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Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics

Revised Jan. 10, 2009

Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to  pull up all articles mentioning Athol.

The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births   That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!

ACCIDENT VICTIMS     Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.

     Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes.

   One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here.

   Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.

AMUSEMENTS  is kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.

ANIMALS / REPTILES  From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.

ARABS  Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s.

  is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.

ARCHITECTURE / CONSTRUCTION  Styles of buildings, as well as the building of houses, larger buildings, bridges, train tracks, etc.

ART    contains the sublime, and the mundane. Famous statues and portraits are always being commissioned. It was also during this time period that art classes began to be required in the schools.


    Post Lincoln.

ASTRONOMY   Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.


   includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc.

   Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.



   Anything drinkable. Includes water, milk, soda, coffee, tea, cider, as well as beer, liquor, etc.

BICYCLES AND BICYCLING - The craze hasn’t hit yet.  When it does, though, we’re on top of it!

BIRDS   All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird].

   A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc.

   Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.


   Free bridges, toll bridges, railroad bridges, etc.

   Any new business, old business, capitalist venture, etc. is covered.

    Women are people too!


CANALS - past their heydey (1830’s and 40’s) but still around and of interest.

CARICATURES AND CARTOONS - Haven’t started yet but I am awaiting them with great anticipation.


CHARITY   One of the main reasons fraternal clubs and organizations came into being.


  Only the very worst cases ever make it into print.

CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.

CHINA AND CHINESE   None locally as yet, but plenty of interest in the national news.

CIRCUS - One of my favorite sections. The hype, the sound, the fun! The ads are exceptional.

CLUBS   There are clubs for everything; they serve a major community function. Remember, no TV’s, no radios, etc.




CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work.

   Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.


- Soaps, hairdyes, perfumes, face creams, etc.

COURTS  One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity.

- The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well.

- Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness.

- Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].

CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band].

is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-).

- Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.

DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.


- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.

DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em.

- the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.

DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here.

- From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.



ECONOMICS - Not one of my favorite subjects, but you will find here any articles about money, banks, every day economics, etc.

- a special place for UMass, then the Agricultural College.

ELECTIONS - only the major ones.

EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - New England still pretty unhomogenous, but there are sections about German, Chinese and Irish migrations.

- Still a strong connection to the homeland.


ETIQUETTE - Always a topic of interest for the Victorians.


EXECUTIONS AND EXECUTIONERS - A morbid but interesting section.

EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.

EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.

FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.

FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.

FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers.

- A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.

FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.

FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.

FLOODS - Also quite prevalent.

FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.

FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section.

- Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc.

- Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".

GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.

GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.

GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.

GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section.

- one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.

GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.


GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure.

- usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.



GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.

HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA)    A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).

HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc.



HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.

HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.

HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.

HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet.

is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig".

- I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.

HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes.

is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.

HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.

ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.




















Jun 30, 2022
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.

Article Archives: Articles: Scots and Scotland

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 14, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Greenfield - The tournament of the Springfield Caledonian Society will be the great attraction at Lake Pleasant this week. It comes off on Wed., and excursion trains are to be run over the various roads. $250 are to be distributed in prizes. There are to be foot races, hurdle races and other athletic sports, and a single scull race, in which Harrington, the Springfield champion, and Brown, the champion of Worcester will participate. It will be the first boat race on the Lake. The Scottish societies will be in costume, and the "Highland fling" will be one of the features of the occasion.

Subjects: Amusements, Clubs, Contests, Dance, Economics, Greenfield (MA), Lake Pleasant (MA), Massachusetts, Montague (MA), Sports, Trains, Transportation, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 8, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The town of Rowe

(Rowe) It is well known among botanists that many notable plants grow on sterile soil, so from some of our small and sequestered country towns have come many of our now prominent and useful men. I well remember when a boy, of living in the town of Rowe 40 years ago, just how it appeared.

I was a poor farmer’s boy, at work on a farm for wages, at 12 dollars per month. I had been well schooled in the village schools of the time, but they said "there was to be a select school in the center of the town, to be taught by Mr. John Wells, a son of Hon. Noah Wells of Rowe, who had just graduated at Williamstown, taking the highest honors in his class".

John succeeded in getting a large class, made up of the young ladies and gentlemen of his native town. I was a pupil among the others, and here I wish to say that a more successful school was never taught by any man. John Wells was then a young man, tall, straight as an arrow, with a beautiful face, and an expression like a modest girl. At the close of the school, we had an exhibition in the old Unitarian Church. It was filled to overflowing, and all the scholars took a part. The whole thing was a great success for Mr. Wells and a credit to his pupils.

The succeeding winter I taught the "winter school" in the center of the town, having among my scholars a small boy, the son of Rev. William Stearns, named George Stearns. George was a bright, blue-eyed boy of about 10 years old, good, but very mischievous. I gave him his first lesson in Latin grammar. I well remember how he used to recite in such a way as to make fun for the other scholars.

Well, Mr. John Wells is now Hon. John Wells of the Supreme court; and little Georgie Stearns is the celebrated Springfield lawyer, one of the most eminent of his profession in the State. The following year I taught a school in the north west part of the town, in a little "hut of a school house", and among my scholars was a little boy by the name of Noah Cressy.

[See Google Books "American Law Review: 1875 - 1876" for a long biographical entry on John Wells].

[See Google Books "Second annual report on the diseases of the domestic animals in Connecticut" by Noah Cressy].

There were 3 brothers of the Cressy family living in the district, and their children constituted the greater part of the school. the following year I went away to study medicine, and lost sight of little Noah, and the next I heard of him he was "Professor Noah Cressy of the Massachusetts Agricultural college, and veterinary surgeon to the State of Connecticut".

A chum went with me from Rowe to study medicine in the same office with me, the office of Moses Barrett M.D., located in the town of Charlemont. Dr. Barrett was a native of Rowe and had studied medicine and graduated with high honors. My chum was C.K. Fiske of Rowe, who graduated with me at the Berkshire Medical college in 1842. Dr. Fiske became an eminent dentist and settled in St. Johns, New Brunswick.

The late Major Reed, sheriff of this county, was for a long time a merchant in Rowe, if not born there. He had a son by the name of Samuel Reed, a scholar in my school, who afterward studied medicine, graduated, started for California, and died on the passage.

I frequently meet Prof. Cressy. He is a wide awake, congenial, friendly man, but eminently learned in his profession. Last week we exchanged some books, I giving him Harris on Insects, and he giving me "The Elements of General and Pathological Anatomy" by David Craige, M.D., published in Edinburg in 1828.

On the fly leaf is this, written in pencil: "To Dr. Craige, belongs the merit of having written the first distinct and comprehensive work on general anatomy" signed George Gulliver, M.D. There is probably not more than one or two other works of the kind and edition in this country. David Rice, M.D.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Charlemont (MA), Children, Connecticut, Courts, Diseases, Economics, Education, Emigration and Immigration, Eye, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Government, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, History, Insects, Jokes, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Massachusetts, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Obituaries, Police, Poor

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 4, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875

The Rev. John C. Edgar will deliver a lecture in the Town Hall at Heath Center on Thurs at 7 o'clock. Subject, The Battle of Bala Clava [Battle of Balaclava] in which will be given a vivid description of the Charge of the Light Brigade which has been immortalized by Tennyson. Price of admission, 25 cents. Mr. Edgar has served 8 years in the Light Brigade...At the close of the lecture, the ladies of the Congregational Society will hold a peach festival, to which all are respectfully invited. The bill of fare will not only consist of peaches, but of the many good things which the ladies of Heath know full well how to prepare for such an occasion. Tickets 50 cents each.

[See Wikipedia for more information on the Battle].

Subjects: Amusements, Economics, Food, Light, Literature / Web Pages, Religion, War / Weaponry, Women, Scots and Scotland, Heath (MA), Arabs, Europe, Russia

Posted by stew - Tue, Feb 3, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
Lake Pleasant

The Springfield Caledonian Club propose to hold a picnic at Lake Pleasant Sept. 15. The sports of the day - games, dancing, etc. - will be a novelty in this section. A boat race is also on the programme.

[Caledonian Clubs are composed of those of Scottish descent, and all others interested in Scotland].

Subjects: Amusements, Clubs, Contests, Dance, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Lake Pleasant (MA), Montague (MA), Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Sports, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 31, 1875
News about town: Greenfield items

The following list of new books has been recently added to the Greenfield Library: Scottish Song; We and Our Neighbors [by Harriet Beecher Stowe]; Mr. Smith; The Wreck of the Chancellor [by Jules Verne]; Egypt and Iceland; A Winter in Russia; Characteristics from the Writings of J.H. Newman; Theology in the English Poets; Politics for Young Americans; English portraits; Social Life in Greece; The Starling; David Crockett; Invasion of the Crimea, 34 vols.; Strength and Beauty; Outlines of the World’s History; Mistress Judith [by Christina Catherine Liddell]; Gunnar, a Tale of Norse Life; Dictionary of Shakespearian Quotations; Annual Record of Science and Industry; Shakespeare Commentaries; The New Hyperion; Manual of Political Ethics; Ismailia, by S.W. Baker; Ancient Law; St. Nicholas.

Subjects: Disasters, Education, English (and England), Greenfield (MA), History, Law and Lawyers, Libraries and Librarians, Literature / Web Pages, Music, Poetry, Politics, Religion, Science, Transportation, War / Weaponry, Scots and Scotland, Arabs, Geography, Russia

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875

By way of reaction from the prolonged strain of the most severe winter many of us have ever known, our whole neighborhood has lately taken itself to masquerading or costuming in every possible form, until this dreaded month of March fairly ’blossoms like the rose’ with innocent merry making. One of the most successful and brilliant of these various festivities was a masquerade party at the Grange Hall, Deerfield, on Wed. eve. last., under the auspices of the "Ladies’ Social Circle" of the Unitarian Society; the object being to raise money in behalf of certain needs of the society.

About 60 people assembled in costume, closely masked during the first part of the evening; the disguises, in most instances, being quite impenetrable, even to familiar friends of the wearers...Several of the most charming costumes were worn by little children. The hall was uncomfortably crowded with delighted spectators, who vainly tried to solve the puzzling mysteries of mask and dress while watching the cotillions and contra dances of the masqueraders. Here was to be seen a Towering Turk arm in arm with a Highland Lassie, while opposite to them, the "Woman in White" bobbed frantically about before the "King of Trumps". A coquettish "Fille de Regiment" with jaunty steps and canteen slung over her shoulder, went down the middle with a gigantic and warlike "Indian Chief".

"America" had for partner a festive young "Darkey" [or Darky], emblematic of the recent passage of the Civil Rights bill, while the grotesque figure of "The Old Woman with Rings on her Fingers and Bells on her toes" promenaded on the arm of a bold "Sailor Boy". A saucy "Negro Bootblack" with apparatus complete, offered to shine the shoes of a "Water Nymph" bedecked with shells and seaweed. A stately "Spanish Donna" [i.e. Do~na] in lace mantilla, devoted herself for the space of one cotillion to the "Master of Mirth", who needed no disguise.

Young gentlemen in the ruffles and knee buckles of the last century amused themselves with the prettiest impersonations of the "Four Seasons" or "Peasant Girls" or "Fairies" as the case might be. A gay "Roman Peasant Girl" in national costume, chatted with stalwart "Highlanders" or glittering "Night", while "Morning" with her starry raiment made friends with all nationalities alike. Throughout the evening, at one end of the hall, the twin "Aunt Betseys" held their admiring court behind a table covered with dainties dear to the heart and palate of childhood.

The star performance of the evening was that of the "Hand Organ Woman" who created much amusement with her comic songs, and who fairly earned the heavy hat full of pennies which she received from the appreciative crowd of listeners. A bountiful supper was served in the cosey [i.e. cozy] refreshment room adjoining the hall; the dancers having previously unmasked, in the midst of much laughter and astonishment on behalf of the bystanders, whose shrewdest guesses were often proved to have been wide of the mark. Dancing was kept up until 12 o’clock, all entering into the spirit of the occasion with evident enthusiasm...And considering only 5 days’ notice was given of the party, the masqueraders themselves deserve many compliments for the beauty and picturesqueness of their costumes; showing both fertile brains and skilful fingers, while even in those most grotesque and fanciful, there was nothing to offend good taste.

We all know that "A little nonsense now and then / Is relished by the best of men". And this "Masquerade Party" clearly proved the benefit of hearty laughter to human nature in general, and to Deerfield human nature in particular.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Amusements, Astronomy, Children, Clubs, Contests, Dance, Deerfield (MA), Economics, Family, Fashion, Food, French, Furniture, Italians, Jokes, Latin America, Law and Lawyers, Literature / Web Pages, Music, Native Americans, Old Age, Parties, Poetry, Poor

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
James Laurie http://www

James Laurie one of the best known civil engineers in the country, died suddenly at the Allyn House, Hartford on Thurs. Mr. Laurie was a native of Scotland and was almost 70 years of age. He was the engineer of the iron railroad bridge over the Connecticut at Warehouse Point, and has been chief engineer of the Norwich and Worcester and New Jersey Central railroads and the Inter-colonial railway of Nova Scotia. He was for several years employed by this State, as consulting engineer upon the Hoosac tunnel. He took a high rank in his profession and was for many years President of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

Subjects: Bridges, Businesspeople, Clubs, Connecticut, Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Hotels, Massachusetts, Obituaries, Trains, Work, Scots and Scotland, Canada

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 15, 1875
News about home

(Greenfield) A party of seven from Permian division, Sons of Temperance, improved the sleighing Fri. eve. by paying a visit to Athenian Division, Shelburne Falls. They were handsomely entertained, and returned in the wee sma hours of the morning.

Subjects: Amusements, Clubs, Greenfield (MA), Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Temperance, Transportation, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 15, 1875

Mr. Isaac Dickinson, lately a member of the Negro jubilee singers of East Tennessee, has entered the University of Edinburgh as a theological student.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Education, Museums, Religion, Show Business, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Sun, Aug 27, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
(Greenfield) The concert of the Greenfield Musical Association, so long anticipated, came off Fri. We congratulate Mr. Cheney, the conductor, who has worked so long and faithfully, upon the success o

(Greenfield) The concert of the Greenfield Musical Association, so long anticipated, came off Fri. We congratulate Mr. Cheney, the conductor, who has worked so long and faithfully, upon the success of the choruses. Mr. Cheney had perfect control of the chorus; we noticed this particularly in the http://www.georgetow.../AMSCC/1998Fall.html Phantom Chorus . We were pleased with Bishop's Chorus, "Now Tramp", Mrs. Cheney singing the solo very prettily. The piano duet, by Mr. Harrington and Mrs. Field, was nicely executed. The "Miserere" from Il Trovatore, was one of the gems of the program, Miss Billings and Mrs. Cheney taking the solo of "Leonora" and Mr. Cheney the tenor solo. The popular Scotch duet "When ya gane'awa Jaimie" was given charmingly. The chorus "Crowned with the Tempest" was good. The solo by Mr. Snow was sung with a great deal of vim. We noticed some of the soloists, while their voices were as good as we could desire, lacked spirit. We have saved the best last. Mr. W.L. Cheney's performance with the harmonica. That instrument which musicians have not deigned to notice, came out victorious under Mr. Cheney's skill. "No. 7" was beautiful and wonderful. The manner in which the "Wedding March" was given was splendid. We should judge from the eagerness with which the audience listened, Mr. W.L. Cheney's two solos might be considered the best of the evening's entertainment. Long may he live and come again to Greenfield. There was a good audience.

Subjects: Clubs, Greenfield (MA), Italians, Marriage and Elopement, Music, Show Business, Spiritualism, Women, Work, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Sat, Aug 26, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
The House of Commons grappled with the John Mitchell [also seen as John Mitchel) problem Thurs., and finally adopted Disraeli's resolve declar

The House of Commons grappled with the John Mitchell [also seen as John Mitchel ) problem Thurs., and finally adopted Disraeli's resolve declaring the Irish leader ineligible because he is a convicted felon. But the voters of Tipperary are more likely than not to elect him right over again.

Subjects: Criminals, Elections, English (and England), Government, Politics, Prisons, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Mon, May 8, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
Tiger slaying in India

Tiger slaying in India - The crusade against man eating tigers , says the http://www.channel4....ns/hattersley_t.html Pall Mall Gazette , is being actively carried on in South India. The tiger slayer appointed by the Madras government is poisoning, trapping, and shooting right and left. Now and then sensational reports of the number of tigers 'exterminated' proceed from his pen, but unfortunately, a good many of these animals, half-killed or half-poisoned, "have probably retired to their inaccessable lairs in the pathless jungles to die". However, Capt. Caulfield , the tiger slayer to the Madras government, and his shikarries and staff, must be credited with a good deal of genuine zeal, pluck, and success. The interest exhibited in India in their proceedings is not confined merely to sportsmen. Staid officials, experimental chemists, and pious missionaries have alike turned their attention eagerly to the all engrossing subject. The sportsman, of course, regards the raid against men eaters as rare fun, and with unfeigned avidity reads, marks, and inwardly digests the accounts of each tiger chase. If the pursuer himself should be eaten up it is a frightful pity of course, but even then how very interesting is the account of the disaster. The official looks upon the whole affair from an entirely dfferent standpoint. He desires statistics, and these are given him to some extent, ant least in the numbers recorded of tigers killed and missing. The man of medicine has a nearer interest still in the matter. He looks at it in a scientific light. What is the exact amount of strychnine which will cause a full grown tiger to fall dead beside the bait? What will form an overdose, merely causing the animal to eject what it has taken, and run off http://www.phrases.o...ngs/scot%20free.html Scot free ? And what will so affect it in a tardy manner that the brute will have time to dash off to its den, and there end its days in the bosom of its family? The interest displayed by the missionary is easily explained. He has a care for the bodies, as well as the souls of the flock, and is constantly on the qui vive to ascertain if any one of his recent converts in the tiger infested districts has avoided inhumation as well as cremation by becoming assimilated with the organic structure of a beast of prey. Finding that the extermination of tigers was attracting so much attention in South India, a Mr. Croom, an East Indian of Madras, invented a short time ago an 'armor' for a tiger slayer. The invention has not yat been patented. It consists of a dress of canvas, to which bands of leather are attached. These bands are studded with nails, keenly sharpened, with their points projecting outward. Mr. Croom was satisfied when inventing his armor, that any tiger , seeing a man clad in it, would at once have the sagacity to imagine him as an enormous 'fretful porcupine' and decline attack. But although he has been frequently requested to do so, Mr. Croom declimes to test his armor on his own person in the presence of a live tiger in its wild state, and therefore we must hold our opinion of the utility of his invention in abeyance. Another story may be regarded as more serious. Immediately before his appointment as official tiger slayer to the Madras government, Captain Caulfield happened to be in http://www.mapsofind...lnadu/coimbatore.htm Coimbatore in South India near the foot of the http://www.fromoldbo...neilgherryhills.html Neilgherry Hills ; he was staying with a Rev. Mr. Jackson, a missionary. They heard that a man eating tiger was ravaging the neighborhood. With rifles and a large body of hunters, they at once set out on pursuit of the cannibal. As they came near to a village they heard a great clamor and the noise of women wailing. It was sunset and under the shadow of some trees skirting an adjacent jungle they dimly saw a huge old tigress devouring a poor herdsman, whom she had just pounced upon and killed. At sight of Captain Caulfied and party the brute ran into the jungle. It was too dark to follow her, so the Captain and his friend the missionary, put some poison into the body of the herdsman and left it there as a bait for the man eater. The tigress returned and the next morning was found dead beside her victim. When this story became known the question arose, were the officer and clergyman justified in using the body of a human being as a bait? If so then if a man fell overboard and a shark took off one of his legs, so that he died from loss of blood - in such a case would it be justifiable, in order to capture and kill that shark, so as to prevent it causing the death of any more men, to bait a hook with a limb of the dead man? It is a curious question, and we leave it to be solved by the infallible reader.

Subjects: Accident Victims, Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Astronomy, Charlemont (MA), Family, Fishes and Fishing, Food, Government, Inventions, Light, Literature / Web Pages, Medical Personnel, Noise, Poisoning, Religion, Science, Sports, Trees, Vital Statistics, Women, Scots and Scotland, Clothing

Posted by stew - Mon, Mar 6, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
Isabella Wallace, a descendant of Sir William Wallace [the real Braveheart] of Scottish fame, died at Dunfermline Scotland

Isabella Wallace, a descendant of Sir William Wallace [the real Braveheart ] of Scottish fame, died at Dunfermline Scotland on the 1st, aged 102 eyars.

Subjects: Family, Obituaries, Old Age, War / Weaponry, Women, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Mon, Feb 20, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
(Erving) If our neighboring towns don't know where to supply themselves with "crackers", Chauncey Turner, in behalf of Erving can lend them a barrel or so, that they may be able to do their part tow

(Erving) If our neighboring towns don't know where to supply themselves with "crackers", Chauncey Turner, in behalf of Erving can lend them a barrel or so, that they may be able to do their part toward feeding "tramps". What is it about "riding free horses"? [" One may ride a free horse to death" - Scottish Proverb].

Subjects: Charity, Erving (MA), Food, Horses, Tramps, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 8, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 4, 1875
A Portsmouth paper says that affairs are now taking a definite form with regard to the British Arctic Expedition. The A Portsmouth paper says that affairs are now taking a definite form with regard to the British Arctic Expedition . The http://www.worldthro...rth-west-passage.php Pandora (5 screw gun vessel), is undertaking a survey for the purpose. She is 140 ft. long with 25 ft. beam, and at her last measured mile trial attained a speed of 4 knots. She has had two commissions, from the second of which she returned just over 2 years ago, since which time she has been in the steam reserve. It is understood that she will be planked round with square timber to enable her to successfully resist the pressure of the ice. The Columbine, which has been selected at Chatham, is 160 ft. long and [?] ft. broad, her speed being about the same as that of the Pandora. She returned from the East India Station in May last. Government surveyors are also engaged in Scotland inspecting the whalers there. The expedition will start in May next at the same time as the whaling fleets. The object in leaving at this early period is to reach the ice in time to pass through Melville Bay at the first opening, which occurs generally about the 5th of June.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Charlemont (MA), English (and England), Explorers, Fishes and Fishing, Government, Ice, Literature / Web Pages, Transportation, Work, Scots and Scotland, Geography

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 19, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 28, 1874
During the last whaling voyage of the barque Nile of During the last whaling voyage of the http://freepages.gen...neill/shenandoah.htm barque Nile of http://www.usgennet..../suffolk/fishers.htm New London , a whale was captured in the head of which was found the head of a Scotch gun-harpoon marked "True Love, 1861". The ship True Love has not cruised for 8 years, and the whale must have carried the iron for that period, if not longer.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Charlemont (MA), Connecticut, Courtship, Curiosities and Wonders, Fishes and Fishing, Names, Transportation, Work, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Thu, Dec 1, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 28, 1874
The State Institutions annual report

The State Institutions annual report - Lunatic Hospital at Worcester - of inmates at the beginning of the year was 459, admitted during the year 380, remaining 485. The no. of deaths during the year was 75. Good progress has been made in building the new hospital, but no considerable quantity of the land of the old hospital has been sold during the year...The average expense per week for each patient is $4.10. Attention is called to the need of additional legislation for the completion of the new hospital building. Lunatic Asylum at Northampton - Sept. 30, 1873, there were 433 inmates at Northampton Hospital, 163 have been admitted during the year; 125 were discharged, 25 died and there remain 476, of whom 225 are men and 251 women. Of the 125 discharged, 37 were recovered, 43 improved and 45 unimproved. Quite a no. of improvements in the management of the hospital and its interior arrangements have been made during the year...the superintendent urges the need for a State institution for inebriates, objects to the word "lunatic" as implying that a patient is moon-struck, and wants the institution called Hospital for Insane, believes that there should be a hospital for epileptics, and eventually another hospital for the insane, and argues in favor of small hospitals rather than large ones. The State Library - The Librarian of the State Library reports the receipts of the year as $2748.38; expenditures $2479.31; balance on hand $269.07. No. of volumes added during the year 1518; pamphlets 218. Agent for aiding discharged convicts - reports that he has assisted and advised 304 during the year, of whom 237 had been inmates of the State Prison. The whole expenditures amounted to $2982.79. Concerning the nationality and condition of the convicts the following facts are given: 145 were born of Irish parents, 93 of American parents, 32 of English parents, 4 Italians, 1 Portuguese, 13 from the British Provinces, 8 Scotch, 3 Germans, 1 cuban, 1 Greek, 1 from French West Indies, 1 Prussian, 1 French Canadian. 270 were intemperate when arrested; 34 say they were temperate; 281 could read and write; 23 could not write their own names. Average length of sentence of those who have been assisted during the year is 3 years 10 months 28 days and 12 hours. Lunatic Hospital at Taunton -...issue their 21st report, from which it appears that the additional buildings and improvements are nearly completed...The average annual cost of each patient is $200.04, weekly cost $3.85...The ratio of recoveries to discharges was 24.40. The number of admissions and of patients under treatment was larger than ever before...Workhouse at Bridgewater...the Inspectors give a favorable report of the condition of the institution and express the belief that intemperance is the chief cause of the constant supply of inmates...the whole no. of inmates, Oct. 1, 1874 was 347; admitted during the year, 488, died 61, remaining 375, of whom are 119 male prisoners, 188 female prisoners, 62 paupers, and 6 discharged prisoners...The reports of the physician and chaplain speak as encouragingly as could be expected of the sanitary and reformatory as parts of the institution. The diseased condition of many of the inmates, physically and morally, is of course a great impediment to successful labor in either of these departments. Almshouse at Tewksbury...the average weekly no. supported there has been 885, 69 more than last year. No. of deaths 314, 34 less than in the previous year. Average weekly cost, each inmate, $2, against $2.01 for 1873. Improvements made during the year have added to the comforts and apliances of the institution. The superintendent declares that the institution can no longer be considered a poorhouse, but that it is a combination of an asylum for the demented, an infirmty [i.e. infirmary] for the sick, and a nursery for the doomed and dying foundlings. This explains the rate of mortality. The superintendent believes that the institution needs a new hospital kitchen, more barn room, separate hospital accommodations for the sick insane, and a larger appropriation than hitherto. The no. of inmates at the beginning of the year was 752; admitted, 2686; discharged 2643; deaths, 314; births 52, present no. 805...The whole number of insane inmates is 319, of whom 225 are women, 94 men. The physician joins in the recommendation for a separate hospital building for them, and urges a remodeling of the building so that not more than 20 or 25 insane shall occupy the same room. Primary school at Monson of deaths was 18. The products of the farm for the year amounted to $2882.64. The year has been one of progress as regards educational and religious work. Commissioners on public lands...the whole amount received from sales of the lands up to date is $3934,432,47; total cost of filling, grading, etc. $1,615,166.06. The entire work of filling, etc. will probably be completed the present year, and there will then be ready for sale about 400,000 ft. of available land. The commissioners do not believe that the Commonwealth ought to be asked to meet any large portion of the expense of contemplated improvements in Parker Street and adjacent territory.

Subjects: Astronomy, Births, Children, Diseases, Drunkenness, Economics, Education, English (and England), Farmers & Farming / Flowers, French, Germans, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Households, Insanity, Irish, Italians, Latin America, Law and Lawyers, Libraries and Librarians, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Massachusetts, Medical Personnel, Names, Obituaries

Posted by stew - Mon, Oct 10, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 7, 1874
It was a Scotch woman who said that the butcher of her town only killed half a beast at a time; it was a Dutchman who said that a pig had no mark on his ears except a short tail; and it was a British

It was a Scotch woman who said that the butcher of her town only killed half a beast at a time; it was a Dutchman who said that a pig had no mark on his ears except a short tail; and it was a British magistrate who, being told by a vagabond that he was not married, replied: "That's a good thing for your wife". It was an English reporter who stated, at a meeting of the Ethnological society, there were exhibited "casts of the skull of an individual at different periods of adult life, to show the changes produced in 10 years". Though Dean Swift [i.e. Jonathon Swift] certainly mentioned two skulls preserved in Ireland, one of a person when he was a boy, and the other of the same person when he grew to be a man. It was a Portuguese mayor who enumerated among the marks by which the body of a drowned man might be identified when found, "a marked impediment of his speech". It was a Frenchman, the famous Carlino [from Dante's Inferno] who, contentedly laying his head upon a large stone jar for a pillow, replied to one who inquired if it was not rather hard, "Not at all, for I've stuffed it with hay". It was an American lecturer who said one evening, "Parents, your may have children, or if not, your daughters may have". And it was a German orator who, familiar with his subjects, exclaimed: "There is not a man, woman, or child in the house, who has arrived at the age of 50 years, but what have felt this truth thundering through their minds for centuries".

Subjects: Accident Victims, Animals / Reptiles, Archaeology, Charlemont (MA), Children, Clubs, English (and England), Family, French, Germans, Government, Irish, Jokes, Marriage and Elopement, Meat, Tramps, Women, Words, Scots and Scotland, Europe

Posted by stew - Sat, Oct 1, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 7, 1874
It seems that London had quite a scare a fortnight ago over a rumor that Queen Victoria was dangerously ill, and even dead, from an attack of apoplexy, but the story proved to have no foundation. The

It seems that London had quite a scare a fortnight ago over a rumor that Queen Victoria was dangerously ill, and even dead, from an attack of apoplexy, but the story proved to have no foundation. The fact that she has stayed so long on the Highlands this year, had led people to think she might not be quite as well as usual and lent probablity to the rumor of her sickness, but the court journals say her health is very good.

Subjects: Courts, Diseases, English (and England), Literature / Web Pages, Royalty, Women, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Sun, Jun 5, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
The infant son of the Duke of Edinburg [i.e. The infant son of the Duke of Edinburg [i.e. http://www.nationmas...ia/Duke-of-Edinburgh Duke of Edinburgh , Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, second son and fourth child of Queen Victoria] was baptized recently, receiving the name of Albert Alexander Alfred Earnest William [also known as http://www.scotlandr...rchives/r04.html#I95 Prince Alfred ]. The sponsors were Queen Victoria and the Emperor of Russia, who was represented by the Czar Bowitch, the German Emperor, represented by the Duke of Connaught [ http://www.regiments.../royals/1850artC.htm Prince Arthur ], the Prince of Wales, the crown princess of Germany, and the Duke of Saxe Coburg.

Subjects: Births, English (and England), Family, Germans, Religion, Royalty, Scots and Scotland, Russia

Posted by stew - Fri, Jun 3, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
(Winchester N.H.) The lumber business in and about this region is quite dull, but few orders being received from abroad. Amidst these discouragements, however, we have the pleasure to record that Mes

(Winchester N.H.) The lumber business in and about this region is quite dull, but few orders being received from abroad. Amidst these discouragements, however, we have the pleasure to record that Messrs. Abbott & Martin of Richmond are intending soon to start the pail works [also seen as a pail factory ] in the Crombie mill at http://www.nhliving....nchester/index.shtml "Scotland" , in the easterly part of this town, which shows good pluck, with the necessary backing. Glad of it, and we hope the enterprise will be a financial success (Keene Sentinel).

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Economics, Literature / Web Pages, New Hampshire, Trees, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Thu, Mar 17, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
(Halifax Vt.) Halifax sometimes enjoys itself like other towns. Wed. eve. Nov. 18 the Select School at Halifax Center, taught by Herbert C. Cllabee[?], closed, and his scholars held a levee at the ch

(Halifax Vt.) Halifax sometimes enjoys itself like other towns. Wed. eve. Nov. 18 the Select School at Halifax Center, taught by Herbert C. Cllabee[?], closed, and his scholars held a levee at the church in the eve. Some 300 persons attended. First was a song, "Welcome for all"; next a recitation by Clara Clark, http://sniff.numachi...ages/tiCURFWRIN.html "Curfew Must Not Ring Tonight" which was delivered in a style that showed the talent of the speaker; next a tableau, " The Orphan's Dream ", which had a look of the supernatural; a shadow pantomime, "The Dentist"; next a temperance song; next a tableau with 3 scenes: "Sunshine", "Cloudy", and "Stormy Weather"; next, recitation by Alice Putnam, "Memories of the Old Kitchen"; next pantomime, " The Henpecked Husband ", which instead of causing tears of sympathy for the trials of the husband, produced shouts of laughter; next a recitation by Hattie Burnett, " The School Girl of the Period "; song, http://www.assumptio...rsettlebillsong.html "Father Will Settle the Bill " by Miss Belle Morrison; declamation, "The New Church Organ" by Eddie Vaughn; next, tableau, "Look Not Upon the Wine When It is Red" ; song, "Dash the Wine Cup Away"; recitation, "Old Times and New" by Minnie Clark; song, "Merrily, Merrily Sing"; next, tableau, "Five Steps in the Life of a Drunkard"; first, temptation, yielding, second, The Drinking Party; On the Way Home; third, Helped Home, Dead Drunk' fourth, The Attack, the Result, the Arrest; fifth, the confinement, to the Execution; song, "Touch It Not"; next, tableau, "I'm Growing Old" by Hattie Burnett, who for a little girl 6 years of age, showed great talent for "wearing a long face"; next, colloquy, "Cook of the Period"; next a pantomime, "The Interrupted Wooing" which showed the trials and tribulations of "courting". The "Old Folk's Concert" we think the audience will not soon forget, the quaint costumes, manners and sayings of "Abijah", "Aunt Jerusha" and "Keziah", etc.; declamation by Franklin D. Fish, called "Catagorical Courtship [i.e. Categorical Courtship]; also declamation by Charlie Putnam, "Telling fortunes"; also a song, "Come and Take a Sail" by Belle Morrison; a tableau "Hope and Despair!"; a recitation by Minnie Clark, "Let Everyone Sweep Before Their Own Doors" , etc., the rest being tableaux, dialogues, songs, etc., ending by a closing song and farewell addressed by the teacher. After the exercises were over, the teacher and scholars went to the town hall, where they passed the time with plays, etc., until the http://scriptorium.l...7/a0057-4-72dpi.html "wee sma hours" . Thanks are due Miss Belle Morrison, Miss Alma Crosier, Mrs. Emma Niles and http://www.geocities.../g0000019.html#I0362 Mr. Alson Crosier , for their kindness in assisting in the musical department, and to the neighbors for their kindness in furnishing lights, etc., and to the West Halifax Dramatic Club for the use of their curtains (Scribe).

Subjects: Amusements, Beverages, Birds, Children, Clubs, Courtship, Dreams / Sleep, Drunkenness, Economics, Education, Executions and Executioners, Family, Fashion, Government, Households, Jokes, Light, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Medical Personnel, Music, Old Age, Orphans and Orphanages, Parties

Posted by stew - Sun, Mar 6, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
Considering al the circumstances, Ralph Waldo Emerson has good reason to be proud of the 500

Considering al the circumstances, http://www.virtualol...LPHWALDOEMERSON.ORG/ Ralph Waldo Emerson has good reason to be proud of the 500 votes which the students of the University of Glasgow gave him for the position of lord rector . The professors seem to have thought it would be all day with the university if Mr. Emerson was elected, and so they did what electioneering they could for Mr. Disraeli, and managed to get him 200 more votes than were cast for his American competitor.

Subjects: Education, Elections, Politics, Royalty, Work, Scots and Scotland

Posted by stew - Mon, Jan 24, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Tuesday, November 10, 1874
(Hawley) James Egbert Hosford of Chicago has been spending a year in Europe and the British Isles, chiefly for the study of architecture. On his return he landed at Boston Oct. 29, and on his homewar

(Hawley) James Egbert Hosford of Chicago has been spending a year in Europe and the British Isles, chiefly for the study of architecture. On his return he landed at Boston Oct. 29, and on his homeward journey passed a couple of days in Hawley. By invitation he consented to give the people here some account of his travels abroad. Starting from New York, he took us along with him across the Atlantic, to England, Scotland, and Ireland; and thence to the continent to Holland, Denmark, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and France; and back again to England, and then back again across the stormy Atlantic, being 21 days on the passage. For an hour and 3/4 he entertained us in a familiar way with descriptions of men and things that he had seen. And so lifelike was his representation that we seemed to be brought face to face with them. MR. H. is yet a young man, and we shall expect well of him in his profession which he has chosen.

Subjects: Amusements, Boston (MA), Charlemont (MA), Education, English (and England), French, Germans, Irish, Italians, Transportation, Weather, Scots and Scotland, Hawley (MA), Europe, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 16, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Tuesday, November 10, 1874
The Pope expelled by the Freemasons

The http://freemasonry.b...pius_ix/pius_ix.html Pope expelled by the Freemasons - At the recent meeting of the Grand Lodge of Masons, Scottish Rite of the Orient, of Palermo, Italy, held in that city on the 27th of March, Matai Ferretti [ Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti ], says the English Masonic News, was expelled from the order for violating his vows and for perjury. Mastai Ferretti is no other person than Pius IX, Pope of Rome. The decree of the Lodge at Palermo is published in the official paper of the Order of Freemasons at Cologne, Germany, and dated March 27. It is preceded by the minutes of the lodge on which Mastai Ferretti, in 1826, was initiated into the order under the old Scottish rite. the decree reads as follows: "A man named Mastai Ferretti, who received the baptism of Freemasonry, and solemnly pledged his love and fellowship, and who afterward was crowned Pope, and King, under the title of Pio Nono, has now cursed his former brethren and excommunicated all members of the Order of Freemasons. Therefore, said Mastai Ferretti is herewith, by the decree of the Grand Lodge of the Orient, Palermo, expelled from the order for perjury". The charges against Mastai Ferretti were first preferred in his lodge at Palermo in 1865, and notifications and copy thereof sent to Rome, with a request to attend the Lodge for the purpose of his vindication. To this the Pope made no reply, and for divers reasons the charges were not pressed, until the Pope urged the clergy of Brazil to aggressive measures against the Freemasons of that country. Then the charges were pressed, and the second and third notification sent, and after a formal trial, a degree of expulsion was entered, and ordered to be published. The decree bears the signature of http://www.picturehi...ind/p/9201/mcms.html Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy , Grand Master of the Orient of Italy.

Subjects: Clubs, Connecticut, English (and England), Freemasonry, Germans, History, Italians, Latin America, Literature / Web Pages, Religion, Royalty, Words, Scots and Scotland

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