Article Archives: Articles - Franklin County (MA) News Archive
Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics
Revised Jan. 10, 2009
Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to pull up all articles mentioning Athol.
The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!
ACCIDENT VICTIMS Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.
ACCIDENTS Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes. ADVERTISING One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here. AFRICAN AMERICANS / BLACKS Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.
AMUSEMENTSis kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.
ANIMALS / REPTILES From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.
ARABS Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s. ARCHAEOLOGY is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.
ASTRONOMY Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.
ATHOL, MA BARBER / HAIR includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc. BARS (DRINKING ESTABLISHMENTS) Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.
BIRDS All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird]. BIRTH CONTROL A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc. BIRTHS Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.
CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.
CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work. CONTESTS Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.
COURTS One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity. COURTSHIP - The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well. CRIME - Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness. CRIMINALS - Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].
CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band]. CURIOSITIES AND WONDERS is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-). CUTLERY AND CUTLERY TRADE - Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.
DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.
DEERFIELD, MA DISASTERS- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.
DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em. DIVORCE - the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.
DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here. DRUG ABUSE - From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.
EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.
EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.
FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.
FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.
FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers. FASHION - A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.
FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.
FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.
FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.
FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section. FRENCH - Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc. FURNITURE - Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".
GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.
GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.
GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.
GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section. GEOGRAPHY - one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.
GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.
GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure. GOVERNMENT - usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.
GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.
HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA) A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).
HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc. HAWLEY (MA)
HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.
HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.
HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.
HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet. HOOSAC TUNNEL (MA) is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig". HORSES - I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.
HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes. HOUSEHOLDS is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.
HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.
ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.
To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.
Article Archives: Articles: Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Assn
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875
Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875 - Fellow citizens: 200 years ago an event occurred on this spot, which on account of its significance and its touching details, has passed into that long heroic line over which the mind of man is compelled to pause and ponder...At the name of Bloody Brook the men, women, and children of New England started and held their breath in horror, in that primeval time when the sickening tidings were borne on the wings of the wind as it were from hamlet to hamlet...
The sad event of the 18th of September 1675, calls upon us still to remember the trials through which our fathers passed and to rejoice over that fraternal spirit which bound them together in their day of sorrow, and watered the soil of this charming valley with the choicest blood of the sons of Essex. I stand on ground made sacred to you by the sacrifices of your hardy and devoted progenitors; but I meet here the names of Lothrop and Stevens and Hobbs and Manning and Dodge and Kimball and Trask and Tufts and Mudge and Pickering, of the three-score braves who died that you might possess this goodly land and these pleasant homes...
How would they who were familiar with the cruel warfare of the savage; whose ears had heard the shrieks of the tortured mother mingling with the groans of her dying child, and whose eyes had beheld her fear, her patience and her despair; whose highway was an Indian trail, and whose home was a frontier block-house - how would they rejoice over these sunny fields, these laughing harvests, these busy towns, these tasteful homes, this cultivated landscape adorned with these institutions of learning and religion; and how would they count their own sufferings but small when compared with the manifold blessings which have descended upon the spot made sacred with their blood?
...Deerfield two centuries ago, was on the very confines of civilization - one of the outposts of a feeble Christian people, who had hardly a foothold on this continent, and between whom and the strongholds of power and wealth and learning, rolled 3000 miles of stormy and almost unknown sea. The fate of a great and wide spread empire rested then in the hands of a few colonists scattered along the Atlantic seaboard, divided in interests and tastes, perishing continually from exposure and want, not all actuated by the highest motives, but all recognizing, as by an unerring instinct, the fundamental principle out of which was to grow the American government, and all in danger of being exterminated at any time by the "pestilence which walketh in darkness and the destruction which wasteth at noonday".
Scattered up and down the great extent of territory stretching from the Passamaquoddy Bay to the capes of Florida were but about 200,000 souls, of whom Massachusetts, with Plymouth and Maine, may have had 44,000; New Hampshire and Rhode Island, with Providence each 6000; Connecticut from 17,000 to 20,000; that is, all New England, 75,000...
These people had come largely from that "Germanic race most famed for the love of personal independence". They were not men of high estate, but they were men who possessed an inherent love of land, with all the individual honor and freedom which go along with it...
Of one colony said "Spotswood, a royalist, a High churchman, a traveler", "I have observed here less swearing and profaneness, less drunkenness and debauchery, less uncharitable feuds and animosities, and less knaverys and villanys than in any part of the world where my lot has been"...
In all their customs they were obliged to exercise the utmost simplicity and they voluntarily regulated their conduct by those formal rules, which, in their day, constituted the Puritan’s guide through the world. We are told, as an illustraton of their character and manners, that by the laws of the Plymouth Colony, in 1651, "dancing at weddings was forbidden". In 1660, one William Walker was imprisoned one month for courting "a maid without the leave of her parents".
In 1675, because "there is manifest pride appearing in our streets", the "wearing of long hair or periwigs", and so "superstitious ribands, used to tie up and decorate the hair were forbidden under severe penalty"; the keeping of Christmas was also forbidden "because it was a popish custom". In 1677 an act was passed "to prevent the profaneness of turning the back upon the public worship before it was finished and the blessing pronounced".
Towns were directed to erect a cage near the meeting house, and in all this all offenders against the sanctity of the Sabbath were confined. At the same time children were directed to be placed in a particular part of the meeting house, apart by themselves, and tything-men were ordered to be chosen, whose duty it shall be to take care of them. So strict were they in their observance of the Sabbath that "John Atherton, a soldier of Col. Tyng’s Company", was fined 40 shillings for wetting a piece of an old hat to put into his shoes, which chafed his feet on the march; and those who neglected to attend meeting for 3 months were publicly whipped.
Even in Harvard College students were whipped for gross offenses in the Chapel, in presence of students and professors, and prayers were had before and after the infliction of the punishment. As the settlers of Deerfield are described as being of "sober and orderly conversation", we may suppose that these laws and customs were here rigidly enforced.
[Here follows a section on "subsistence and diet of your ancestors". Also talks about how they were good farmers, fishermen and readers]...
...Possessed evidently of a common origin, for "between the Indians of Florida and Canada the difference was scarcely perceptible", they were divided into tribes, which differed from each other mainly in their fighting capacity, and the vigor with which they roamed from place to place; and they were liable at any time to be swept off by disease, or exterminated by war, or absorbed by other and more powerful tribes.
In language, the North American Indian was limited by the material world, an abstract idea finding no birthplace in his brain and no expression on his tongue. "In marriage the Indian abhorred restraint, and from Florida to the S. Lawrence polygamy was permitted". Divorce meant merely desertion. The wife was a slave. Domestic government was unknown. The Indian youth grew up a warrior, adorned with vermilion and eagle’s feather, as fleet of foot as the deer, and as tolerant of hunger as the wolf; the Indian girl grew up a squaw, degraded and squalid and servile.
A rude agriculture, resulting in a weedy corn crop, and a few squashes and beans, was the Indian’s, or rather the Indian woman’s occupation; he had neither trade nor manufactures. "There can be no society without government; but among the Indian tribes on the soil of our republic, there was not only no written law - there was no traditionary [sic] expression of law; government rested on opinion and usage and the motives to the usage were never imbodied [sic] in language; they gained utterance only in the fact, and power only from opinion...
The Indian had a government without laws; a State without institutions; a church without faith, or creed, or head; a town without schoohouse or meeting house; a punitive system without jails or gibbets; a history based on tradition; a religion based on superstition; he was ignorant of the ownership of land; and knew nothing of a system of inheritance.
As in peace he was an idler - so in war he was a marauder. An organized army was to him unknown. He fought in small bands, seldom over 50 in number, to surprise and slaughter. He pursued, and killed, and scalped. He had neither commissariat nor hospital. He fought his enemy in the rear and in ambush; and he tortured and roasted and devoured his captives. These were the national characteristics which our fathers found on this continent.
Nor did their attempts to modify and humanize and Christianize them meet with much success. The Indian could be tamed, but he was the Indian still...Neither John Eliot nor Roger Williams was able to change essentially the habits and character of the New England tribes..."They are unspeakably indolent and slothful; they deserve little gratitude; they seem to have no sentiments of generosity, benevolence or goodness".
The Moravian Loskiel could not change their character...In New Hampshire and elsewhere schools for Indian children were established; but as they became fledged they all escaped, refusing to be caged. Harvard College enrolls the name of an Algonquin youth among her pupils; but the college parchment could not close the gulf between the Indian character and the Anglo American.
The copper colored men are characterized by a moral inflexibility, a rigidity of attachment to their hereditary customs and manners. The birds and brooks, as they chime forth their unwearied canticles, chime them ever to the same ancient melodies; and the Indian child, as it grows up, displays a propensity to the habits of its ancestors...
The trouble lay deeper. Year after year the Indian discovered an irreconcilable difference between himself and the stranger...When he entered the home of the settler, he discovered that the joys of the fireside could never be found in the group squatted beneath the shelter of the wigwam. He felt the antagonism - and his soul burned within him. The strife was not for land...It was for supremacy. And as revenge is stronger than ambition, and hate is stronger than avarice, so the war raged with unspeakable fury, and was as cruel as the passions of a desperate savage could make it.
The great contest which grew out of this antagonism, and lasted more than a year, unabated either by the heat of summer or the frosts of winter, threatening destruction to the New England colonies, was known as Philip’s War. With the story of this conflict you are all familiar. The peaceful death of Massasoit at a good old age, after a long life of friendly relations with the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies; the sadder death of his son Alexander, worried out of life by the failure of his intrigues against the colony, and the exposure of his meanness and his crimes; the gradual development of the worst of passions in the breast of Philip, and his passage from treachery to war are all fresh in the memory of all who have traced the hard path which our fathers traveled in the work of settling these shores.
The war which began in Swanzey on the 24th of June, 1675, reached this spot on the 18th of September - three months of murder, and fire, and all the bloody horrors of savage warfare. At the time the war broke out Deerfield had been settled 10 years, or had been deeded for the purposes of settlement to John Pynchon that length of time. It was then, as it is now, one of the most delightful spots in New England...
And here in the luxurience of that natural beauty, and in the wealth of wood and stream, the Indian found his favorite resort. In this town and in the towns of Hadley and Hatfield he mustered a numerous and a powerful tribe. And upon these lands purchased by the settlers, with titles confirmed by the court, the whites and Indians lived together in peace for years. It is amazing with what rapidity the war, once opened, spread from village to village, and from tribe to tribe in this wilderness...
The Pocumtucks had received their orders - and in a day had stepped from the blessings of peace to the misery of war. having promsied to deliver up their arms, on suspicion that they might misuse them, they broke their promise, fled to Sugar loaf Hill, engaged with Captains Beers and Lothrop commanding the English here, lost 26 of their number, and then sought shelter under the standard of King Philip...
Deerfield too was abandoned; and the attempt to secure a quantity of wheat which had just been partially threshed by the farmers there before their flight, resulted in the massacre which still thrills me with horror, and the anniversary of which we have met to commemorate...From behind hundreds of trees the savages poured their deadily [sic] fire. At the first volley many were killed, and the remainder were panic stricken...Lothrop...was among the first to fall. The savages, numbering nearly 700, "rushed upon the defenceless men, and the work of slaughter was soon complete.
But 6 or 7 Englishmen escaped to tell the tale, of whom one had been shot and tomahawked and left for dead, and another forced his way through the yelling ranks of the savages with the but [sic] of his musket...
While the Indians were employed in mangling, scalping and stripping the dying and the dead, Captain Moseley, who, as has been observed, was ranging the woods, hearing the report of musketry, hastened by a forced march to the relief of his brethren. The Indians, confiding in their superior numbers, taunted him as he advanced, and dared him to the contest. Moseley came on with firmness, repeatedly charged through them, and destroyed a large number with the loss on his side of but 2 killed and 11 wounded...
A quantity of bones lately found in that quarter is very probably the remains of the Indians who fell there at the close of the action. The united English force encamped for the night at Deerfield. They returned in the morning to bury the dead and found a party of the Indians upon the field stripping the bodies of their victims. These they quickly dispatched, and the remains of the brave young men, or some portion of them, were committed to the earth near the spot which we have this day consecrated anew to their memory.
The stream on whose banks they fell, and whose water ran red with their blood, has been called from that day, in memory of the disaster, Bloody Brook...[Two more entire columns follow, but they are quite blurry and unreadable].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
An old story
The following was told me by the late Theodore Hoyt of Bernardston, father of Richard Hoyt. Mr. Hoyt’s father was Jonathan Hoyt, born in the old Indian House at Deerfield and son of landlord Hoyt. He built a house upon his father’s land at West Deerfield, probably around 1760, where he lived to old age, and sent out into the world a large family of children and grand-children. Here Mr. T. Hoyt was born.
The family were obliged to cross the Deerfield river to attend the public meetings of the town, and to the post office and store. Much of the time the river was crossed in a wooden canoe, which was kept near the old cemetery , as the river at this time was making its way very near its sacred enclosure, and it was feared that it would disturb the sleeping inmates.
Mr. Hoyt was returning from the village, and had entered a ravine on the farm now owned by Salmon Chapman, when a raccoon started up and ran. Mr. Hoyt went for him. He said in those days they did not let any thing disturb them. The raccoon ran under some rubbish and roots of trees, which he began to remove, when he saw a large copper kettle, which he thought was taken by the Indians from the village of King Philip’s time, or in 1704, and buried there.
The old kettle was taken home, but a large hole was found in it, making it unfit for use; but neighbor Deacon Jehiel Jones, grandfather of G.W. Jones and Charles Jones, gave him an old kettle to mend it with, and it did good service for many years. Near where the kettle was found, the Indians had a cemetery and an armory, or a spot for burying arrowheads and other war implements.
The Indians were mostly buried in a sitting posture. This brought the head near the top of the ground. Mr. Hoyt said, when they plowed this land, the plows would cut off and turn out the Indians’ skulls. Oh, what a harvest Mr. Sheldon and Dr. Hitchcock would have gathered from that field! - enough to have filled several shelves of their cabinet.
This farm was then owned by Mr. Hoyt’s brother, father of S.B. Hoyt of Bernardston. The present owner, Mr. Chapman, found deposited in a cavity, 60 or 70 arrow heads, showing it to be a place of deposit. These, we are sorry to say, fell under the eye of Dr. Hitchcock a little too soon after they were found, and are now deposited in the Indian cabinet at Amherst College, with a promise to be returned to Deerfield and deposited in the Memorial Hall when completed. (N. Hitchcock)
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875
The old Ware store and lot which has been in the Ware family for more than 70 years, has recently been purchased by George Sheldon for the purpose of securing an eligible site for a Memorial Hall for the P.V.M. Association. This store stands upon a spot of high historical interest. It is located on the south east corner of the home lot granted Rev. John Williams, the first minister of Deerfield, by the town in 1686. On this spot he was living on the memorable 20th of Feb. of 1704, whence he and the surviving members of his family were dragged into a terrible captivity. His house, which was burned, stood about 6 rods in the rear of the store, the common being at that date 20 rods wide.
/ Major Elijah Williams, son of Mr. Williams, succeeded his father in the possession of the homestead, and from 1740 until his death, he kept a store on this spot. During the French and Indian wars, he was commissary for the military forces of this region, and from this store most of the scouting parties of the Upper Conn. Valley were fitted out, as well as the troops that marched to the front in the Canada campaign. On the death of Major Williams, the property passed to his son John, "Esquire John" as he was usually called. He continued in trade here with his sister and other partners until about 1802, when he sold the store to Orlando Ware, having previously sold the rest of the house and rest of the lot to Thomas Dickinson or his son Consider.
/ The Registry of Deeds for the northern Hampshire district was in this building as early as 1791. Esq. John, George Ephraim Hoyt and Elijah Williams (Uncle Josh) were successively Registers of Deeds here. Esq. John administered justice. And here were several lawyers' offices, and the social library was kept here many years. It is to be hoped a complete history of this spot will be given by the President of the P.V.M. Association, who is now occupied in selling off the stock in the store, preparatory to the transfer of the property to the Antiques.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 3, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Solon Newton has a strong desire for obtaining articles used in housekeeping by our great-great-grandfathers and grandmothers, and other relics of the past ages. We doubt whether even the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association can show as many specimens in that line. His sleeping room and the garret of his father's house are filled with them, and he even sleeps upon a high post canopied bedstead of the past ages. It is a great treat to examine these articles. [Solon did bequeath his entire collection eventually to the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association. He was known as an "antiquarian" and a Newton Room is now housed in the Memorial Hall Museum. Check out some of his treasures at .
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 3, 1875
There was a very full response to the call for a meeting Mon. eve. to consider the expediency of appropriately celebrating the 200th anniversary of the massacre of Capt. Lathrop and his men. Charles Arms presided and William Warner acted as Secretary. Remarks made by gentlemen present showed the deepest interest in the enterprise. George Sheldon, Charles Arms, Nathaniel Hitchcock, B.R. Hamilton, and Dexter Childs were appointed a General Committee to arrange for the celebration, and were instructed to appoint subcommittees...The literary exercises are to take place and refreshments served in tents to be erected near the monument. The Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association are to be invited to participate in the celebration.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
George Sheldon, cabinet keeper of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, has just received from Miss Olive Winter Anderson http://archiver.root...L/2001-10/1004233660 a bible printed in 1741, containing a record of the Winter family from which she descended; also an almanac, printed in 1754 and another in 1755, and a Thomas almanac of 1784, being the 7th number of that series. Miss Anderson has promised him beside her grandfather's old arm chair, some 175 years old.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 8, 1875
Aaron Denio's http://tinyurl.com/6klzbz dinner pot
Since the appearance of the Aaron Denio dinner pot on the table of the P.V.M.A. at its meeting last week, many inquiries have been made as to who and what Aaron Denio was, and what...[blurred]. I send you this paper - it is the appendix to [?] by John Williams, 'Redeemed captive', appears the [?], and concludes with "Three Frenchmen". It has recently been ascertained that one of them was James Den[?], and that Abigail Denio was his young wife. Abigail was the daughter of John Stebbins, one of the earliest permanent settlers of this town, and ancestor of all the name who have lived in Deerfield.
/ ....terrible march to Canada. When son Aaron was born in Canada, Dec. 14, 1704...When a lad, perhaps about 10 years old, he went with a party of Indians to Deerfield on some errand now unknown. When the Indians were ready to return, young Denio was not to be found, and they went off without him after much search and delay. It seems John Stebbins had taken a liking to his grand-son, and had persuaded him to remain. In his will, made about 1720, he gave Aaron that share of his estate which would have fallen to Abigail, on the condition that his daughter did not return to New England. She remained in Canada, and Aaron inherited considerable property.
/ He married in 1730, Anna Combs, and settled in the district of Green River, where he was for many years a tavern keeper, and a leading man in the town, on the incorporation of Greenfield. Aaron Denio was a man of an excitable temperament, impatient and impulsive, with a temper of comical quickness. This infirmity was often taken advantage of by his fun-loving associates, and many anecdotes are told of the tricks played on him ...by David Willard in 'The history of Greenfield'. The story of the dinner pot comes of the writer in this wise: The Denio Tavern stood on the spot occupied by Richardson's new block on Main Street, with a steep side hill at the rear of the building.
/ It was the custom of the house to have boiled vituals for dinner regularly each day of the year, and a custom of the landlord, nearly as regular, to pop his head into the kitchen door with the question "Vife, vat do you have for dinner?" On the day of the story, the good wife paid no attention to the usual query, when Aaron bounded into the room with "Vife, vat have you got in dat pot?" Still no reply. Aaron began dancing with excitement. "Vife, VAT is in da POT?" The landlady, still pretending not to hear, Aaron rushed up and caught her by the arm. "Vill you tell me vat is in da pot?" And when she coolly replied 'water', he became furious, and exclaiming "I, [?] vat is in da pot!" he snatched the huge vessel, [?] the crane, rushed out of the back door and threw it over the bank.
/ Down the hill it bounced, scattering as it went the daily bill of fare - beef, pork, cabbage, Indian pudding, beans, squash, turnips, etc. in steaming confusion. Aaron watched the progress of affairs until the pot rested in the ravine below, and the savory viands had found lodgment in various nooks by the way. When, shrugging his shoulders, he turned to his wife: "Now you go peck up your WATER". Deerfield, March 1, 1875. http://www.quinnipia...s/historictowns.html
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
(Deerfield) Preparations for the memorial meeting go on apace. The necessary committees were selected Tues. eve. The Grange kindly voted the use of Grange Hall for the meeting, and if the weather be
(Deerfield) Preparations for the memorial meeting go on apace. The necessary committees were selected Tues. eve. The Grange kindly voted the use of Grange Hall for the meeting, and if the weather be stormy the offer will be accepted and both meetings be held there; but if fair, it is assumed these rooms will be too small, and the business meeting be held at Dr. Crawford's church at 1 o'clock p.m. and the festival at the Town Hall, as usual, where supper will be served at 6 o'clock. At one table, under the supervision of Mrs. Lydia Stebbins and Jena Johnson, genuine "bean porrige" will be served, hot from the historic http://www.americanc...page.jsp?itemid=6441 Aaron Denio dinner pot ; and possibly some 'cold' '9 days old' for those who prefer it, under the recommendation of Mother Goose.The other 'fixins' of this table will correspond. The committee would be glad of contributions of furniture for the table, as a loan for the occasion. The singing will be under the direction of Henry S. Childs.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
(Erving) Mrs. Anna Clark of Wendell has a book of ancient date; it was printed in London in 1657 by Robert White, for
(Erving) Mrs. Anna Clark of Wendell has a book of ancient date; it was printed in London in 1657 by Robert White, for http://www.memorialh...nced&transcription=1 Nevil Simmons book seller at Kederminster and was to be sold by Joseph Nevil, at the Plough in Paul's Church Yard, England. It was written by Richard Baxter, an able and devoted minister of the Gospel, and Gildas Salvianus, the reformed pastor. [It appears that the book was donated to the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association]. We will name a few of the many subjects treated in the work: what sort of Elders were they that Paul spoke to: Doctrine and Method: Public Preaching: Sacraments: Public Prayer: Humility: Dull, Drowsy Preaching: Barrenness in Works of Charity: Be Zealous of Good Works, etc. The volume contains about 500 pages, printed upon plain but rustic type, and the lapse of 218 years has failed to fade the ink with which it was printed one iota. Mrs. Clark has a book called "The Guide to the English Tongue", published by E. Dilworth at Bancroft's School, Mile End, [?] and also a work published by Noah Webster Esq. in 1793. All of the above books are in a good state of preservation.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, October 12, 1874
(Buckland) Messrs. Editors: I have in my possession a few old relics which I propose at some future time to present to the P.V.M.A. Among them there is an old account book in which the first entry wa
(Buckland) Messrs. Editors: I have in my possession a few old relics which I propose at some future time to present to the P.V.M.A. Among them there is an old account book in which the first entry was made in 1770, 104 years ago. Also a sermon preached at Taunton in 1784, by http://www.metmuseum...ericanFolk/Folk9.htm Rev. Peres Fobes , pastor of the church in Raynham on the occasion of the execution of John Dixon, and a pamphlet translated from the original Greek of an old manuscript found upon the http://www.12net.gr/patmos/english/ Isle of Patmos , and printed in 1803, entitled "The Christian Economy". An excellent book that would do the rising generation no harm to read. M.F. Atkins.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 21, 1874
(Gill) We are having most merciful weather on the river for farmers. The wet and backward season for hoed crops which we have lately experienced gives way to these warm, dry, ripening days of Septemb
(Gill) We are having most merciful weather on the river for farmers. The wet and backward season for hoed crops which we have lately experienced gives way to these warm, dry, ripening days of September. The result is the perfecting of corn and tobacco, which latter crop at one time gave showing of "coming to grief". But it is on the poles and in good condition. Moral: Borrow no trouble. Also Eccl: 11th 6. Having recently returned from a week's vacation at sniffing the sea air and luxuriating on sea-food, we take pleasure in recommending the http://www.townofhull.com/Hotels.htm "Atlantic House" at Nantasket Beach as a quiet and refreshing place for the farmer to visit, after the heat and burden of haying and harvest. There he can look upon the broad Atlantic, watch the incoming waves, study the tides and sport in the surf; and feast upon the food furnished by the great waters, many varieties of which are new to the dweller inland. The proprietor of the house, Mr. Damon, is a gentleman who studies to make the visit of his guest pleasant and agreeable. Well, we attended the annual field meeting of the Pocumptuc [sic], joined with Leverett's centennial. As we observed your reporter there with his note book, it will be needless to mention the exercises. It was very pleasant to look upon the yeomanry of that town assembled to hear their early history - hardy and stable men, fair dames and daughters, at the foot of old Toby. Not a more romantic or pleasant spot exists in the county than that for a picnic or like excursion. The grove, deepening with the primeval wood, the cool fountain throwing up its bright jet, the neighboring crags faced with lichens and clad with green moss, with the voice of Roaring Brook, heard at any time save seasons of severe drouth, all combine to make the place unsurpassed in attractiveness. And then, it is so approachable. The cars run directly alongside, and a neat and tasteful depot, linking the romantic solitude with the busy walks of active life. One notable feature of the vicinity is the Cleft Rock, which, when the devout beholder stands in the gap, he will consider to be the most appropriate spot he ever knew, to raise the hymn beginning "Rock of ages, cleft for me". It will be illustration. But the visitor, attractive as is the place, will wish to ascend to the summit of the eternal mountain. This he can do by foot path, or by carriage over a good road wrought out by the energy of our enterprising proprietor, Mr. R.L. Goss. Civil and obliging attendants; Mr. Goddard, Mr. Gunn and Mr. Smith, will be at hand to assist the visitor and to aid and unfold to his vision the mighty panorama of nature which sprawls out 1400 ft. below. It is perfectly magnificent, and must be seen to be appreciated. That such a noble view should be so long shut out from the world and comparatively unknown is astonishing, since the genius and enterprise of Mr. Goss has revealed the wonder. It cannot fail of being an attractive point in all coming time, for the lover of the grand and beautiful in nature, and we do heartily wish the gentlemanly proprietor abundant success in his laudable enterprise.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 17, 1873
(Deerfield) The last meeting of the "Adelphi" was so fully attended that many were unable to find seats. After the reading of the Secretary's report came a witty and well rhymed poetical criticism u
(Deerfield) The last meeting of the "Adelphi" was so fully attended that many were unable to find seats. After the reading of the Secretary's report came a witty and well rhymed poetical criticism upon the last meeting, from our excellent President, http://freepages.gen...rmstrong/steg171.htm Henry S. Childs , Esq..,.Next there was singing by the quartette, Samuel and Alonzo Childs, Edgar Smith and John A. Grout, followed by an essay from precisely the same gentleman who gave the criticism. Subject: "Every Day Life". All classes of men were depicted - the strong willed and weak willed, the true man and the whited sepulchre, those who are always talking of other people's faults and never once think of their own, were shown up in characters as vivid as if written with a pencil of light. The subject of charity, in its various phases, was well dealt with...Next there appeared a new feature of the Adelphi, called "News of the Day"...Mr. Driver read a paper upon George Elliot's last novel, written by a lady too modest to allow her name to be announced (by Pocumtuck). Mrs. Consider Dickinson has presented the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association with a lot of farming implements of the style in use 200 years ago, among them is a wooden mole board plough, a wooden shovel with a steel edge, a hand fan for winnowing grain before winnowing mills came in use. Mrs. D. has pledged herself to fill a large place in the memorial hall with relics. Will members send the yearly tax to N. Hitchcock, Treasurer. Michael Myers was brought before Justice Davis of Greenfield last week for assault on his wife and fined $8 and costs.
Leverett's 100th anniversary - Leverett's centennial celebration at Roaring Brook, at the foot of Mt. Toby next Thurs., will be the local event of the season. A more inviting spot for the enjoyment of a day's recreation could not have been selected. The beautiful new depot at Mt. Toby station, on the N.L.N.R.R. is within a stone's throw of the grove where the exercises are to take place. Mr. Goss, the proprietor of the ground, has entered with usual zeal and liberality into the necessary preparations, and is making every arrangement in the way of seats, speaker's stand, etc., that can be required. The sons and daughters of Leverett, wherever located, are invited to return to their native town and join in its birthday festivities, and friends in other towns, itnerested in its history, will participate in the celebration. It is to be a basket picnic, but the committee of arrangements will provide for invited guests. Those going by rail can take the 9:35 train from Greenfield, connecting with a 10 a.m. train from Grout's. From Amherst a train leaves at 9:15; returning, will leave Mt. Toby station at 4:30 p.m. The Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association holds its annual field meeting in connection with the centennial, and members of the society can be accommodated by the railroads from all parts of the county. Free return tickets will be given. The Grangers of several towns will be present in full regalia. The order of exercises will be as follows: Music by the Montague City Band; Invocation Ode by David Rice, M.D., sung by the assembly; address of welcome to the P.V.M. Association by Rev. A.F. Clark; response by President George Sheldon of Deerfield; singing under the direction of Capt. Asa L. Field; historic address by Rev. J.P. Watson; music by the Band; ecclesiastical history of the South Parish, with biographical sketches, by Rev. David Eastman of New Salem; singing by the Leverett Glee Club; history of the old Baptist Church by Rev. Baxter Newton of North Leverett; collation; music by the Band; poem by Robert B. Cavaly of Lowell; recitation, "George Cheney's Ride With Death" (written by David Rice, M.D.) by Miss Allen of Warehouse Point, Ct.; short addresses, music and singing; Capt. Putnam Field will be Marshal of the Day, and Bradford M. Field and Emory Whitney, Aids. A correspondent from Leverett sends us the following: Leverett and Pocumtuck's Salutatory: Ho! All ye lovers of ye olden times. A rare opportunity is to be afforded for your enjoyment and profit at the holding of the Leverett Centennial on Sept. 10, 1874. It comes off next Thurs., commencing at 10 o'clock a.m. The meeting will be held on a spot so fully noticed by the late President Hitchock, in his book of State Geology, as Roaring Brook. The scenery at this glen, where Mount Toby station is, has been pronounced by competent judges equal in sublimity and beauty to that of Niagara Falls or the White Mountains. Not that a "large cascade" or any grand improvements have been made to induce people to visit it; but because a singular wild beauty is formed in Nature at this spot. Now the Centennial celebration which is under the "Pocumtuck Valley Association" is to interest all present and former residents of Leverett, and many people in all the surrounding towns. Professional men from all parts are expected to be present...Also old traditions, family incidents and prominent men will be noticed...Able judges, lawyers and divines from Brattleboro Vt., Montpelier, Vt., Greenfield and other places are expected; among whom we would name Secretary Oliver Warner of Boston; Hon. A.J. Phipps, General Agent of Massachusetts Educational Society; Judge C.K. Field of Brattleboro, Vt., and H.K. Field Esq. of Montpelier, Vt. Hon. Levi Stockbridge will also be present to interest and instruct the people as he ever does in public places. Hon. George Sheldon will probably have new vim given to his aspiration for finishing the noble cause he has engaged in, that of preserving important relics and history of colonial settlements and settlers, as he finds the interest in the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association increasing. We trust that he can measure bushels of rare old relics that shall be brought in with their owner's name upon them, to be presented to the society, to be kept for centuries to come. The fair sex will be represented by a lady graduate of Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, in an exercise of elocution, by the reading of an old poem. The old folks, marshaled by Capt. Asa L. Field of Leverett, will make the ravine echo with the rendering of the old tunes, which will make old men believe themselves boys again. The pillion, flax wheel and spinners in operation will be seen. Here we hope the long wagons, full of the home folks, will be emptied on the spot, with full baskets of eatables, so that all can be prepared to patiently listen to Deacon Field's funny stories, and Mr. Johnson's crack-jaw names of Indian renown. So come one, come all, from Hadley, Leverett's grandmother town, and Sunderland, her mother, and from all her surrounding towns.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 3, 1873
Annual meeting of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Assn.
Annual meeting of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Assn. - The 4th annual meeting was held in Deerfield on Tues. The attendance at the aft. business session was small, in consequence of the difficult traveling. But one or two towns in the immediate vicinity of Deerfield had been released from the snow blockade, and the earnest friends of the Society living in Charlemont, Shelburne, Leverett, Northfield, Gill and other places, who have always leant their presence and taken an active part in the councils of these lovers of antiquity, were unavoidably kept away. Not discouraged, however, the usual routine of business was transacted...Among the interesting relics contributed to the Society this past year, which were exhibited at the place of meeting, Dr. Crawford's church, was a well preserved commission dated 1724, making Ebenezer Alexander, whose descendants now live in Northfield, as Ensign in Thomas Wells' company. The Alexanders were a military family, and this Ebenezer was promoted Captain for meritorious conduct at the battle of Louisburg...A copy of the will of http://www.memorialh...page.jsp?itemid=5683 John Sheldon , who built the http://www.memorialh...mpage.jsp?itemid=106 Indian House , dated 1726 was exhibited; also a piece of picture frame molding, made from the old oak under which Elder William James preached the first sermon in Northfield in 1672. The tree was burned a few years ago, and the moulding was presented by Miss http://www.gencircle...jsbarto1/1/data/9612 Mary Stratton of Northfield , who has taken a great interest in antiquarian matters. Here too, was an ancient styled http://cho.uconn.edu...=20&folder=359&doc=1 spinning wheel , such as was in use 200 years ago, presented by Col. Thomas W. Ripley of Boston; also a rude wooden shovel, that was used by the pioneer settlers of the valley, a picture of the Boston Massacre , a piece of linen woven by Miss Chloe Allen of the Bars in 1742, and several other articles of antiquarian value...The meeting at the church was adjourned and about 6 o'clock the good people gathered at the Town Hall to partake of the splendid collation prepared by the ladies and listen to the literary treat that was to follow...A nominal price of admission was asked, and refreshments served to all...Rev. H.H. Barber of Somerville, who is a native of Warwick, and whose wife was a Deerfield lady, was now introduced to the audience and read a carefully prepared paper by Miss Eliza Starr [ http://memorialhall....aces/main.jsp?view=1 Eliza Allen Starr ] of Chicago, which graphically described the Bars Fight, as handed down by tradition throughout the subsequent generations (we propose to publish the entire paper in our next issue)...Then Miss Snow of Belchertown, whose mother was a Deerfield lady, read the following poem: "The Old Graveyard at Deerfield"...James M. Crafts of Whately was now called upon and read the following genealogical paper: "The Wells Family" (extremely long and detailed)...J. Johnson of Greenfield traced the probable route of the Indians after the Deerfield Massacre, in their retreat to Canada. Miss Mattie Severance then read the following poem written by Fisher Ames Foster of Washington, who frequently spends his summers in Deerfield and had become much interested in her history: "Pocumtuck Valley"...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 21, 1874
History of the Baptist Church in North Leverett by Rev. B. Newton
History of the Baptist Church in North http://townhall.leve...town_of_leverett.htm Leverett by Rev. B. Newton - Read at the centennial celebration of the incorporation of the town of Leverett, Sept. 10, 1874. "The history of churches must always continue, no small item in the history of a country...asking nothing of the government but protection in the inherent right of every man to worship God according to the dictates of his own conscience...If anyone is anxious for a more enlarged account of these matters, they are referred to the address delivered by Elder http://www.rootsweb.com/~mafrankl/zlev.html Erastus Andrews , at North Leverett, and a circular letter written by the writer, and published in the minutes of the Wendell Baptist Association in 1853, both of which may be found in the archives of the Pocumtuck Memorial Association. The Baptist Church in North Leverett has always been composed more or less of members living in Montague and Sunderland as well as Leverett. It was organized July 16, 1767, 7 years before the incorporation of the town of Leverett. It was called the Baptist Church of Montague; in 1791 the name was changed to the Baptist Church of Leverett. The present appellation, Leverett and Montague, came into use by common consent. There were 11 constituent members. Their names were Samuel Harvey, http://www.surnames....-paternal/gp1965.htm Jeduthan Sawyer , Samuel Montague Jr., Samuel Wright, Richard Montague, Moses Harvey, Elisha Gunn, Philip Harvey, Esther Sawyer, and Mary Jennings. Of this number 4 with 2 others who subsequently joined them, left and joined the Quakers. It was a little band to undertake to sustain the responsibilities of a church and maintain regular worship. They were poor in this world but strong in faith, and had the courage to carry out their convictions though it might expose them to persecution. The country was new, the population sparce [i.e. sparse], they had no house of worship and what was still worse, they were under the ban of popular prejudice and indignation; they had no settled ministry for many years; the ministers who visited them from time to time were, in the main, uneducated and many of them but poorly qualified for their work. Soon they began to be oppressed by the party in power. They were taxed to support the town minister although they did not attend upon his ministration, and refusing to pay such tax, their property and persons were seized to satisfy the same. Mr. Samuel Harvey had at one time, a cow and calf, at another, a yoke of oxen taken and sold by the constable of Montague for what he was taxed for the support of Mr. Nash; http://www.e-web-america.tv/gray/group/f205.htm Jeduthan Sawyer , a cow ditto; Richard Montague was taken by the constable of Leverett, carried 6 miles toward the county prison, kept overnight when the officer left him, returned and took a fine hog from the Major's pen and sold it. I will not add what the tradition represents the Major as saying, for I think he was roiled when he said it. How came all this about? It was all done according to law...We shall have to go back to the early settlement of Massachusetts. On the 23rd of August 1630, on board of the ship http://www.arts.ed.a...esources/charity.htm Arrabella , before they landed the "court of assistants" had a meeting, and the first question asked was "How shall the ministers be maintained?" It was ordered that houses should be built for them with all convenient speed at the "public charge", and their salaries were established. At the public charge. Here is the germ of all the mischief that followed the union of church and state in New England. We honor these men for their regard for religion, for their care for their ministers, but it was a sad mistake for them to say they should be supported at the public charge. If Christianity will not stand on its own merits let it fall. If the people do not appreciate the services of their ministers sufficiently to support them without the coercive power of the State, let them do without ministers, and take the consequences...In 1638 a law was passed that every inhabitant who would not voluntarily contribute his portion should be compelled thereto by assessment and distress by the constable or other town officer. For 90 years this law was rigidly enforced against Baptists and other nonconformists. But in 1728 a law was passed that Ana-Baptists and Quakers should be exempt from the operation of the law, provided that such persons do usually attend meetings of their respective societies on Lord's day for the worship of God, and that they live within 5 miles of such meeting. The 5 mile limitation was subsequently repealed...It was under the operation of these laws that this church was established. There were 2 things in particular that caused embarrassment. The Baptists always repudiated the name of http://www.baptistpillar.com/bd0039.htm "Ana Baptists" which means re-baptizers. They always regarded it as a term of reproach given them by their enemies. And yet there is no doubt they were the persons of the law called Ana Baptists. Hence when the Baptists of this town claimed exemption under this law they were told that they were not "the Baptists" the law meant. They offered to prove they were a legitimate Baptist church and brought forward some of their members to testify to the fact. These witnesses were rejected because they were Baptists and were testifying in their own favor...But these persecutions, though painful to be, turned out to the spread of Baptist sentiments. Human nature is so made that it will sympathize with the oppressed. Seizing and selling oxen, cows and hogs, and imprisoning men for not supporting a ministry they do not [ a large portion is x'd out - looks like tape or something was used on the microfilmed newspaper as a crude repair]...In 1794 they built their first house of worship. It stood near where Mr. Jason Jones now lives. It was a very plain structure and laid no claims to artistic beauty. It never had any fire in it save what the ladies carried in, in their foot stoves, and the pulpit was so high that Elder Pease, who is now living at the age of 90, said the first time he preached in it the Devil kept saying to him. "you will fall over upon the deacons", but he held on to the pulpit, and got through in safety. To many souls that house was the gate of heaven. It served its purpose for 40 years when the present house was built in 1834. But the same year they commenced building, Major Montague died. His death was a heavy stroke to the church. From the first he had been a leader among them...Although 80 years have passed since he died, the name of http://genforum.gene...e/messages/1019.html Major Richard Montague is a household word in every ancient Baptist family. Some feared the church would wane after his death, but his mantle fell upon his son, Elijah, who more than made his father's place good. He was at once chosen deacon in the place of his father. Three years later he was licensed to preach and the year following, 1798, he was ordained as pastor of the church...For 28 years he held his post as pastor, and during the time baptised [i.e. baptized] 250 into the church...Of this learning of the schools he had none; not that he despised it, for it was always a source of regret that his early advantages had been so small; but with his Bible and hymn book he was perfectly familiar...He was distinguished for a powerful imagination...He made men feel that they must be born again or they could not see the kingdom of God...Three times in the course of his ministry he made long missionary tours, to preach the gospel in the then wilds of New York and Pennsylvania. On one of these occasions he traveled over 1000 miles on horseback, in the winter season, and preached wherever he could find an audience. His mental habits were peculiar. With the pen he could do nothing worthy of himself. He studied his sermons while at manual labor...He had a passion for the salvation of men...The church has had its periods of prosperity and adversity. The fathers expected a revival about once in 7 years, and many of these seasons were of great power, especially those in 1794, 1799, 1808, 1816, and 1831...But our fathers had their trials...But as a general thing we have enjoyed peace and harmony among ourselves...The names of the pastors of this church have been Ebenezer Cooley, Isaac Beals, Simeon Combs [also seen as http://www.rootsweb....etteer-wardsboro.htm Simeon Coombs ], http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyne/smith/29770.htm Elijah Montague , http://www.geocities...ral/2771/jolley.html Elias McGregory , http://tfeeney.esmartbiz.com/tour.txt Aaron Burbank , http://homepages.roo...glazier/glazier.html Nelson B. Jones , B.F. Remington, http://archiver.root...L/2003-04/1051021276 Samuel Everett , http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyne/smith/25467.htm Baxter Newton , William Pease, http://www.connectic...story_of_ashford.htm David Avery , http://www.usigs.org...9/palm226ch5-6-7.txt E.M. Haynes , John Greene, D.A. Dearborn, http://www.connectic...d_church_history.htm F.B. Joy , F.D. Daniels and E.N. Jenckes. The following persons have held the office of deacon: Ebenezer Curtis, Richard Montague, Joshua Thayer, Elijah Montague, Elihu Gunn, Elijah Hubbard, Silas Hosmer, Samuel Puffer, Isaac Woodbury, Samuel Leland, Edward Jones, Calvin S. Boutwell, Elihu Hemenway, and Philander Boutwell. The whole number of names on the church roll is 790...The present number is 150. The whole number of members has not been large for a term of 107 years. But it must be remembered that we are located in a farming country with a sparse population. In 1821 41 members were dismissed to form a church at No. Sunderland. The salaries paid to the ministers has varied from 20 pounds to about $1000...The Universal Society - In 1821 a religious society called the Universal Society of Leverett was incorporated. Among the names of the incorporators are Asa Moore, James Cumins, Benson Adams, Jaris Cutter and others with James Cumins, Moses Field and Orlando Field as committee...Jefferson Moore has been clerk of the society since its reorganization. Some of their members have gone into the Spiritualist movement. Their ministers have been Joshua Flagg, David Ballou, http://www.voicenet.com/~trousdal/BALLSGEN.HTM Hosea Ballou 2d , John Bisbee 2d, James Babbitt, James Bailey, John Brooks, L.R. Page Davis, John H. Willes, O.S. Perkins, O.W. Bacon. Free will Baptist Church - A church with the above title was organized in North Leverett July 8th, 1835. They were never very numerous or very strong. They had preaching more or less of the time till about 1860. They built them a small house of worship which they occupied for some time. But the Methodists with whom they agree in the main in their doctrines, built a chapel near them which took away many of their congregation. They sold their house of worship and now have no meeting. The Josiah Rice family - Josiah Rice, the father of Dr. Josiah Rice, and the grandfather of the present Josiah Rice, moved into this town from Hubbardston, some time in the latter part of the last century. He died in 1805. He purchased and for a time lived on the farm lately occupied by http://archiver.root...L/2003-04/1051021276 Edson Marvel . He raised a family of 3 sons and 4 daughters. Their names were Zilla (Mrs. H. Rice), Sybil, Josiah, Elihu, Erastus, Tirza (Mrs. Stephen Jones) and Submit. Of these Josiah afterwards Dr. Rice alone settled in this town. The names of Dr. Rice's children were Warren, Sally, Lucretia (Mrs. Martin Moore), Stillman M.D. (who was killed by the accidental discharge of a gun, upon parade at Amherst), Timothy B., for many years a town officer in this town, Josiah (a good farmer, an intelligent but a little eccentric man) and James C. Josiah occupies the homestead purchased by his father. Some of the grand children and great grandchildren are still residents of the town. The annexed obituary of Dr. Rice was published at the time of his death. When Dr. Rice came here to establish himself in business, with a wife and one child, he had just two cents to begin with. But our fathers had the knack of accumulating without much to begin with. In Leverett, Sept. 29, 1850, Josiah Rice, M.D., 88. Dr. R. was born in Sudbury Mass., and spent his childhood and youth in that town and Hubbardston. He was engaged a short time in the Revolutionary War, acting as guard over a portion of General Burgoyne's army, then quartered at Rutland, this State. Born of respectable but poor parents, his early advantages of improvement were very limited; but by a course of indomitable perseverance, he raised himself to a respectable standing in the medical profession, and in town, parish and society, became one fo the most useful men of his day. He did not commence the study of his profession until late in late, and when he came to this section to establish himself in business, he encountered obstacles that might have discouraged a mind less determined than his own. The country was then new and the inhabitants were poor. He too was poor. All the available resources he could command to support himself, a feeble wife and one or two children, and to establish himself in business within the circle of a physician of distinguished reputation, was ten cents. But Dr. Rice was not going to die without one desperate struggle for existence. The inhabitants sparse, a distinguished physician near, and himself poor and unruled, he had for many years but a small run of business. But having some knowledge of architecture, when not employed in his profession, he took his mallet and chisel, and by hard blows, earned an honest livelihood, reared a large and respectable family and accumulated a handdsome little property. By degrees his professional business increased upon his hands, so that for many years he was cosntantly engaged.He did not receive a diploma until a few years before his death, the Medical Institute at Pittsfield, in view of his attainments and usefulness as a physician, conferred an honorary degree upon him. But untitled as he was, he secured a very respectable standing among the profession. In his religious views and sympathies Dr. Rice was a Baptist and a Christian, although he never connected himself with the church...He lived in an age when the Baptists were despised and persecuted by their more numerous and influential neighbors, but never was he known to deny or conceal his sentiments, or refuse to bear manfully the reproach which they brought upon him. He probably did more than any other man towards erecting the first Baptist meeting house in Leverett, and through all of his active days, he was efficient in sustaining the interests of the church and society. His name appears very frequently on the Society's book as Moderator, Assessor, Collector, committee on the pulpit; in fine everywhere that labor was to be performed and responsibilities borne, there Dr. Rice's name may be found. Nor was he content in doing for the cause at home. From the commencement of our missionary operations, he took a deep interest in the same, and always was ready with his annual contribution. Though strictly a man of business Dr. Rice was a great reader. Not only his profession but history, politics, theology, and general news occupied his leisure moments, and often stole many an hour which nature consign to sleep. Nor was he a careless reader. He calculated to understand what he read. And if he could not understand a book by once reading it through he would patiently commence and read it again, and continue to do so till he was satisfied that he did understand. And during the last years of his life he read the "Comprehensive Commentary" through by course. He commenced taking the http://relarchive.by.../correspondence.html "Christian Watchman" in 1823, and continued to take it to the day of his death, and what is more remarkable he has preserved all the volumes from 1823 to the present time. Dr. Rice has greatly failed both in mind and body for the last few years, and but little could be seen of what he once was. But he retained his interest in religion to the last. May many of our youth remember his worthy examples and labor to be equally useful. Dr. Rice was a Revolutionary soldier. (B.N.) The family of http://www.rootsweb.com/~nycortla/darvrd1.htm Ebenezer Boutwell -Ebenezer Boutwell was born in Framingham, and moved into this town in 1799, and bought the place now occupied by William Hatch. He was a Revolutionary soldier, enlisted for 3 years, but was discharged before his time was out by the closing of the war. He married Mary Hosmer by whom he had 8 children, 6 of whom lived to grow up and have families of their own. Their names were Calvin S., Levi, Nancy (Mrs. David Mason), Charles, Mary (Mrs. Darking) and Roxanna (Mrs. William Hemmenway). Of these there are now living only Levi Boutwell and Mrs. Mason. Levi is now 83 years old but works every day on his farm, as steadily as a young man. Ebenezer Boutwell had 32 grandchildren and a large number of great grandchildren. He died in 1833, age 73. His son Calvin Boutwell was for many years a Deacon in the Baptist Church, and filled the office well. His grandson, Philander Boutwell, now fills the smae office. The Hemenway family (or Hemmenway family) - http://www.metzler.us/metzler/d0021/g0000075.html Josiah Hemenway was born in Holliston, Oct. 5, 1733 old style, and moved into Leverett 1797. He setled on the farm lately owned by Simon Pike on http://www.the-spa.com/tony.maniscalco/shtonl.htm Brushy Mountain . He was twice married and had 16 children in all. Three of his children, viz., William, Eliphalet and Elihu, all raised families here. At one time the name of Hemenway was very common. But at present Deacon Elihu Hemenway's family are all that are left. Josiah Hemenway died in 1808 at the age of 75. The Dudley family - Mr. Aaron Dudley was born in Framingham 1876 [probably 1786] and settled in Leverett where he now lives in 1808. He had 10 children, 7 of whom are now living. 5 sons married and settled near the old homestead, families sprung up around them and the place soon acquired the name of http://capecodhistory.us/Mass1890/Leverett1890.htm Dudleyville . Mrs. Dudley died in 1857 aged 71. She is spoken of as a woman of great strength of character, and a firm and indomitable will. She was an exemplary mother and a valuable assistant in sickness. Mr. Dudley is now living at the age of 88. He has had 34 grandchildren and 12 great grandchildren. There are 3 mills in Dudleyville for the manufacture of lumber. The first was built in 1794. Jefferson Thompson came to Leverett in 1807. He built an oven which was a curious affair. It consisted of 4 sticks with crotches set in the ground, with poles laid across, on which was laid a large flat stone for the bottom of the oven. The whole was then arched over with stones and earth and the baking apparatus was complete. Alvin Moore - Alvin Moore, in company with his brother-in-law William Winchester, came into Leverett in 1793 and always lived here until his death, which occurred at the advanced age of 97. Mr. Winchester was a Revolutionary pensioner. Wild turkies [i.e. turkeys], catamounts and bears were more plenty then than now. Daniel Wedge - Daniel Wedge moved into this part of the town at a very early day. He owned and occupied the property now occupied by Dexter Moore. His son Thomas, grandson Curtis, and great grandson Tyler have all been residents of the town. http://www.amherst.e...rd/1848.html#wedge-t Tyler Wedge is the only representative of the town left. He is a graduate of Amherst college, a man of some genius, and the fathers of the town have adopted him as their honorary ward. Just now he is off on his vacation. Samuel Watson - was born in 1769 and married Betsey Jones in 1793. The deed of his farm was from Elijah Montague to Samuel Watson and dated April 22, 1796. They had 8 children, named Pamelia (Mrs. Stephen Graves), Daphny, William, Horatio N., Betsey (Mrs. Timothy Rice), Samuel, Amos, and Ira. Of these Pamelia, Horatio, Betsey, Amos and Ira settled in Leverett. The homestead is still in the hands of his son Amos. http://www.gravesfa.org/gen083.htm Daniel Graves , Sen. - Daniel Graves was born March 4, 1761, in Southboro, Mass. He came to Leverett in 1792. He was 3 times married and had a family of 8 children. Their names were Hannah, Stephen, Daniel, Comfort, Jeremiah, Rhoda, Obadiah and Elijah Graves. He occupied the place owned by the late Stephen Graves where he followed his trade of blacksmith. His two sons, Stephen and Daniel, followed the same trade and settled in town. Stephen Graves built up the iron works in North Leverett, now carried on by S.S. Graves, who maufactures 150,000 [setts?] of scythe snath irons annually. Daniel Graves Sen. died in 1836, age 75. His descendants are quite numerous. Dea. Edward Jones - was born in 1789, and was always a resident of the town of Leverett, where he died in 1873 at the age of 84. Dea. Jones was in his day a very laborious farmer, accumulating a large landed estate, and by his integrity and uprightness commanded the confidence of all who knew him. But it was as a religious man that he was most noted. As a Christian and as an officer in the church, he was pre-eminently faithful. For a long life, his influence was felt only on the side of virtue and religion, and although his mental endowments were not great there are few men in like circumstances that accomplished more good than he. The family of http://www.hazen.co.nz/part2.htm Paul Newton - Paul Newton, the grandfather of the writer, settled in this town about the year 1792. He built the house owned and occupied for many years afterward by Jefferson Moore. He was a native of Southboro and a soldier of the Revolution. He was one of the minute men that assisted the British to march from Concord to Lexington in 1775, a little quicker than was dignified for regular troops, leaving some red coats on the road. Paul Newton raised a family of 9 children, named Edward, Paul, Stephen, and Walter, Patty, Elanor, Silence, Lovina and Sophia. The sons are all dead but Walter Newton of north Hadley, who still lives venerable in years and piety, waiting for the kingdom of God. Of the daughters Lovina and Sophia still remain. His grand-children and great grandchildren are scattered over Massachusetts, Vermont, New York, Illinois, Michigan and Indiana. He and his aged consort died in 1837, so near together that they were both buried the same day, in the same grave. He was 85 years old. Money and provisions were both scarce sometimes 80 years ago. But taxes must be paid sure as rates. To this end money was hoarded all the year. http://freepages.gen...htonfamily/p1155.htm Enos Morton - was born in Amherst in 1768, and moved into Leverett in 1792, and settled on the place now occupied by Aaron Dudley Jr. They had 12 children, 36 grandchildren, 34 of whom are now living, and his great grandchildren are numerous. He died in 1851 aged 87. Mr. Morton purchased his land at $1.25 per acre. Mrs. Morton's sister then lived in Hadley and tried to induce him to settle there. But Mr. Morton said no, the land in Hadley is $2.50 per acre and swampy at that. Main facilities in those days were rather slim, but Mr. Morton's father who lived in Amherst had a dog that performed that service; thre was no road, nothing but a foot path. If a message was tied around his neck, and he was told to go and carry it to Enos he would deliver it safely, and when his visit was out he would carry a message back. And he was never known to rob the mail. At that time bears were plenty. Mr. Morton at one time owned a black steer which was missing; he went out one night to hunt for it, and looking over a ledge discovered at the foot what he supposed was the missing animal. But as he reached the spot what was his surprise when a large black bear arose. And shaking himself leisurely he looked around at the intruder, as if to say, "What is wanting?" Mr. Morton was looking for his steer in another direction as quickly as convenient. For some time after their settlement Mrs. Morton had no oven, so she was obliged to carry her bread, etc. to Mr. Winchester's, half or 3/4 of a mile to be baked. Her children being small there were usually one or two to accompany her. One day she was returning home after baking with two children, one of them a babe in her arms, her husband was a few rods behind her. When she had got near home a large bear with two cubs walked slowly across the road midway between her and her husband. That looked too much like separating husband and wife. Holdens, Isaac and Benjamin - the two brothers Isaac and Benjamin Holden came to Leverett from Southboro; in what year is not known but it was before the revolutionary war and probably before the town was incorporated. Isaac had 7 children, all of whom settled in Leverett. Their names were Isaac, Benjamin, John, Nathan, Sarah, Nabby and Submit. There was a large number of grandchildren. Benjamin Holden had 4 children, only one of whom settled in Leverett. He was a revolutionary soldier. Asa Moore - was born in Sudbury in 1758. He came into Leverett in 1789 and built the grist-mill, so long known as Moore's mills. He had the name of being an honest miller. He had 8 children, anmed Levi, Lewis, James, Otis, Martin, Lyman, Jefferson and Gerry. Of these Lewis, Martin, Jeferson and Gerry settled in Leverett and raised families. Asa Moore was a soldier in the Revolution, although his term of service was short, the war closing. The mills have always remained the Moore family's till sold to the present owner. The descendants of this family are numerous. Jefferson and Gerry had each 6 children. Levi Moore, son of Gerry, died in the army during the late rebellion. Andrew Gardner - came from Dedham to Leverett in 1778. He built and lived in a house on the site where Ebenezer Glazier now lives. He and Paul Newton raised their houses the same day. He was a revolutionary soldier, and at the battle of Bunker Hill, when his company had all retreated, he still stood at the breastworks blazing away. He was a plucky soldier but a poor linguist. His Captain called to him to retreat. He responded, "I won't entreat while my powder lasts". He had 11 children, 5 of whom settled in Leverett. Their names were Elijah, Benjamin, Sarah, Eunice and Adnrew. His grandchildren now number 56 or more, and a large number of great grandchildren. The title of Captain was given him by common consent, although he never held a commission. He has left the reputation of being an honest man and a consistent christian. Major Richard Montague - was a very prominent man in his day, both in church and state. Says General Zebina L. Montague in "Family Sketches", published in the Amherst Express: "Among the many men of note and influence in this valley in olden times, and whose history forms so large a portion of the history of the Connecticut Valley, there were few, perhaps, who were more prominent in their day, and whose memory has been more revered by subsequent generations down to the present times, especially in the northern part of Hampshire county, than Major Richard Montague of Leverett". He was born in Weathersfield in 1729. He married Lucy Cooley of Conway in 1750, and first settled in Sunderland, but soon after moved to north Leverett, where he lived and died in 1794, age 65. Though he was only a plain farmer by occupation, he was endowed with natural abilities of an uncommon order, which at once marked him out for a leader. And being a man of eminent piety he was chiefly instrumental for the organization and maintenance of the Baptist Church in North Leverett, one of the first in all this region. For many years, he was virtually their minister, they not having any pastor for many years after their orbanization. In his younger days he was a loyal subject of Great Britain, always prayed for his King, and enlisted as a private soldier in the French war, and was a member of Gen. Montgomery's army that passed through the wilderness to Quebec, and laid siege to that city. The expedition was a most unfortuante one, and the army was compelled to retreat, during which time they suffered incredible hardships and many died of exposure, starvation and disease, or were killed by the Indians, but most of the men from this region lived to return. It is probable taht soon after his return, he began to entertain doubts about the "divine right" of kings, for it was observed that he prayed less fervently for the King, or equivocally, that he might be a better man, and do more justly by the colonies. He kept his eyes and ears open to the events that were transpiring in the country, and when the news of the battle of Lexington reached this part of the country he renounced all allegiance to the King of Grat Britain, and became a zealous patriot for the independence of his country. He raised a company of men of which he was Captain, and joined Washington in the siege of Boston. Washington soon discovered traits of character in him that made him desire to have him near his person, and so added more men to his command and raised him to the rank of Major, and attached him to his immediate staff. Major Montague, with a detachment of his command, was often sent to this part of the state to procure supplies or recruits for the army at Cambridge, and on these ocasions the people noted his "fine martial bearing, how well he managed his men, and how elegantly he rode his horse". The "Hessians" were regarded by the country people as the very incarnation of devils, and women and children expected that they would be more barbarous and savage than the Indians. When some one asked the Major if he did not think it too bad that the mother country should send such creatures over here, he replied: "We do not care who she sends if it is not angels or devils or some body that powder and bill will not kill". And it was by the courage and endurance of men of like spirit that we enjoy our liberties. When Major Montague left home to join the army of Washington he said to his wife, "If the Lord would forgive him for having fought 7 years for the King and would prosper him, he would fight the rest of his life against him, or until he was conquered and compelled to do right". Major Montague was at the Battle of Bunker Hill, and subsequently at the battle of Saratoga and surrender of General Burgoyne, and perhaps at other battles in the northern division of the army. He lived to see the colonies free from the British crown, peace declared, the constitution of the United States adopted, and the beloved Washington elected President, a glorious consummation of his lofty spirations. While on his expedition to Quebec in the French war, Major Montague made at odd hours a beautiful powder horn while encamped at Charlestown N.H. in 1759. The horn was afterwards worn by himself or other members of his family at the battle of Bunker Hill and in the other principal battles of the Revolution in the northern division. The strap attached is the identical one worn at the battle of Bunker Hill and through the war. The engravings in the horn were executed by his pocket knife. The family of Jonathan Glazier - was a native of Oakham and moved into this town about the year 1799, and settled on what is now called Brushy Mountain, where he lived, and died at the age of 85 years. He, too, was a soldier of the revolution. He raised a family of 11 children, named John, Hannah, Benjamin, Sally, Azubah, Jonathan, Lydia, Abigail, Thirza, Artemas and Ebenezer. There remains of these children Jonathan, Thirza and Ebenezer, all octogenarians. Sally Glazier married Dea. Eben Rice of Rowe, the father of Dr. David Rice of this town. The grandchildren and great grandchildren are very numerous. A large number of them are settled in this town and in Montague, while others are scattered far and near. Ebenezer Glazier had 8 children, 32 grandchildren, and 8 great grandchildren, most of whom are residents of this town and immediate vicinity. Perhaps our young ladies would like to know what splendid mansions and gay times their grandmothers had when they commenced housekeeping. When Benjamin Glazier first commenced housekeeping, it was in a house made by driving 4 crotches into the ground, boarding the sides and the roof. He had sowed a field of rye near the house but could not then fence it. His wife used to take her spinning wheel and go out under a tree and spin and keep the cattle out of the rye. Dea. Joshua Thayer - was born in Milford in 1758. He moved to Leverett and settled on the place now occupied by Edward Glazier. The exact date of his settlement cannot be ascertained, but in 1788 he joined the Baptist church at the age of 30. He raised a family of 9 children, named Bertha, Chapin, Jacob, Sally, Achsah, Judith, Martha, Joshua and Betsey. Of these Joshua and Betsey (widow Almond Hemenway} alone remain. The following inscription on his grave stone corresponds so perfectly with tradition concerning him that we here record it. "He was useful in civil life, a desirable husband, a fond parent, a devout Christian, a pillar in Zion, and died in the hope of a better life". The memory of Deacon Thayer is still fragrant in the minds of many of our aged Christians.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 14, 1874
Leverett's centennial - field meeting of the P.V.M. Association - Preparations - The good citizens of the town of Leverett, inspired by some of the energetic spirits in their midst, awoke a short time since to the fact that the 100th anniversary of their incorporation was speedily approaching, and called a town meeting to see what action was necessary for a suitable commemoration of this important epoch in the town's history. The following citizens were appointed a committee to make the necessary arrangements for the centennial: E.M. Ingram, Town Clerk; Frederick W. Field, William B. Stetson, http://www.gencircle...andalf/2/data/107901 Calvin Marvel [also seen as Calvin Pascal Marble, or Calvin Marvell], Selectmen; Rev. Baxter Newton, Rev. Asa F. Clark, Rev. J.P. Watson, Mrs. Luther Dudley, Mrs. H. Rice, Mrs. Josiah Rice. It was a part of the plan to invite the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association to hold their annual Field Meeting in the town and conduct the Centennial exercises, and it was decided that the grove at the foot of Mount Toby, and the 10th day of Sept. were the most suiatable place and time for the celebration. Mr. Goss, the proprietor of Toby, entered heartily into the enterprise and fitted up the pretty grove with numerous seats, a speaker's stand and a band stand and other conveniences and arrangements for the gathering. Thurs. morning came with a cloudless sky, and before the dew was dry upon the grass, the country for miles around was alive, and along the dusty roads the steady going farm horses were jogging with their merry loads, all thronging to the grand old nook beneath the overhanging rock to participate in the celebration. The trains that came from the north and south brought many too by rail, and by 10 o'clock the throng numbered its thousands, but it was a peaceful and respectful assembly, and quietly taking the seats that had been improvised, or clambering up upon the moss-grown rocks that projected from the mountain side, the people waited for the opening of the exercises. Who were there - Conspicuous among the crowd were many silvered heads, who could remember when the town was young, and who had come now, the proudest of all, to enjoy her centennial. There was the smiling face of Levi Boutwell, 82 years old, as active and strong as most men at three score. http://archiver.root...O/1999-08/0935471650 Aaron Dudley , 88, Ebenezer Glazier, 80, Moses Field, 83, Benjamin Beaman, 80, widow Celia Beach, 81, Elisha Ingram, 82, Jefferson Moore, 73, David Mason, 77, Elijah Montague of Northampton, a native of Leverett, and a grandson of the renowned Major Richard Montague of Colonial and Revolutionary memory, 75; Eliphaz Clapp of Montague, 68, Joshua Marsh of Montague, 77; Rev. Eli Moody of Montague, 80; Nathan Ripley of Montague, 83; Dea. Phinehas Field of Charlemont, 76, George W. Mark of Greenfield, 78, and who remembers very well when Washington died, and we dare say there are many others who had scored as many years as several we have recorded. Not only was the attendance made up from Leverett, Sunderland, Montague, Amherst, Hadley, Greenfield, and other neighboring towns, but many of Leverett's sons and daughters, who are scattered at a distance were there. Among them were http://www.geocities...nix/h/historians.htm Charles K. Field of Brattleboro, who is by the way, quite an antiquarian; Seth Ball and Moses Spellman Field of Stanstead, Canada; Gideon Lee and his sister, Mrs. Weston of Chester Vt. Mr. Lee is a nephew of http://www.clements....s/Arlenes/L/Lee.html Gideon Lee , once a mayor of New York City - Dr. Macomber and wife from Uxbridge, Mrs. Ansel Wright and her father, Robert Fitts of Northampton; E.A. Thomas of Amherst, http://www.rootsweb.com/~nyne/smith/31094.htm Dr. Jerome Wilmarth of Upton, whose father, http://www.msrareboo.../w_BookDetailS/10324 Dr. Butler Wilmarth , was killed in the Norwalk disaster, and his sister, Mrs. Weston of Philadelphia; S.A. Hubbard of the Hartford Courant. Letters were received, regretting their inability to attend, from Oliver Warner, Secretary of State, who added, "and Leverett" to his stereotyped "God Save the Commonwealth of Massachusetts", from E.H. Goss of Boston, a relative of Toby's proprietor; from Lucius Moore, who sent the committee $25, and from Dwight Field of Saratoga, a son of William Field; Frank Hubbard of Toledo, Ohio, and his brother, R.B. Hubbard. When finally, all is in readiness the commencement exercises begin with music by the Montague City Band, Fred Bridges, leader, and W.L. Day of Greenfield, asistant. This band is a new one and composed of exceedingly young musicians, but the way in which they acquitted themselves during the day showed that they understood their business, and will, if they keep on, make a "crack" organization. Frederick W. Field, the chairman of Leverett's Selectmen, called the assembly to order, and the following Invocation Ode, by Dr. David Rice of Leverett, was sung by the assembly to the tune of "Old Hundred": "God of the mountain, hill, and plain / Once more we come to Thee again [a little redundant, no?] / In praise to raise our voices high/ beneath the banner of the sky"...Prayer was offered by Rev. Eli Moody of Montague, who, by way of accounting for being assigned to that duty, said that the committee would have had a clergyman 100 years old if they could have found him. He preached his second sermon in Leverett. Rev. A.F. Clark then delivered an address of welcome to the P.V.M.A.: "Ladies and gentlemen":...Before closing, Mr. Clark read the following poem, written by Rodolphus Hall Esq. of Leverett: Leverett To Her Children - Come to our arms, ye wandering one / Lovely daughters, industrious sons! / come, for we entertain no fears / You love us, with our hundred years/...Ages unknown, the red man here / On lands of ours, to him as dear / In native liberty and stoic pride / A forest sovereign, lived and died"...George Sheldon of Deerfield, president of the association, made the following response:[long speech]...One will tell you of the civil organization of the town: how the mother town, nestling at first close to the "Long River", but being "straightened for room", gradually pushed the settlers over these hills into your beautiful valleys. Perhaps he will tell you how Sunderland (possibly named with reference to [conduce?] events - a hint for the benefit of Mr. Taft, her historian), how Sunderland was found a century ago to be a land broad enugh to be sundered, and with people enough for two municipalities; so the mighty men of those days, using old Toby for a fulcrum, pried off the eastern part, and according to a doubtful tradition, this operation gave a name to the new town, Lever-it, and according to another tradition equally reliable, the huge fragments of rock which are scattered and piled in grand confusion before us, were thrown from the heights above by the action of the same levers. I only mention these traditions for fear they may have escaped the notice of our orator, who may perhaps assign another origen for the name of the town. This division of territory, whatever the means, was peacefully accomplished, and two little commonwealths grew up side by side, rivals only in patriotism and sturdy independence; in peace, the people have run on parallel tracks for a hundred years, only occasionally switching off to make close connections one with another. With many things in common, the soil of these two towns differs essentially; consequently the productions are widely diverse, Sunderland having become famous for her crops of the odoriferous onion, and the fragrant weed Mettawampee and his people loved so well, while the "Fields" of Leverett have long been justly celebrated for the cultivation of music, with which the kindred production of her "Rice" plantation, has blended in absolute harmony [of course, talking about two large Leverett families - the Fields and the Rices]. Let us bear in mind that the day we celebrate is not alone the secular year of Leverett, but it is also the second centennial of the year when Old Ku[sucksqua[?], as the Indians called the noble pile before us, passed forever from the control of the red man. Before the sharp click of the settler's ax had echoed from the mountain side, or his eye had rested on its summit, except from afar, an Indian chief named Waraw-a-lunk-sic, lived on an island called Mat-tam-pash lying in the Quinituk River, somewhere between We[puamps], called by the white men, Sugar Loaf, and the mouth of the Pocomtuck River, when he died about 1671. This chief had been a fast young man, and some dozen years before he had been fined 24 [?] of wampum for breaking windows, and other misdemeanors while on a spree at Springfield, being uanble to pay this fine and getting some in debt, he mortgaged his inheritance to Major Pynchon March 4, 1685, to secure the indebtedness. HIs mother, Mash-a-lisk, seems to have settled his estate, and April 4, 1674 Kunck-qui-chu and the territory for miles around was transferred by her to Major John Pynchon, to secure the indebtedness, the Major throwing in "one large Indian coat" and some small trinkets to balance the account.[Mr. Sheldon ends his speech by thanking Rector L. Goss, the "large hearted, open-handed man to whom we are indebted for the use of this charming spot today, the man of taste, who has disturbed the grand handiwork of nature only so far as was necessary to open up her own wild beauties to the foot and eye of civilized man and give an outlook upon a prospect unparalleled in its varied magnificence. I will now call the attention fo the assembly to one of the chief producers of the Fields of Leverett, under the direction of the Captain of them all". At this point Capt. Asa L. Field, 73, lead the old folks in such old time tunes as "Northfield", "New Jerusalem" and "Mount Zion". The hymns were caught up by the audience and rendered with old fashioned fervor. At the conclusion of the singing, the historian of the day, Rev. J.P. Watson of Leverett was introduced to the audience. He had had but 2 or 3 weeks to prepare his sketch of the town, but had brought to his task such perseverance and energy that nothing of importance in its history was omitted. The work involved in the preparation of such an address is only known to those who have tried it. Nearly an hour and a half was occupied in its delivery. We give the address, omitting only a few extracts from records which are without interest to the general reader. Rev. J.P. Watson's address: [Speaks of the topography of the land and the original setlers]...The first title recorded is dated Sept. 3, 1727, and covers a lot of 10 acres, marked 12 in the records, to Samuel Montague, and described as laying on the Fishpond rocks ( a range of land constituting a large share of the S. part of the town) on the east side of the Ash swamp that is at the north end of Juggle meadow, bounded at the N.W. corner on a witchhazel http://www.webster-d...g/definition/Staddle staddle splasht; on the N.E. corner on a heap of stones laid up together, and on the S.E. a stake and stones, and on the S.W. on a red ash splasht...Sawyer Field's farm is said to have been the first settled place in the town, and by Joseph Hubbard (perhaps the son of Dea. Isaac Hubbard, as it was about 20 years later than this title....As the demands and travel increased, a way was opened to Brookfield from Hadley and Northampton, through the "Equivalent Lands", so called, via Cold Spring (Belchertown). But this was circuitous for Sunderland and Deerfield; a more direct route lay through the first settlements to the east, viz. the old town of Lancaster. For nearly 100 years had she been the western frontier. Her interests would be greatly subserved by a road to Deerfield, and the upper towns on the river; her historic fame, and blood-drenched soil, and hardships and losses endured in those perilous time of savage warfare, could not restrain the enterprising spirit of her noble men and heroes. Hence the project to connect Sunderland, by a road thither, to itself. And this was equally desirable to the towns on the river...Before the close of 1733 they had picked and cut their way along the base of threatening Wachusett, climbed the sides of Petersham...New Salem and Shutesbury hills...In 1780 the town was incorporated under the name of Leverett, in honor of John Leverett, Governor of Massachusetts [A very long section follows, the entire original act of incorporation of the town]...Rufus Graves laid equally deep the foundations of literary provisions in raising the first $50,000 of the endowment of Amherst College, and in that regard may be called one of its founders...Our productive industries have brought sometimes annually to the market a million feet of lumber, one half million of shingles...Leverett had 524 population in the first census, 1790...Leverett bore honorable part in the service in 1812, and in the late war of the rebellion...Inventive genius has held a share in the field here. Patents of various inventions have been accorded to men of this town, and much unpatented and useful productions have been here constructed. We raised a painter also of no little repute. Able divines have here dwelt and labored. The first Sabbath School in this region was in Leverett, conducted and aided by Austin Dickinson. The Unitarian faith ws once proclaimed by men no less gifted than Bishop Huntington and his venerable father and that element in society was rival of the Orthodox. Hosea Ballou preached here a few times. A Universalist society was incorporated in South Leverett in 1818 with no unworthy array of names. One prominent man affiliated with Episcopalians long years ago. There are legends of one Witch, but she was not suffered to live. Of tragedies and romances we have no time to speak, but the buxom lasses of ye olden time had arts and wiles as shrewd as any. And frollics [i.e. frolics] then were harmless things. The honored dead, the living noble are with us here. The glimmering light of other years shines pale upon our path, but sheltered by these eternal bulwarks, the spirits of the ancient days whisper in our ears healthful counsels, link us with them in the great historic book unwritten still, and writing now. I close with this sentiment. The century to come - may its heroes be many and noble, its fortunes ample, its labors abundant and its achievements grand. Following the address came an ecclesiastical history of the South Parish, with biographical sketches, by Rev. David Eastman of New Salem, for 20 years a pastor of this church. We have not space for its publication this week, but propose to give it in full in some future issue, that the people of Leverett may preserve the interesting statistics which he has gathered. The collation - The feast of reason and of ancient lore did not prevent the multitude from becoming hungry, and when it was announced that there would be half an hour's intermission for lunch, there was a general feeling of pleasant relief. Although it was advertised as a basket picnic, hundreds came depending upon the generosity of Leverett's good housewives, and their confidence was by no means misplaced. The tables there were fairly loaded with cakes, pies, fruit, etc. which were dealt out without stint or measure, and coffee, tea, and lemonade were served until there wasn't an individual "Oliver Twist" in the crowd who could find voice or room for more. Lunch baskets were opened and little family spreads were made all over the rocks and through the woods, making a picture of rural beauty that some enterprising artist should have been upon the ground to photograph. By way of exercise, to settle down from the dinner, came the Granger's Parade. They were marshaled by Capt. Putnam Field of Greenfield, with Emory Whitney and Cephas Frary of Leverett and Rufus Putnam of Athol as Aids. The Leverett Grangers, numbering about 40 members, received their associates from granges in Hadley, Deerfield and South Deerfield, Amherst, Greenfield and Northfield, all in regalia, making quite a martial column, numbering over 100. The peculiarity of the parade was the fact that the Grangers could pair off with a lady on each gentleman's arm; and if "middle-men" and "monopolists" could have seen this warlike array of "beauty and chivalry", they would have surrendered without a shot. This interesting part of the exercises finished, there was another assembly about the "grand stand" for the enjoyment of the afternoon's programme. First came singing by the Leverett Glee Club composed of C.H. Field, C.M. Field, Edward Field and Silas Field, who sang very finely indeed. Rev. Baxter Newton of North Leverett was then introduced, who gave a history of the Old Baptist church, with notice of early settlers, which we shall have to differ publishing until another issue. Robert B. Caverly [ http://www.wvu.edu/~...lp-2001/caverly.html Robert Boodey Caverly ] Esq. of Lowell, the poet of the day, was now introduced and read his poetical adress with earnestness and effect. It was entitled "The Year of Pocumtuck", and for those who did not hear, and may read the poem, we shall publish it next week. Miss Allen of Warehouse Point next stepped upon the platform and read, as only the most accomplished elocutionist could, the excellent poem written by Dr. David Rice of Leverett, on "George Cheney's Race With Death", and published by us, our readers will remember, a few weeks since. Thre was the most respectful attention, and many in the audience were visibly affected with the tragic narrative. So hearty was the encore, that Miss Allen gave her hearers a recitation entitled the " http://www.mbr-pwrc....framlst/i4940id.html Bobolink ", which gave an opportunity for the wonderful compass and power of her voice. The voices of one half the feathered tribe were so neatly imitated that the birds on the trees overhead must have stopped their own songs in admiration and wonder. Dea. Field of East Charlemont was now called upon for a story, and as his fund of ancient anecdotes never runs dry, he was ready for the occasion. Prof. Levi Stockbridge of the Agricultural College responded briefly to a call, and told how when a boy he had hunted all over old Toby, and wound up with a story about Major Montague. A number of gentlemen were now called up and with appropriate remarks presented to the association interesting relics. Dea. Field's contributions included a curious Chinese map of the world. his mother's wedding dress, and his grandmother's shows, with high wooden heels. A box was presented by http://www.gencircles.com/users/daveg/1/data/18828 Elmer Graves , made from a panel of the pulpit in the First Baptist meeting house in Leverett. Arrows, stone implements and some ancient coin were given by Levi Boutwell. Jesse Delano of Sunderland contributed a number of old books and documents. A conch shell was given, formerly the property of Dea. Moses Graves of Leverett, and handed down from him to Esquire Roswell Field 75 years ago. It was used then to call the people to church. Since the death of Mr. Field it has been in the possession of Timothy Putnam. That the present generation might know how the shell sounded a blast from it was given by a Mrs. Putnam. Mrs. Charles W. Thurber presented the stone point of a chisel. Mrs. Deacon Samuel Childs, through Secretary Hitchcock, showed that our grandmothers were given to follies and devices as well as the fair creatures of the present day. Here was a stay or corset, as worn in 1795, largely composed of wood, that must have held the form like a vice [sic]. This lady also gave a copy of the http://home.gwi.net/~dew/npaper/npaper1.htm "Columbian Centinel" of 79 years ago [approximately 1795], which contained among other interesting things a Proclamation of Washington, and the advertisement of a lottery to the benefit of Harvard Colelge. Mrs. Louise Moore [Elizabeth Miller Moore] presented a book containing several interesting sermons by Rev. Robert Russell in 1767, and another, the http://home.gwi.net/~dew/npaper/npaper1.htm "Evidences of Revealed Religion" by the Mendon Association, printed in 1797. But what attracted as much attention as anything was an ancient listaff from Mrs. Dexter Moore of Leverett, and Mrs. Charlotte Woodard, 63 years old, sat down and showed her younger sisters how to spin linen. Mrs. William Vaughn gave a large bible, and Mrs. Th[?]er an ancient hatchet found in her yard. Rev. Mr. Newton held up to the assembly a wonderfully carved powder horn, a specimen of the handiwork of Major Richard Montague, who carried it in the retreat from Quebec under Montgomery, and who also wore it at the battle of Bunker Hill. And in contrast to these rusty relics, we must not forget to mention the exhibition of window gardens, brakets and carved work made by E.H. Marsh of Montague. The speaker's stand had beside it one of those window gardens filled with ferns, autumn leaves and flowers, and these articles of modern ingenuity were by no means out of place. The closing up - As good times necessarily have an end, and the lengthening shadow finally warned the assembled people that their centennial celebration must be brought to a close. Before separating however, Mrs. Lyman, Dr. Rice's daughter, sang in a fine voice http://www.victorian...912-2407/sb2092.html "The Old Arm Chair" , and the Doctor moved a vote of thanks to the orators and poets of the day, to the band and Mr. Goss and all who had in any way aided to make the celebration the enjoyable success it had in every way proved. The vote was heartily passed and a few reluctant ones still lignered about the stand, and Dea. Phinehas Field, in the youth and joy of his heart, broke into an original melody, which was rendered in characteristic tone and expression, and thus ended Leverett's centennial, and we only hope that the celebration of the second century will be the occasion of half as much pleasure and interest as this has been.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 24, 1874
Leverett’s centennial - The annual field meeting of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association will be held Sept. 10, probably at Roaring Brook, at the foot of Mt. Toby. The occasion will be the celebration of the one hundredth anniversary of the incorporation of the town of Leverett, and its present and former residents, and friends of other towns are invited to be present. Speakers and fuller arrangements will be announced next week.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 10, 1873
(Greenfield) The following new books have been added to the Greenfield Library: What Katy did; The Deserted Ship; Little Bobtail; The Whispering Pine; Mrs. Skagg’s Husband; Shawl Straps; Middlemarch
(Greenfield) The following new books have been added to the Greenfield Library: What Katy did; The Deserted Ship; Little Bobtail; The Whispering Pine; Mrs. Skagg’s Husband; Shawl Straps; Middlemarch; Never Again; Wonders of Sculpture; Wonders of the Moon; The Hoosier Schoolmaster; In Extremis; Concord Days; The Wandering Heir; Little Folk Life; Keel and Saddle; The Forms of Water in Clouds and Rivers; Ice and Glaciers; The Poet at the Breakfast Table; Wonders of the http://xroads.virgin...RAILROAD/ystone.html Yellowstone ; The Child of the Island Glen; The United States in the Light of Prophecy; The English in Ireland in the 18th Century; The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals; The Romance of the Harem; His Level Best; Off the Skelligs; The Tall Student; A Memorial of Alice and Phebe Carey; Hope Deferred; Nordhoff’s California; At His Gates; The Eustace Diamonds; How I Found Livingstone; The Human Race; Art Education; Oriental Religions; The Woods and by Ways of New England; The Pennsylvania Pilgrim; Gareth and Lynette; Life of Dickens, 2d. volume; The Marble Prophecy; The Princess and the Goblin; Kentucky’s Love; Behind the Bars; The Curate and the Rector; Sir Roger de Coverly; Bede’s Charity; The Pleasures of My Old Age; With Fate Against Him; Richard Vandermark; Topics of the Times; France and Her People. The absorbing event of the week will be the Library Fair, which occurs on Thurs. and Fri. eve. There is hardly a family in town but has contributed something to the entertainment, and where all are so deeply interested there can be no doubt of a successful result. Thurs. eve. will be devoted to the usual features of a fair. The ladies will provide an excellent supper which will include all the delicacies and substantials obtainable, and it is the desire that citizens generally, with their families, will be present to partake of the repast. The antiquarian table, which will rival the cabinets of the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association in the richness and fullness of its collection, will not be the least of the attractions. The Post Office promises an unusual amount of fun, and St. http://www.scrapalbum.com/svcomic/svc_p8.htm Valentine , with his missives sentimental or http://www.scrapalbum.com/svcomic/svc_p7.htm otherwise will receive more than usual attention. The tables for fancy and useful articles will be complete, possessing a large amount of needle and worsted work and everything that busy and skillful fingers can fashion. Grab boxes for the children, will yield dolls, toys and nick-nacks, and refreshments, sweetmeats etc. will be dispensed to purchasers. Fri. eve. will witness an entire "change of programme". A no. of talented ladies and gentlemen will appear in Tom Taylor’s comedy "Helping Hands" . At the conclusion of the play, which is pronounced the most amusing thing yet undertaken by our local amateurs, dancing will be inaugurated with music from Prof. Putnam’s Band, and those who desire can trip the light fantastic to their satisfaction. Everybody will want to attend the fair and a better opportunity to enjoy a good time and help a worthy cause is seldom offered our people.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 20, 1874
(Charlemont) The old turtle that has had continuous and undisputed possession of a certain marsh for the last 50 years, on land now occupied by M.M. Mantor, turned up again last week; he bears sever
(Charlemont) The old turtle that has had continuous and undisputed possession of a certain marsh for the last 50 years, on land now occupied by M.M. Mantor, turned up again last week; he bears several inscriptions. The most ancient is "Z.L. Parker, 1831", and though he is so old his eye does not appear to be dim or his natural force abated. We understand Mr. Mantor intends in his will to bequeath him to the P.V.M. Association.