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Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics

Revised Jan. 10, 2009

Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to  pull up all articles mentioning Athol.

The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births   That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!

ACCIDENT VICTIMS     Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.

     Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes.

   One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here.

   Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.

AMUSEMENTS  is kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.

ANIMALS / REPTILES  From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.

ARABS  Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s.

  is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.

ARCHITECTURE / CONSTRUCTION  Styles of buildings, as well as the building of houses, larger buildings, bridges, train tracks, etc.

ART    contains the sublime, and the mundane. Famous statues and portraits are always being commissioned. It was also during this time period that art classes began to be required in the schools.


    Post Lincoln.

ASTRONOMY   Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.


   includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc.

   Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.



   Anything drinkable. Includes water, milk, soda, coffee, tea, cider, as well as beer, liquor, etc.

BICYCLES AND BICYCLING - The craze hasn’t hit yet.  When it does, though, we’re on top of it!

BIRDS   All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird].

   A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc.

   Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.


   Free bridges, toll bridges, railroad bridges, etc.

   Any new business, old business, capitalist venture, etc. is covered.

    Women are people too!


CANALS - past their heydey (1830’s and 40’s) but still around and of interest.

CARICATURES AND CARTOONS - Haven’t started yet but I am awaiting them with great anticipation.


CHARITY   One of the main reasons fraternal clubs and organizations came into being.


  Only the very worst cases ever make it into print.

CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.

CHINA AND CHINESE   None locally as yet, but plenty of interest in the national news.

CIRCUS - One of my favorite sections. The hype, the sound, the fun! The ads are exceptional.

CLUBS   There are clubs for everything; they serve a major community function. Remember, no TV’s, no radios, etc.




CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work.

   Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.


- Soaps, hairdyes, perfumes, face creams, etc.

COURTS  One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity.

- The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well.

- Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness.

- Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].

CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band].

is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-).

- Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.

DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.


- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.

DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em.

- the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.

DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here.

- From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.



ECONOMICS - Not one of my favorite subjects, but you will find here any articles about money, banks, every day economics, etc.

- a special place for UMass, then the Agricultural College.

ELECTIONS - only the major ones.

EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - New England still pretty unhomogenous, but there are sections about German, Chinese and Irish migrations.

- Still a strong connection to the homeland.


ETIQUETTE - Always a topic of interest for the Victorians.


EXECUTIONS AND EXECUTIONERS - A morbid but interesting section.

EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.

EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.

FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.

FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.

FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers.

- A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.

FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.

FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.

FLOODS - Also quite prevalent.

FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.

FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section.

- Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc.

- Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".

GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.

GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.

GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.

GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section.

- one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.

GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.


GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure.

- usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.



GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.

HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA)    A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).

HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc.



HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.

HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.

HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.

HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet.

is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig".

- I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.

HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes.

is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.

HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.

ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.




















Jun 30, 2022
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.

Article Archives: Articles: Recycled Products

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 22, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Hoosac Tunnel

Hoosac Tunnel - The enlargement of the little tunnel, to meet the requirements of the increased travel, was begun Mar. 1, and it is hoped to finish the work in two months’ more. The objects of the undertaking are to lower the grade 8 ft., to widen the roadway so as to accommodate two tracks, and to alter the direction in order to lessen the sharp curves of the road at both approaches.

The new tracks will curve slightly through the tunnel, and the curves at the entrances will be reduced. The new width at the level of the tracks will be 24 ft. B.N. Farren took the contract for the whole job and sublet the work of deepening, which requires an excavation of 10 ft., to Michael Ryan of New York. Mr. Ryan is now setting an 8 horse power steam engine and will begin running it for hoisting and for the steam drill next week.

Mica powder is used in the sides and roof, and glycerine in the bottom. The debris is taken seven or eight miles down the road and used for rip rapping. The rock is mica slate and needs no arching.

The Governor and Council are about closing another contract with B.N. Farren to continue the work on the big tunnel under the appropriations of the last Legislature. The old and new contracts amount together to about $600,000. The work is progressing at the rate of about 275 feet a month, and consists of enlarging, both in width and height, and arching with brick where the stone is soft and liable to fall.

Mr. Farren found the bore 24 ft. wide and 20 ft. high, and leaves it 30 ft. wide and 23 high. The work will probably be done in about a year from now, it being expected that the new appropriation will finish it up...

[One more long article follows, containing reports on budget items].

Subjects: Economics, Government, Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Horses, Law and Lawyers, Recycled Products, Trains, Transportation, Work, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 4, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
Shelburne Falls

(Shelburne Falls) We have received from Mrs. Jerusha King of Hawley a very ancient barrel made from a hollow tree. It was made by Thomas King in 1712 and was used for holding the first corn raised in the town. It holds just 8 bushels.

Subjects: Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Food, History, Museums, Recycled Products, Shelburne and Shelburne Falls (MA), Trees, Women, Hawley (MA)

Posted by stew - Sat, Jan 17, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 23, 1875

Our village has been very quiet and lifeless of late. E.L. Walker has again opened a harness store at his old stand in the Town Hall. The furniture business seems determined to maintain its existence here in spite of reverses. Richardson & Demond continue to buy, fit up and sell chamber sets, giving employment to a few hands. J.M. Clapp is at work in Lawrence's old mill, making small black walnut wares, tables, etc.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Business Enterprises, Furniture, Government, Horses, Montague (MA), Recycled Products, Sales, Trees, Vendors and Purchasers, Work

Posted by stew - Thu, Dec 4, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 5, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

C.N. Reed, who is full of life and enterprise in his business, has fitted up an excellent fountain in his store, which is not only an ornamental affair but very useful. Around its base a zinc-lined basin is arranged to receive the spray, in which are placed cucumbers, lettuce, radishes and other vegetables, which are preserved by the cool water in an excellent condition. It is a good thing [and far ahead of its time]!

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Food, Greenfield (MA), Recycled Products

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 21, 1875

Listar, one of the wealthiest manufacturers of England, spent many years and over a million of money in search of a way to utilize silk rags, but finally succeeded and is now making lots of money, employing 4000 workmen in a factory that cost nearly $3,000,000. [Here's one that I was unable to verify].

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Economics, English (and England), Recycled Products, Rich People, Work

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

It has been said that even the ingenuity of the Yankees could never find a useful purpose for old hoop skirts, but we passed a cornfield the other day, where a dozen or more of these cast off contrivances of a played out fashion were hung up for scare crows, and we dare say the troublesome birds were kept at a safe distance.

Subjects: Beverages, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fashion, Food, Greenfield (MA), Jokes, Recycled Products, Clothing

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875

Danforth Putnam is making prep rations to erect a new brick block on the present site of his old block on the corner.

Subjects: Orange (MA), Recycled Products, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 31, 1875
Hampshire County items

William Dickinson is building an elegant house on Hatfield Street, on the site of his old home, which he has removed to a neighboring lot to fit up for tenements.

Subjects: Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Households, Recycled Products, Roads, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 31, 1875
News about town: Greenfield items

Miss Nancy Simonds is not remodeling her house exactly, but has moved it back, and will occupy it while a new one is being built upon the old site.

Subjects: Greenfield (MA), Households, Recycled Products, Women, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 31, 1875

The new ferry boat, built by Messrs. John A. Fisher and George A. Long of Northfield for Munn's Ferry, was launched on Fri. last, and on Sat. she was taken to her place of destination and the occasion was one of pleasure and amusement to a goodly number of "Young America", who availed themselves of the pleasure of a pleasant boat ride. And with the view to make up the quota of song and sentiment, the following lines were contributed: "Old Northfield, in her pride may boast / Princess of the valley / And of her artisans, an host / O, live men, when they rally / Chorus - Yankee Doodle, keep it up, Yankee Doodle Dandy, etc. / We quote the men who built this boat / Their energetic labors / And how they've set their craft afloat / Just to please their neighbors / Chorus / Her cradle was a grove of pines / Twas there her planks were nestled / Twas there John made her first chalk lines / And George her tree-nails trestled / Chorus / Though minus stern, she has two stems / Alias, aprons, two / And he that has to do with them / Has yeoman's work to do / Chorus / Some older heads might here take note / How on the tide she skims / How like a swan the tide she floats / Or like a duck she swims / Chorus / So now, while freighted as she is / With beau and belle so cheery / The chance, forsooth, of her or his / Is anything but dreary / Chorus / And may she last till doom's day comes / And be a bonny boat then / And may our daughters, daughters' sons / Be there among the crowd then / Chorus / And may each lad and lass so gay / Always be as merry / And e'en recall this happy day / When crossing o'er the ferry. J.C.B., Northfield, Mass., May 24, 1875.

Subjects: Amusements, Birds, Children, Family, Music, Northfield (MA), Poetry, Recycled Products, Roads, Royalty, Transportation, Trees, Work, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 24, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

The Bakery on Chapman Street is being remodeled into a very neat cottage, the Bakery having been removed to the building in the rear.

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Food, Greenfield (MA), Recycled Products, Roads, Architecture / Construction

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875

The Fitchburg Railroad, who owns the store property recently vacated by W.G. Walkup & Co. will convert the same into tenements.

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Erving (MA), Households, Recycled Products, Stores, Retail, Trains

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875
There are eight metals more valuable than gold

Indium, vandium, ruthenium, rhodium, palladium, uranium, somium and iridium. None of them are found in quantity, nor are they useful in the arts like gold and silver; indium and vanadium are 8 times more valuable than gold. [I think uranium is going to surprise them].

Subjects: Economics, Jokes, Mines and Mineral Resources, Recycled Products, Science, Jewelry / Gold / Silver / Treasure

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News about home (Greenfield)

The Lady Washington party last Thurs. at Washington Hall, under the auspices of the ladies of the Unitarian Church, was a very pleasant affair, and attracted a goodly number of our citizens. An excellent supper was provided, and the tables were well patronized. Lady Washington, Mrs. J. Keith, held a reception at the upper end of the hall. She was richly attired in a light silk, cut with a long court train, and did the honors of the occasion with the queenly grace that distinguished the wife of our first President.

/ George Washington was personated by W.D. Lucy, arrayed in a dark costume with white wig. Among those who came to do homage to this Republican Court were a number of ladies and gentlemen of the olden time, arrayed in a variety of rich and showy toilets. Many of the dresses were silks that had done duty at weddings half and even a century ago, and since, treasured as precious heirlooms, but those not fortunate enough to possess these family relics improvised substitutes for the occasion, which, if they would not bear inspection in daylight, were in many instances brilliant and striking, and served the desired purpose very well.

/ The gentlemen were caparisoned in a variety of costumes, one 'red coat' even, being tolerated in the throng. About 8 o'clock the dancing was preceded by a grand march, when the ancient toilets could be seen to good advantage. The floor was well taken up by the followers of Terpsichore, who accompanied the excellent music of the Orange Quadrille Band, through many lively measures, including the "Old Virginia Reel". Seldom has Greenfield had a more successful party, and those who planned and executed the preliminaries deserve great credit. The receipts were $161, but money making was not the special object of the occasion. [Some lovely words were used in this article, like 'personated' and 'caparisoned', but it still strikes me odd when older folks are referred to as 'ancient toilets' ;-) ).

Subjects: Amusements, Barber / Hair, Beverages, Dance, Economics, English (and England), Fashion, Food, Furniture, Government, Greenfield (MA), History, Jokes, Marriage and Elopement, Music, Old Age, Orange (MA), Outhouses, Parties, Politics, Recycled Products, Religion, Royalty, Women, Words

Posted by stew - Wed, Oct 4, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
Where they come from

Where they come from - by Olive Thorne [the pen name of Harriet Mann Miller ]. You’ll be shocked, I fear, when I tell you that your doll came out of a rag bag; her curls from the back of a goat, and her elegant china tea set out of a small hole. But what will you say when I tell you that your jelly is made out of old boots, and your delightful perfumery from horrid smelling coal tars. You don’t own all the made over things in the family, either.

Johnny’s new beaver cloth overcoat was worn out on the back of a beggar, and perhaps even played the part of a scarecrow in some farmyard, before it went into the rag bag and began to come up in the world again; and the http://www.adrynight...20Physiology129.html "Table Gelatin" which everyone in the family likes to eat, once did duty as skin on the back of a rat. The pearl of your paper knife lined the shell house of a modest little creature at the bottom of the sea, while mamma’s shell comb was the comfortable roof over a Sea Tortoise.

Your guitar strings were indispensable to the internal comfort of some poor pussy or unfortunate sheep, and your piano would be but a dumb wooden box, without some of the same internal arrangements of a horse. Your nice hair brush first saw the light on the skin of a hog, and its pretty back of papier mache came out of the ragman’s bag. The crinoline that stiffens the bottoms of ladies’ dresses was used originally to switch the flies from the back of a horse, and the mattress on which you sleep so comfortably served the same use before it fell into the manufacturer’s hands.

Your dainty toilet soap - dear me, how can I tell you! - was made of dead cats and dogs, found in the streets, and the "bitter almonds" which so delightfully flavors your candy came from the horrible smelling coal tar, while the choicest are as deliciously flavored with -- putrid cheese. The scent hairs of that offensive creature, the skunk, furnish some desirable additions to the toilet table, used for removing freckles and tan, and the dreadful stuff left in drains is changed into a fashionable toilet article, and adorns the face of ladies. To be sure these disagreeable materials have some pretty rough handling before they come out in their new colors. The old boots, for instance. They do not step from the gutter into the jelly kettle by any means. They go through a long process of washing and soaking in lye and smoking with sulphur, and steaming and boiling, before they come out white and delicate, and fit for the table. T

he coal tar to grow into perfumery goes through the hands of chemists, who treat it with I don’t know what dreadful chemical processes, and the dead dogs and cats are boiled to extract the grease, purified, whitened and perfumed before we use them as a soap. The doll whose ancestors inhabited a rag man’s den endured unheard of operations of washing, soaking, bleaching, chopping, molding, and so forth, before she took her place in the nursery to amuse the little folks, and the clay from the mud hole was washed and patted and whitened and kneaded, and baked and glazed before it ventured to call itself china, and take its place on the tea table.

The horse tails that stiffen the dresses and stuff our mattresses are washed, and soaked, and boiled and baked before we use them, and the intestines which make the voice of guitar and piano went through long processes of scraping, soaking in lye, and washing, before they were drawn out into the fine, tough strings you are familiar with. The rat skin which we eat under the name of gelatin first flourished as the thumb of a kid glove, and after being worn out in that capacity went through ever so many purifying processes, somewhat as the old boots did, before it ended on our table.

Nearly all the things that we throw away in [?] or even in our drains - the most disgusting things you can think of - are valuable, and after going through the hands of skilled workmen, come out in new shapes and have new fields of usefulness. The feats of old fashioned fairies, who turned pumpkins into carriages, and shabby old gowns into elegant robes, do not compare with these wonders performed in our work shops by rough looking men in shirt sleeves and white aprons.

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Barber / Hair, Beverages, Business Enterprises, Charlemont (MA), Children, Chinese, Coal, Conservation of Natural Resources, Cosmetics, Curiosities and Wonders, Dreams / Sleep, Economics, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fashion, Fishes and Fishing, Food, French, Furniture, Garbage, Horses, Households, Insects, Light

Posted by stew - Tue, Oct 3, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
(Greenfield) A second hand sleigh for sale cheap. L. Merriam.

(Greenfield) A second hand sleigh for sale cheap. L. Merriam.

Subjects: Advertising, Economics, Greenfield (MA), Recycled Products, Sales, Transportation

Posted by stew - Mon, Aug 28, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
(Hoosac Tunnel) B.N. Farren will at once begin drawing gravel from the west side of the mountain to ballast the newly laid track in the tunnel. The engine to be used on the gravel train is the old lo

(Hoosac Tunnel) B.N. Farren will at once begin drawing gravel from the west side of the mountain to ballast the newly laid track in the tunnel. The engine to be used on the gravel train is the old locomotive Deerfield, which Mr. Farren purchased of the Connecticut River Railroad, and has furnished with a new boiler. It was taken to the tunnel station Fri. the 12th.

Subjects: Deerfield (MA), Hoosac Tunnel (MA), Recycled Products, Trains, Vendors and Purchasers

Posted by stew - Fri, Apr 28, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
A lecturer, wishing to explain to a little girl how a lobster casts his shell when he has outgrown it, said: "What do you do when you have outgrown your own clothes? You throw them aside, don't you?

A lecturer, wishing to explain to a little girl how a lobster casts his shell when he has outgrown it, said: "What do you do when you have outgrown your own clothes? You throw them aside, don’t you?" "Oh no" replied the little one, "we let out the tucks".

Subjects: Children, Fishes and Fishing, Jokes, Poor, Recycled Products, Women, Work, Clothing

Posted by stew - Sun, Feb 12, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875

Manure - Every farm has the material, if rightly used, to vastly improve its capability to improve crops if not to make it as fertile as need be; and money is often expended for commercial fertilizers, when one half used in working on the farm would do more good to the present crops, and have a more lasting benefit. Every pig kept till 9 months old, if rightly supplied with material, would make 5 cords of valuable manure, which would pay his keeping and fatten him so that his pork would be clear gain. Every well fed cow, if all her droppings and urine are saved and composted with suitable absorbents, will during the year make 8 cords, with the labor of good brains and elbow grease. And the sink slop and waste materials of the house, with night soil and other offensive, decaying materials, would if properly composted, make 10 cords of valuable manure for corn or grapes. Then muck, leaves and the deposits in fence corners and hollows would furnish much, and weeds, too! rich in everything required by plants, if composted before the seeds ripen, would return what they take from the soil and also from the atmosphere, thus increasing the richness of the soil, instead of filling it with seed to be battled with for several years. If farmers would save and increase their manure heaps on the farm there would not be so much complaint about worthless commercial fertilizers (Utility).

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Economics, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Food, Furniture, Households, Meat, Outhouses, Recycled Products, Trees

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 29, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 11, 1875
More Josh Billings

Hotels - by Josh Billings . This seems tew be the whole thing and it is the whole thing in most cases. You will diskover the following deskription a mild one ov about 9 hotels, out ov 10 between the Atlantik and Pacifick Oshuns, akross the United States in a straight line. Your room is 13 foot 6 inches by 9 foot 7 inches parellogramly. It being court week (as usual) all the good rooms are employed by the lawyers and judges. Your room is on the uttermost floor. The carpet iz ingrain - ingrained with the dust ov http://sniff.numachi...LCRN;ttMUSSLCRN.html kerosene ile and ink spots ov four generashuns. There is two pegs in the room tew hitch coats onto; one ov them broken oph, and the other pulled out, and missing. The buro has three legs and one brick. The glass tew the buro swings on two pivots, which have lost their grip. There is one towel on the rack, thin, but wet. The soap is as tough tew wear as a whet stone. The soap is scented with cinamin ile, and varigated with spots. There iz three chairs, http://basketweaving...eat_weaving_site.htm kane setters ; one is a rocker, and all three are busted. There is a match box, empty. There is no kurtin to the windo, and there don’t want to be enny; yu kan’t see out, and who kan see in? The bell rope iz cum oph about 6 inches this side of the ceiling. The bed iz a modern slat bottom with two mattresses, one cotton and one http://www.chicagohi...ody/Sheet/sheet2.htm husk , and both harder and about as thick as a sea biskitt . You enter the bed sideways, and kan feel every slat at once as easy as you could the ribs ov a gridiron. Your bed iz inhabited. You sleep sum, but role over a good deal. For breakfast you have a gong and rhy coffee too kold tew melt butter, fride potatoze which resemble the chips a two inch augur makes in its journey through an oak log. Bread solid; beefstake about as thick as a blister, and az tuff az a hound’s ear. Table covered with plates, and a few scared to death pickles on one ov them and 6 fly indorsed crackers on another. A pewterinktom castor with three bottles in it, one without any mustard and one with two inches ov drowned flies and vinegar in it. Servant gall, with hoops on, hangs round you earnestly, and wants tew know if you will take another cup ov coffee. Yu say "No mom, I thank you" and push back your chair. You haven’t eat enough to pay for pikking your teeth. I am about as self konsalted as it will do for any man tew be and not crack open, but I never yet konsaited that I could keep a hotel. I had rather be a highwayman than tew be sum landlords I hav visited with. There are hotels that are a joy upon earth, whare a man pays hiz bill as cheerful az he did the person who married him; where you kan’t find the landlord unless yu hunt in the kitchen; where servants glide around like angels ov mercy; where the beds fit a man’s back like the feathers of a goose, and where the vittles taste just az tho your wife or your mother had fried em. Theze kind of hotels ought to be built on wheels and travel around the kuntry. They are az phull ov real comfort az a Thanksgiving pudding; but alass, yes, alass! they are az unplenty az double-yolked eggs.

Subjects: Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Beverages, Business Enterprises, Charlemont (MA), Courts, Criminals, Dreams / Sleep, Etiquette, Food, Furniture, Glass / Windows, Hotels, Insects, Jokes, Law and Lawyers, Lost and Found, Marriage and Elopement, Meat, Natural Resources, Pottery / Crockery, Recycled Products, Robbers and Outlaws, Spelling, Trees

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 19, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 28, 1874
(Greenfield) As will be seen in a special notice elsewhere, Mr. Babbitt, the Fitchburg hair dealer, will visit Greenfield next week, taking a room

(Greenfield) As will be seen in a special notice elsewhere, Mr. Babbitt, the Fitchburg hair dealer , will visit Greenfield next week, taking a room in Pond's Block.

Subjects: Advertising, Barber / Hair, Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Greenfield (MA), Recycled Products, Sales

Posted by stew - Tue, Nov 29, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 21, 1874
(Wilmington Vt.) George S. Clark has sold his house (the old Baptist church) to F.W. Jones and is going on to the Bucklin farm in Halifax

(Wilmington Vt.) George S. Clark has sold his house (the old Baptist church) to F.W. Jones and is going on to the Bucklin farm in Halifax, which was recently purchased by S.B. Barnard of this place.

Subjects: Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Households, Recycled Products, Religion, Sales, Vendors and Purchasers, Vermont

Posted by stew - Sat, Oct 22, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 14, 1874
(Whitingham Vt.) Samuel Winn Jr. and William H. Lynde have exchanged places, and are to take possession of them next spring.

(Whitingham Vt.) Samuel Winn Jr. and William H. Lynde have exchanged places, and are to take possession of them next spring.

Subjects: Recycled Products, Vendors and Purchasers, Vermont

Posted by stew - Mon, Oct 10, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 7, 1874
A ten thousand dollar girl

A ten thousand dollar girl - On a certain day on a Pennsylvania railroad, a belle of a thriving Pennsylvania town, the daughter of a wealthy lumber merchant, was traveling in the same car with a shrewd old citizen of her native town, and an agreeable young gentleman from the West, who tells the story. The latter had been talking to the belle, but as night drew on and the young lady became drowsy, he gave up his seat to her and placed himself beside the somewhat cynical Pennsylvanian. The latter began conversation by pointing to a high mountain past which they were whirling, and said: "You see that mountain? Six or eight years ago it was covered with as fine a forest as ever grew, and worth $10,000 and upward. Now, without a tree, covered with stumps, the land is scarcely worth a continental. The net produce of that mountain lies over there in that seat", and he pointed to the recumbent belle: "That is my calculation. It has just absorbed all of that lumber, which her father owned, to raise and educate the girl, pay for her clothes and jewelry, bring her out in society and maintain her there. Some of you young men, if you were given your choice between the mountain yonder as it now stands, and the net produce on that seat would take the net produce, but as for me, give me the stumps".

Subjects: Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Dreams / Sleep, Economics, Education, Family, Fashion, Furniture, Natural Resources, Recycled Products, Rich People, Trains, Transportation, Trees, Women, Jewelry / Gold / Silver / Treasure, Clothing

Posted by stew - Sat, Mar 12, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
(Greenfield) Richardson's new block, altered from the old Willard house, is fast approaching completion, and some notice of the improvements that have so thoroughly transformed the old tenement hous

(Greenfield) Richardson’s new block, altered from the old Willard house, is fast approaching completion, and some notice of the improvements that have so thoroughly transformed the old tenement house into a fine appearing block for business purposes, may be of interest to our readers. By extending the front out to the line of the street, he has obtained two excellent stores. Mr. B. takes the one on the east side for his business. The well lighted front is connected with an ice cream room in the rear by folding doors, the two rooms measuring 36 x 14 1/2 ft, and attached is an extensive pantry, while an elevator is constructed to bring up the ice cream and refreshments from the kitchen below. The store and hall are warmed by one of Lawson’s Diamond furnaces, and a better arranged suit of rooms for the purpose to which they are to be devoted, it would be hard to find. Mr. Richardson has a large back sitting room for his family on this floor, while the store on the west side measures 89 x 14 1/2 ft., a convenient and pleasant place for some light business, such as a ladies’ furnishing store. The extensive arrangements for kitchen and work rooms in the basement are worthy of special mention. By excavating and grading the ground away in the rear (over 1000 two horse loads of loam have been taken out, much valuable room has been gained. Mr. Richardson has in this basement one of Robbins’ patent ovens measuring 8 x 9 ft., an improved arrangement for baking purposes. There is a large kitchen and family dining room, a room for making ice cream, and a large ice room with a pantry attached. Hot and cold water is carried through these rooms, and every convenience needed for the extensive business has been added. The upper floors have been greatly altered and improved. Thee are 18 rooms in the block, besides the stores and wings. The latter remain as they were before. Besides the rooms occupied by Mr. R’s family, are several that he proposes to let singly or in suits. He has fitted up a bath room, and has piped the building for gas. The alterations have been under the direction of Philip Traver, and will cost some $4000, making the entire cost of the block some $14,000. Mr. Richardson intends to occupy his new establishment soon after the first of December.

Subjects: Accidents, Ashfield (MA), Business Enterprises, Charlemont (MA), Family, Fires, Food, Greenfield (MA), Horses, Households, Light, Natural Resources, Recycled Products, Robbers and Outlaws, Stores, Retail, Women, Work, Architecture / Construction, Jewelry / Gold / Silver / Treasure

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