall $1836, being the amount due him when he died on the Polaris, and paying her $15,000 for the papers of his Arctic explorations.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Amusements, Cemeteries, Courts, Economics, Education, Explorers, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Government, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Massachusetts, Obituaries, Politics, Racism, Widows and Widowers, Women

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