Article Archives: Articles - Franklin County (MA) News Archive
Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics
Revised Jan. 10, 2009
Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to pull up all articles mentioning Athol.
The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!
ACCIDENT VICTIMS Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.
ACCIDENTS Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes. ADVERTISING One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here. AFRICAN AMERICANS / BLACKS Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.
AMUSEMENTSis kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.
ANIMALS / REPTILES From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.
ARABS Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s. ARCHAEOLOGY is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.
ASTRONOMY Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.
ATHOL, MA BARBER / HAIR includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc. BARS (DRINKING ESTABLISHMENTS) Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.
BIRDS All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird]. BIRTH CONTROL A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc. BIRTHS Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.
CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.
CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.
CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work. CONTESTS Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.
COURTS One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity. COURTSHIP - The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well. CRIME - Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness. CRIMINALS - Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].
CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band]. CURIOSITIES AND WONDERS is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-). CUTLERY AND CUTLERY TRADE - Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.
DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.
DEERFIELD, MA DISASTERS- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.
DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em. DIVORCE - the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.
DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here. DRUG ABUSE - From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.
EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.
EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.
FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.
FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.
FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers. FASHION - A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.
FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.
FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.
FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.
FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section. FRENCH - Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc. FURNITURE - Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".
GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.
GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.
GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.
GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section. GEOGRAPHY - one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.
GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.
GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure. GOVERNMENT - usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.
GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.
HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA) A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).
HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc. HAWLEY (MA)
HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.
HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.
HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.
HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet. HOOSAC TUNNEL (MA) is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig". HORSES - I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.
HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes. HOUSEHOLDS is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.
HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.
ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.
To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
The Greenfield end of the Troy and Greenfield Railroad
The Greenfield end of the Troy and Greenfield Railroad - Messrs. Keith and Barton, Greenfield’s committee to adjust damages with parties on the line of the railroad, have been busy the past week, and have not yet completed their task. Starting from the track of the Connecticut River Railroad, a strip is taken from the Agricultural Fair Ground, the width of which is not yet determined.
A small portion of Mrs. Colle’s lot will probably be taken, and a little from the south side of John Osterhout’s lot and also Judge Aiken’s. A corner is taken from the Catholic premises, but the road will not come within 20 ft. of the new house, or seriously interfere with it. A small piece will be taken from the rear of Miss Lucy Billings’ lot, and the road will then cross lands belonging to the Methodist Society, H.J. Davis, A. DeWolf, L.T. Smith, Mrs. L.W. Rice, John Russell, and William Elliot, running for the most part on a side hill, and not greatly damaging any of the parties.
On E.J. Jones’ premises, it takes a part of his garden; on Dennis W. Jones, a rear lot; a strip of 50 rods, belonging to Charles L. Lowell; a strip fro the open lot adjoining, belonging to Joel Wilson, and also the premises in the rear of it belonging to ____ Merzh. Crossing the avenue, Mrs. Helen M. Pratt’s house stands directly in the way, and her whole lot is purchased. Mrs. Mary B. Coombs owns the remainder of the land to the Green River.
On the other side of Green River, the road will run 400 ft. south of James Newton’s hosue. At this point there will be a fill of 30 ft., which will require an embankment 16 rods wide at the bottom. The distance across the Newton premises is 1800 ft. It strikes the east side of J.M. Munson’s lot, not going within 25 rods of his house, taking from him 5 acres of pine land running through a cut of 33 ft. on the extreme south as it comes to the Deerfield line.
The length of the road on Munson’s land is 78 rods. The line of road is about half way between the old trotting park on Petty’s Plain and the County road west of it, crossing land belonging to the Bird heirs, a small corner of land belonging to Allen Newton, George W. Potter and Washington Jones, then lands of Caleb Jones, George W. Jones, ____ Hartwell, L.B. Wise, Elexis Jones, Charles Wood, Frederick Conant, and then on to the line at West Deerfield.
At Blakeley Hollow, the bed of the road is 23 ft. under the present track, and from that point west, runs on the side hill, a succession of cuts and fills, but nowhere interferes with houses west of Green River. The bridge across Green River is to be a two track iron bridge, 500 ft. long and 80 ft. high. The piers and abutments will have to rest on piles, as an iron rod has been sunk near the river, to the depth of 40 ft., and the ground was found to be soft and treacherous.
The bridge is to be of the first things constructed, and will be sub-contracted to one of the parties who are now making estimates.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Not a small share of our male population went to the Springfield races on Fri., and we haven't seen one man in the lot who isn't mad clear through. They say they were the victims of an unmitigated "sell", and declare by all that is great and good that you will never catch them on Hampden Park again. Beside the fizzle of the race, their discomfiture was rendered still more intolerable by the inadequate transportation furnished by the railroads. They were out nearly half of the night.
[See a good description of Hampden Park in Google Books "Springfield present and prospective" by James Eaton Tower, 1905].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 9, 1875
A big tree for the Centennial
California papers mention the fact that a Mr. Vivian is preparing a large piece of one of the Tulare County big trees to exhibit at the Centennial next year. The piece of timber selected is 16 ft. long and 21 ft. in diameter at one end and 19 at the other. The heart of this will be taken out, leaving only about one ft. of the body of the tree attached to the shell or bark. It is necessary to divide it into a number of parts in order to allow it to pass through the numerous tunnels between California and Philadelphia.
The 8 parts will weigh between 30,000 and 40,000 pounds, and will require 2 cars for transportation. One solid foot of this tree weighs 72 lbs., being 10 lbs. heavier than so much water. The timber was taken out of the "General Lee", a tree 275 ft. high. It contained over 200,000 ft. of lumber, besides, probably, about 200 cords of wood. The "General Grant", a much larger brother tree than the "General Lee", and the largest int he world growing in the same grove, is left standing.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
A substantial gravel walk is being made across Cushman Park, and when it is completed, as it was intended it should be by its generous and public spirited Testator, and the Cushman monument is removed there, or a soldier's monument is erected therein, it will be an ornament to the town, for which every citizen may feel justly proud. [The soldiers' monument was indeed erected, and will post a pic when I can find one].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
The English are the first
The English is [i.e. are] the first of foreign nations to break ground at Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, for the erection of the buildings for the use of their commissioners during the centennial. Japan, Sweden and Morocco are preparing to follow suit, and the other commissions will soon be similarly engaged, the whole making a lively and very picturesque scene. Austria’s requisition for space, which has just been received, calls for 32,000 square feet of the main building and over 21,000 in the art gallery, an increase of 1/3 over the original reservation for that nation. [See Centennial Exhibition in Wikipedia].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 19, 1875
A day or two since, Amariah Briggs, while riding though the shady park of Great River, was stopped by two tramps, who demanded his money. As quick as thought, he took from his coat pocket a bottle, and pointing toward them the nozzle, replied that he had something he would give them! They mistook the bottle, which was partially concealed by his hand, for a pistol, and fled. http://www.workhouse...vagrants/signs.shtml
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 19, 1875
Week before last was one of picnics, emphatically so, at Sylvan Grove in this town. On Mon. the 5th, the Hibernians from Keene N.H. celebrated the nation’s birthday by a picnic, which was numerously attended, there being several car loads of men, women and children. They brought their favorite beer in great abundance, and their own police to preserve order and guard the festivities of the occasion from all interruption that might ensue from the "working" of the beer. The police were mostly of the Yankee blood, large and powerful looking men.
They brought along with them two fine bands of music, a brass band, and a string band, to stir the soul with harmony. National pride was quite apparent on this occasion, several of the leading ones wearing the green plume and other trappings of Irish nationality. Upon one large and beautiful banner, we saw the name of Emmett, a name dear to every Irish heart, and a name worthy to be revered by every patriot. Upon the whole this picnic appeared to be a very enjoyable affair, and well enjoyed by all concerned, giving no unfavorable impressions of the Irish character.
There were some very sprightly and amusing single jig dancing, both by males and females, which was almost "super" Yankee. [?] There was only one beer fight, and this was soon checked by the long, bony arms of a Yankee policeman. One of those combatants did not belong to the party from Keene. As soon as clear from the grasp of the policeman, he made tracks as fast as his ten toes could carry him, for fear of being handcuffed and tied to a tree, a summary, but very proper and effective way of treating the license loving public when inclined to pugilistic sentiments.
At a seasonable hour the party all left for their homes in sober good nature, all feeling they had had a good time, and honored the birth of their adopted country. The next picnic in order was that of the two Baptist Societies from Springfield, called the Sunday School Picnic, and was the largest gathering of the kind held at Sylvan Grove this season, there being 9 car loads of old and young, and was evidently a gathering of [?] first social rank of the place. They also had two bands of music, a brass band and a string band, and in addition they had a choir of male singers, whose vocal powers can hardly be beat if equaled.
We cannot recall the time when we have been so highly pleased with social music. And we were not a little surprised, but very "agreeably" so, to learn that the Baptist people can "trip it on the light fantastic toe", and call the same an innocent and sinless amusement, as well as other professing Christians. Truly old prejudices are giving way and common sense is gaining ground...
Thurs. July 8, a colored picnic from Springfield occupied Sylvan Grove, numbering 201 grown up persons of both sexes, and 31 children. They called themselves the Pilgrim Baptists, and during their stay here their conduct was very exemplary and seemed perfectly consistent with the Christian name and character. Their sense of Christian propriety forbade them to indulge in dancing exercises, which seems almost an instinct of the African race, consequently they had no music but vocal, some of which was exceedingly charming to the ear. They were scrupulously neat in appearance, well dressed, though not fantastically so, which is considered by many to be an African characteristic.
They were all shades, from a jet black to a light quadroon, many of them having the straight auburn hair and the Saxon blue eye. Many of them gave evidence of a good degree of general intelligence and learning, being able to converse with ease upon various topics, especially religious topics, to which they seemed much inclined. Their demeanor, through the day, was such as to claim the respect of every one present; and we were very willing to admit that they rightfully belonged to the great Christian brotherhood of man.
Several of the first class citizens of the place showed them marks of politeness and courtesy, by carrying them about town in their carriages. "A blessing on him who cheers the downtrodden".
Fri. July 9, the Unitarian Society from Northampton held a picnic at Sylvan Grove. This party numbered 150, a number highly respectable for the Society, which we understand is quite small. It was quite evident from appearances that this party was composed of people of both sexes from the first circles of refined society in points of politeness and moral culture. They were accompanied by a band of music of 6 pieces, called the Arlan Orchestra, T.S. Billings, leader, a gentleman highly distinguished for musical talents, as also were the others of the band. The music of this band probably cannot be beat by any band in Western Massachusetts. Mr. Billings is, no doubt, an amateur of music from birth.
Of course a dance followed the sweet strains of this music; indeed, they couldn’t help it, so bewitching is the power of music over the head and heels. Among the dancers first up on this occasion we saw an old gentleman, 83 years old; and had you seen nothing of him but the nimble and elastic step of his feet, you certainly would have said those feet were not more than 20 years old; a remarkable instance of green old age. This was no less a man than David Damon, a well known citizen in the first circles of Northampton society. [See the Google book "Early Northampton", 1914],
(Pardon us for calling names). Nothing happened in word or deed to mar the enjoyment of this pleasant occasion. There was no smell of ’license" stronger than good tea and coffee, with plenty of cool lemonade. Joy and social kindness shone in every countenance, showing the unspeakable advantages of refined society. Even the gentle bearing and graceful manners of the little children lent a charm to the occasion. Such a picnic we would gladly see repeated. Scribe.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
The plan of procuring a tablet that shall bear the names of Greenfield's dead soldiers has been changed somewhat. It is now deemed best to have the tablet or tablets in a more permanent form than was at first proposed. Mr. Batterson, who furnished the design for our soldier's monument, says that bronze tablets could be affixed near the base giving the names of the soldiers, and not mar in the least the beauty and symmetry of the structure. In this form the names of our heroic dead could be preserved for hundreds of years. The expense attending the preparation of the tablets will be some $200 to $300 dollars, which it is proposed to raise by subscription. Several generous contributions have already been made.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 24, 1875
Last Aug. a no. of men, mostly novices in the art of music, bought 18 band instruments, costing $700 in all, and set about learning to play on them. The result is the Turners Falls Band, now a well established success, which has given several street parades and 2 concerts, one of which netted about $65. A band stand on the park is talked of, and uniforms will probably be secured at an early day.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 17, 1875
The statue of Daniel Webster has been accepted by the New York Park Commissioners
The statue of Daniel Webster has been accepted by the New York Park Commissioners, and it has been decided to place it in Central Park. The unveiling of the statue, it is expected, will take place in June next.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 3, 1875
Springfield's amusements the past week have been the trial of the Republican for libel of Willis Phelps
Springfield's amusements the past week have been the trial of the Republican for libel of Willis Phelps [See the article in the New York Times of Dec. 3, 1873, in which Mr. Phelps claims that the Springfield Republican called him the "Boss Tweed of Springfield"] before Judge Endicott, and a dog show, during which a poor frightened fox was let loose on Hampden Park, and the elite of Springfield witnessed its capture and mangling by the hounds.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 19, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Why will people persist in hitching their horses to the iron fence about the common? The light castings are easily broken, and there are a plenty of hitching posts that are more conveniently reached and will hold the horses much more securely.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 12, 1875
Mon. night the first through train from Chicago, by way of the Tunnel, reached this place between 12 and 1, and had to stop here on account of the Bardwell Ferry bridge being impassable. The cars were illuminated with different colored lights, and liberal use was made of the steam whistle, which was responded to with deafening roars from our village common. All bedlam seemed to be let loose, and we all forcibly realized the benefits of being on a great through route.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News about home (Greenfield)
Washington Hall was not too capacious for the throng of people who attended the mock trial of the Greenfield Lyceum Fri. eve., for every desirable seat in the body of the house was occupied. The witnesses for the prosecution having been examined at the previous session of the court, the defense was opened by Attorney Cooley, and a number of witnesses were put upon the stand, including the prisoners who testified on their own behalf.
/ The plea for the defendants was made by W. Johnson and the summing up for the prosecution was by B.S. Parker. The pathetic eloquence of the counsel, who set forth the points of the case in the brightest color, caused visible emotion among the jurors and the audience.
/ Chief Justice Lee's charge to the jury gave a plain outline of their duty. He cautioned them not to let any tender sympathy or pity for the prisoners, bias or warp their convictions of justice. The jury retired under the charge of Sheriff Owen; they returned once for instruction on a doubtful point, but soon found a verdict of guilty. The prisoners stood up and received their sentence. The penalty for their misconduct was to pay for a supper to be partaken of by the officers of the court at Richardson's, and failure to comply they were to be burned at a stake before the monument on the Common. Thus ended the trial which had furnished some decidedly rich developments, and was attended with only less interest than the case of Tilton vs. Beecher. The programme of the next meeting to be held at Grand Army Hall next Fri. eve. will include a criticism of the trial by Newell snow, and the discussion of the question, "Resolved: that poverty develops character better than wealth", with P. Field to open the affirmative, and W.D. Chandler the negative.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 15, 1875
The streets of Benares, India
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Benares [also known as Banaras or Varanasi). From the New York Observer - We took a gharry to see the town. We rode through the new part of the city, where the streets are broad and well macadamized, and smooth as a floor. Beautiful shade trees are planted all along the broad streets. There are many modern houses and shops, and some of them have large yards, beautifully ornamented with trees, shrubs, and flowers. We did not, however, drive through all the streets, for in the old part of the city http://gallery.photo.net
hoto/2643448-lg.jpg they are not over 5 or 6 ft. wide. Many of these narrow streets are lined on either side with substantial stone houses, 6 or 7 stories high.
/ These streets are so crooked and winding that one needs a guide to go most anywhere, and certainly to get out of them. The shops of the same kind of business are congregated in one street. We went through quite a long street, and every shop was devoted to workers in brass. The same holds good as to iron workers, the silver and gold workers.
/ It is a great manufacturing city, and many curious things are made here. There are shops of every kind, and every trade is represented. Every shop is open to the street. We visited them, and were particularly interested in the workers in brass. They manufacture and carve, in the most beautiful manner, the vases and all the utensils used in housekeeping. These shops are filled with all types of brass goods, and every article is as bright as gold. Every dealer will be after you to buy his wares at some price, and you will very likely get loaded with goods. We visited the tin and ironsmiths, and thought we never saw such a variety of goods before.
/ The jewelry shops and stores are filled with very rich and costly goods. We were left to wonder where such beautiful and expensive wares of silver and ornaments of gold jewels could find a market. There is quite a street where slippers are made, apparently enough to supply all India. We saw shops where saddlery hardware was made. It is all very interesting and curious, and all those shops were filled with Hindoos, and not an idle person in the number.
/ One of the most interesting places in the city is where the accoutrements and uniforms of the soldiers and others are made. We visited the shop where all kinds of Oriental fabrics are made. The looms were in motion, and human muscle furnished the power. Apparently there is nothing so cheap as man power. These nearly naked men seem to work with the regularity of a machine. These shops are in the lower story of the houses. The first story is used not only for shops, but frequently for stabling cattle.
/ Of all the curious and costly products of the looms of this city, the celebrated Brocade of Benares http://www.indianselections.net/wall-hangings.html is the most wonderful. We visited one of these establishments, but made no purchases. We have often read of this fabric - the gold cloth of the famous city. Our guide led the way up several flights of stone steps. The passageways, as well as the stairs, were all narrow as well as winding. We reached the store room, but nothing but the stone floor and naked walls were in sight, but soon a salesman appeared and unlocked some massive doors and spread out a sheet upon the floor, and upon that, piece after piece of the beautiful brocade. We saw no piece that cost less than 60 dollars a yard, and several pieces that cost twice that sum.
/ Some of these brocades seemed half gold, but the cloth was as soft and pliable as though all silk...We wondered at the skill of the weaver and admired his work, but the polite merchant was compelled to replace his beautiful fabrics in their place of safety, and we, with many thanks and bows took our leave. There is an indescribable charm about the streets and street sights of this ancient city.
/ The aristocracy, consisting of the princes and priests and wealthy merchants, are all elegantly dressed, many of them in costly silks; but the laboring classes have the merest apology for clothing, many of them wearing only the dhotee, or a piece of cotton cloth about their loins, while most of the children http://gallery.photo.net
hoto/3340407-lg.jpg are entirely naked.But we soon get used to this costume of the laboring classes, for we see it everywhere in warm climates. Half of the people of the town seem to live in the streets and transact all their business there. All kinds of goods are offered you as you walk along the streets, but the Hindoo is always polite and respectful.
/ We saw a great variety of small paintings on isinglass, illustrative of the customs and habits of the people. Those of the military represent the officers and the common soldiers, the priests and the people. The most curious of all these illustrations are those of the religious beggars. They assume costumes according to caste, and are very numerous, and many of them very degraded.
/ There are some horses and cows in the street, but I did not see a single bull at large. There are but few horses in Benares, and they are seldom used to draw heavy loads or bear burdens. They are harnessed before the most curious little cart in the world. The harness is composed of a kind of saddle, unto which the thills of the cart are fastened clear up on the back of the horse. The cart itself is a rude affair. The thills are bent so that they have to go by the horse’s side, and then crook up on to his back. It has a little top about as large as an umbrella, and often has bells hanging to it. It is only the rich that can afford one of these outfits.
/ The common people use the little bullock, but he is nimble and trots off like a horse. We visited the parks and gardens of the city, were greatly interested in the beautiful and luxuriant tress of this favored land. Most of these trees are new to us, and as we look upon them for the first time, we are amazed at the richness of the foliage. There is a boundless variety of shrubs and trailing vines and flowers in these wonderful gardens. There is no frost to stiffen the ground or to chill the air, and all these trees and shrubs are forever green.
/ The old leaf ripens and is pushed from its place by the new ones, but the stalk is never bare. There is no winter here, but there are long seasons of dry weather, but these beautiful gardens are kept fresh and verdant by irrigation. The water is raised for that purpose by immense wells by rude machines, here worked by oxen. The water is conducted all over the gardens in cement conduits. It is all very laborious, but human muscle is very cheap in India.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
Washington City during the Rebellion
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Washington,_D.C. Washington City during the Rebellion - Not one street was paved for any great consecutive distance; there was not a street car in the city, the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Capitol Capitol was without a dome, and the new wings were filled with workmen. No Fire Department worthy of the name was to be seen, and a mere constabulary comprised the police, which had to call on the http://www.dcmilitar...hall/hh_history.html United States Marines , as in 1857,when the latter fired upon a mob, and killed and wounded a large no. of people. The water supply was wholly afforded by pumps and springs. Gas had been in partial use for several years, but little else was lighted except Pennsylvania Avenue and the public buildings. Not one of the departments was half finished. The President's house was beleaguered with stables, wooden fences, and patches of bare earth. Nearly one half of the city was cut off from the rest by a ditch, and called the Island, while an intervening strip of mall and park was patrolled by outlaws and outcasts, with only a bridge here and there for outlet. The river side was a mass of earthen bluffs pierced by two streets, and scarcely obtainable for mire and obstructions. Georgetown communicated with the capital by an omnibus line, and there was no ferry to Alexandria to be remembered as such, except in the sensitive traditions of the oldest residents. There was a show of hotel accommodation, on which we need not linger in memory of a http://history.furma...ocs/papgsu56611a.htm Congressman shooting a white waiter dead in the dining room at Willard's, of a President welcomed to his inauguration with the http://en.wikipedia....tional_Hotel_disease National Hotel disease . Slavery seemed to take delight in pressing its exposures upon the notice of Northern men and foreigners. There was a http://query.nytimes...3BA2575BC0A9629C8B63 slave pen under the eaves of the Smithsonian Institution. Manacled men were marched down the avenue handcuffed together. To take a Northern paper was a stigma; and for an abolitionist to lecture would have been to revive the riots around the http://www.washingto...izon/aug98/pearl.htm National Era office. There were good and bad elements in the place, but society had its depths and heights. To bear arms was common and they were used on quick occasion. In short, the city was relatively in embryo as much as when Moore, Weld, Janson and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basil_Hall Basil Hall described it early in the century. A comparative description of the cities of Washington and Richmond during the Civil War would epitomize the relative vigor, constructiveness and confidence of the embattled sections. Nothing was built in Richmond which commemorates the Confederate government at this day except earth works and the State Capitol, designed by Jefferson, which was finished the year the National Capitol was commenced, fell in only a few years after the close of the war, burying court, legislature and spectators in a charnel of smoke and wailing. But the civic portion of the national capital never grew with the rapidity which it showed when menaced by the public enemy. At an expense of $1,5000,000, 68 ports in a circuit of 37 miles were thrown up, connected by 32 miles of good roadway, all of which is still available to the tourist and the teamster. The long bridge, which had been opened in 1835, was rebuilt, the railroad bridge beside it constructed; the railroad from New York doubled in truck, the aqueduct, which has cost about $3,000,000 was steadily carried on within fire of the enemy; the dome was raised on the capital, and saluted by the guns of all the forts as the statue of Freedom took its place on the summit; the Treasury was all completed except one wing, and has cost almost $6,000,000; the Post Office was almost all built during the war, and the Patent Office, which cost $2,200,000 was completed in 1867. The first street railroad was opened in 1862. The fortune of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad was made by the war, and its $13,000,000 of debt had become a vast surplus by the time it distributed the Federal armies to their homes. Common schools followed emancipation. Every facility of modern comfort had been either supplied or suggested, and the private property which had been deserted in hundreds of cases by the owners, and offered for sale at little more than the expense of [?] in 1861, more than recovered its value a year before the surrender of Lee (Collier's Magazine).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
Death of the Hyde Park hermit
Death of the http://en.wikipedia....ark%2C_Massachusetts Hyde Park hermit - Two gentlemen from Dedham who were driving around Hyde Park Tues., visited the hut occupied by James Gately, the well known http://www.bostonfamilyhistory.com/neigh_hyde.html 'Hyde Park Hermit' . The snow leading to the hut was undisturbed, and arriving at the door they found it locked. Peering through the window, they saw the hermit curled up behind the small stove he used. Attracting his attention they asked him if he was sick, to which he responded by an affirmative nod. They asked him if they should break open the door and send for a doctor. He responded negatively, but they thought it best to send for a physician, and Dr. Edwards was called, and the door broken open, when a sickening spectacle presented itself to the visitors. The snow had leaked through the roof; every article was completely frozen, there was no fire in the stove, nor had there been apparently for some time, and the hermit himself was in an emaciated and filthy condition. The room was about 5 feet square, and neglect was everywhere apparent. The doctor, after an examination of Mr. Gately, saw that he was past all human aid, but did all he could to alleviate his suffering by administering restoratives. The hermit rallied a little, and as he was an Episcopalian, http://memory.loc.go...r?ammem/calbk:@field(DOCID+@lit(calbk062div75)) Rev. Dr. Van Kleek , [also seen as Van Kleeck] Dector of Christ church was sent for, and spoke consoling words to the dying man, but he apparently did not realize his situation. He said that he had been physically prostrated for 5 days from a severe cold, and during that time he had been unable to assist himself, nor had anyone come to his aid; he had not even had a drink of water, and it was suggested to the hermit that the hut be cleaned up, as some ladies would call and take care of him, but he strongly objected, and he gradually sank away and died in a few hours, and his inanimated body was left surrounded by the remains of birds, reptiles and animals, by stuffing which he had earned a living. The body ws taken in charge by the town authorities. The rags that covered his body being searched, sewed up in different parts were found, in greenbacks and coppers, the sum of $103.92. This money was deposited in the Hyde Park savings bank until called for by his heirs, if he has any. His funeral services will be held at Christ church on Friday. The body will be clad in the same coat which he wore when at college in England. A rumor was prevalent that he had left a will, but a strict search has thus far failed to bring it to light. Mr. Grew [ http://geneasearch.c...unkerhillmembers.htm Henry S. Grew ], the owner of the http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa610.htm woods , excepting the strip the hermit occupied and owned, says he does not know of any will being made. He has left a large collection of stuffed animals, quite a museum in itself, which will probably go to the town of Hyde Park. The cause of his death was simply self neglect, which brought on congestion of the lungs. Gately was 64 years of age, a native of Cheshire, England, and was the eldest of a family of 6. His father was the owner of a vast tract of land in Cheshire, and his wealth was fabulous. He is still living, so far as is known. At an early age James showed a strong taste for ornithology, and became a careful and proficient student, receiving a liberal education. But his mind appeared to have been dimmed by some cause. At one time he was at the head of a prosperous school. Resolving to come to America, he landed in Boston, and subsequently boarded with a family in Roxbury. The turning point of his life was when one day, while visitng Charlestown and stepping into a saloon to get a glass of ale, he lost his pocket book and contents, all the money he possessed. Being treated with contempt on making known his loss, he returned to his boarding house, and taking his gun and ammunition, started for the woods with no definite idea. He enamped and lived in a place called Salley's Rock, West Roxbury. But the march of civilization drove him after a while to Hyde Park, which was then a wilderness, where he remained until his death. He received letters and papers from England regularly. A gentleman named Nadin from Philadelphia, visited Gately last summer, and recognized him as a companion in England. The meeting was very affecting. The hut he lived in was a small rude structure divided into two rooms. He divested himself of all the comforts and even necessaries of life, and gained a living by stuffing birds and reptiles. He was formerly a hard drinker, but latterly reformed.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
Struck by a rattlesnake
Struck by a rattlesnake - Messrs. D.S. Perkins, Joseph Straley, and John F. Stienrack, a party of Chicago tourists, returned recently from a three months’ trip through Park, Summit and Grande counties. These gentlemen were encamped in Elk Head Mountain, in the North Park, on the 10th of last Sept. the party arrived in camp late one eve. after a day’s hunt, and after a hearty supper they lay down in their blankets around the fire, which had been built in the cleft of some large rock, and all were soon fast asleep. Mr. Straley was awakened in the night by a heavy weight upon his chest. At first he supposed it was his brother’s hand, but as it did not move, and becoming nervous and alarmed, he raised his head, and was horrified to find a large mountain rattlesnake coiled upon his chest, with its head nestled down in the center of the coil. It was nearly daylight, but Mr. Straley was so paralyzed with fear that he could not make a noise and dared not to move. He recovered his presence of mind so far as to be able to draw the blanket over his head. This movement startled the reptile, which glided from him to his brother, who ws sleeping with him. The snake passed from his chest to his brother’s face, when, in a fatal moment, Henry Straley raised his hand to tear it away. There was a fierce rattle and a loud cry from the half awakened boy, and the monster buried its fangs in his right hand, and a second time in his cheek. There was a horrible scream from Henry Straley as the poor boy jumped to his feet, while the snake glided from the blankets to a large flat rock near the embers of the fire. Mr. Jenkins fired his revolver at the horrible creature, and at the second shot brought it down. Poor young Straley was soon suffering the most intense agony. His brother at his request, cut out a large portion of the cheek in hopes that the poison had not penetrated very deep, and a little ligature was bound around the wrist of the bitten hand, which was bathed in cold water. But nothing the horrified young man could do availed to save the poor boy. He died in less than 2 hours in the most terrible agony. Had the party been supplied with a plentiful stock of whiskey his life might have been saved, but they had none with them. The boy changed color within 3 hours after the accident. The young men conveyed the corpse to Fort Steele, whence it was shipped to Chicago for interment. The snake measured 4 feet in length and had 9 rattles.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
Correspondence - Elmira, N.Y. - Messrs. Editors: I see by the Gazette of last week that the goods of the Millers Falls Company find their way into London and Hamburg markets. The http://trove.net/MAAR0004/MAAR0004_001677.html Nobles' Manufacturing Co. of this place have an agency in Hamburg, and have sold a large amount of augurs and bits there the past year. So American manufactures work their way into favor in the old country. Franklin county is well represented here: one from Conway, one from Bernardston, two from Greenfield, one from Whately. Mr. Moody [ http://www.rootsweb....irector/1874p172.htm Warren L. Moody ], who use [sic] to work for Payne Brothers of Greenfield, harness makers, is following his trade here, and has got him a nice home. Business for the past 6 months has been very dull, but is reviving now. The city of Elmira is noted for her public schools and her splendid http://www.gco.com/eldridge/paul/street_car.html Eldridge Park , named after the donor who bought it and pays for all improvements himself. It covers an area of some 120 acres. She pays annually for her schools $70,000, has two grammar school buildings and one Academy; total cost of which was $200,000. We have here 17 churches, divided as follows: 5 Methodist, 2 Episcopal, 2 Presbyterian, 4 Catholic, 3 Irish and 1 German Catholic, and one Congegationalist; the http://www.twainquotes.com/18710723.html Rev. T.K. Beecher's [ http://www.positiveatheism.org/hist/twainbee.htm Thomas K. Beecher , brother of Henry Ward Beecher]. The Congregational Society are building them a new church, which will be, when finished, $150,000. ( http://www.rootsweb....irector/1874p234.htm George W. Thorniley ).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 11, 1875
Cities of our colonial era
Cities of our colonial era - The chief cities of our ancestors were all scattered along the seacoast. There were no large towns in the interior. Albany was still a small village, Schenectady a cluster of houses. To those vast inland capitals which have sprung up on the lakes and great rivers of the West our country offered no parallel. Chicago and St. Louis, the centers of enormous wealth and unlimited commerce, had yet no predecessors. Pleasant villages had sprung up in New England, New Jersey, and on the banks of the Hudson, but they could pretend to no rivalry with those flourishing cities which lined the sea coast or its estuaries, and seemed to our ancestors the abodes of luxury and splendor. Yet even New York, Philadelphia and Boston, estensive as they appeared to the colonists, were insignificant towns compared to the European capitals, and gave no promise of ever approaching that grandeur which seemed to be reserved especially for London and Paris. In 1674 the population of New York was perhaps 20,000; that of London, 600,000. The latter was 30 times larger than the former, and in wealth and political importance was so infinitely its superior that a comparison between them would have been absurd. Boston, which has crowned Beacon Hill, pressed over the neck, and even covered with a magnificent quarter a large surface that was once the bed of the Charles River, was in 1774 a town of 17,000 or 18,000 inhabitants, closely confined to the neighborhood of the bay. The Long Wharf may still be seen on the ancient maps; the common as used as a public resort; the Hancock House was illuminated at the repeal of the Stamp Act, and the Sons of Liberty raised on the Common a pyramid of lamps, from the top of which fire works lighted up the neighboring fields. But Beacon Hill was still used by its owner as a gravel pit, and it was feared by the citizens that he might level it altogether. The Boston of 1774 which proclaimed freedom and defied the power of England, would scarcely rank today among the more important country towns. New York was more populous, but it was still confined to the narrow point of land below the Park. The thickly built part of the town lay in the neighborhood of Whitehall. Some fine houses lined Broadway and Broad Street, but to the west of Broadway green lawns streetched down from Trinity and St. Paul’s to the water. Trees were planted thickly before the houses; onthe roofs railings or balconies were placed, and in the summer evenings the people gathered on the house top to catch the cool air. Lamps had already been placed on the streets. Fair villas covered the environs, and even the Baroness Riedesel, who had visited in the royal palaces of Europe, was charmed with the scenery and homes of the citizens. Extravagance had already corrupted the plainer habits of the earlier period. The examples of London and Paris had already affected the American cities. The people of New York drank fiery Madeira, and were noted for their luxury. Broadway was thought the most splendid of avenues, although it ended at Chambers Street. And 20 years later the City Hall was built; it was called by Dwight (a good scholar) the finest bulding in America. The streets of New York and Boston were usually crooked and narrow, but the foresight of Penn had made Philadephia a model of regularity. Market and Broad streets were ample and stately. The city was as populous as New York, and perhaps the possessor of more wealth. It was the first city on the continent, and the fame of Franklin had already gven it a European renown. Yet Philadelphia, when it rebelled against George III, was only an insignificant town clinging to the banks of the river, and New York invited the attack of the chief naval power of the world with its harbor undefended and its whole population exposed to the guns of the enemy’s ships. The southern cities were yet of little importance. Baltimore was a small village. Virginia had no large town. Charleston had a few thosand inhabitants. Along that immense line of sea coast now covered with populous cities, the smallest of which would have made the New York and Boston of our ancestors seem insignificant, only these few and isolated centers of commerce had sprung up. The wilderness still covered the shores of Long Island, New Jersey, Delaware and the Carolinas almost as much as in the days of Raleigh (Harper’s Magazine for November).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 7, 1874
(Shelburne Falls) Our young people are sadly in want of a skating park. It is a mournful site to see them with elongated countenances, their skates hanging from their arms, the frost biting their ear
(Shelburne Falls) Our young people are sadly in want of a skating park. It is a mournful site to see them with elongated countenances, their skates hanging from their arms, the frost biting their ears, and the wind whistling through their garments, with no ice to glide upon.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 16, 1874
(Greenfield) John [Osterhout] has got his
(Greenfield) John [Osterhout] has got his http://www.durham.go...-+Birds+-+Bird+Boxes bird boxes attached to the trees about the common, and the little sparrows were not long in taking possession. In such a hurry were they to set up housekeeping in their new quarters, there was a regular squabble before they could settle the proprietorship; but finally everything seemed to be arranged to their satisfaction. These sparrows are quite tame, and if they are contented here throughout the winter will become universal pets.