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Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
Court record - The fifth week of the Superior Court continued the business of the term, beginning Tues. with the following trials before the court:
John O’Donnell vs. Bartholomew Reardon & Trustees - Finding for the plaintiff, amount $68.68, and the charging of the Trustee (the Keith Paper Co.) with $76.07...Erastus Cowles vs. Edwin A. Ball - This was an action of trespass, wherein the plaintiff alleged that the defendant, who, being a highway surveyor, had, in repairing the highway on Deerfield Meadow, trespassed upon the plaintiff’s land, plowing into the Broughton Pond road, a turf embankment some 3 ft. wide and 68 rods in length.
Also, by removing a stone at the western terminus of the road. The question at issue being the true location of the northern line of said road. The defendant claimed that he had not exceeded the original limits of the road, which was laid out in 1796. The case developed the fact that the race of old men were not yet extinct, and the remembrances of the greater portion of Deerfield were required on the pros and cons of the matter in dispute. Finding for the defendant...
Henry Couillard vs. Elihu Smead - This was an action by the plaintiff, as tax collector of Shelburne, to recover $33.85, being a tax assessed in 1871. The defendant claimed that the tax had already been paid by J.B. Whitney, who, acting as his agent, handed the plaintiff the money in the yard of his livery stable at Shelburne Falls, and moreover, fixed the date as Apr. 29, 1871.
The circumstances attending the alleged payment were detailed by Mr. Whitney, while the plaintiff, while testifying that at the date named he was at Winchester N.H., engaged in the joint occupation of "courting a woman and trading horses", succeeded in raising an issue of fact, which, after a subsequent attempt by the plaintiff’s side to show the true status of the witness Whitney, for truth and veracity, and the counter attempt of the defense to discredit Couillard on the same ground; the truth might be said to indeed be "trembling in the balance". Finding for the plaintiff, amount $40.78...
The inhabitants of Leverett vs. the inhabitants of Rowe - This was an action to recover for money expended by the town of Leverett in assisting a pauper by the name of Rice, and whom it was claimed, had a legal settlement in the town of Rowe. The circumstances of the case were quite peculiar. One of the ways by which a person gains a settlement in a town is by the possession and residence on an estate of freehold for 3 years.
A settlement once gained of course continuing until a new one is gained elsewhere. In this case, Mr. Rice owned and lived upon a place in Rowe, but a few days previous to the expiration of 3 years he returned the deed of land to the original grantor, who then conveyed the property to a new party. Mr. Rice continued to live upon the land for some few weeks after giving up the deed as mentioned.
The new party who took the property did not take possession; neither did the original grantor exercise any act of ownership except the mere transferring of the deeds till after the expiration of 3 years. The question arises whether the fact of giving the deed back by Rice to his grantor, did moderate the circumstances, divest Rice of his seizin of the freehold. If not, of course he gained a settlement; while if the residence or the seizin were cut short by a few days, the statute would not be complied with and the town would not be liable. The point raised was so peculiar that the Judge reserved his decision...
Lucius Smith vs. Austin Drake, appt. The case came up on appeal from a magistrate’s findings. The court found for the plaintiff and assessed damages of $7.42...
The following cases were disposed of by judgment without trial: Samuel B. Fletcher vs. Henry Herring - This case has stood upon the docket for a long time, having been tried by a jury in 1873. It was settled on agreement by a verdict for the plaintiff, amount $19...Moses Stebbins vs. Jasper Gillett - This was another of the old cases consisting of many items of an account with offsets. Judgment was granted on award of referee...Edward H. Fitts vs. Samuel Sugland - Judgment on award of referee for plff. Damages, $4. Each party to pay their own cost...
Turners Falls Lumber Co. vs. David A. Wood - This was an action on 2 promissory notes, one of $1200...and the other of $518...Judgment for plaintiffs on both...Edwin Pierce et al. vs. Levi A. Bates Jr. et al. Judgment for plaintiffs against Bates for account of $52.50...Edwin Pierce et al. vs. Allen Mansfield - Judgment for plaintiff on a promissory note...for $58...
William L. Bradley vs. Edward Barney - Judgment for plaintiff on a promissory note...for $212...Bradley Fertilizer Co. vs. Edward Barney - This was an action on a note given by George Fuller of Deerfield, upon which the defendant was sued as surety, for $300. Judgment for plaintiff on the same...
Asa C. Lewis vs. Lorenzo D. Joslyn appt. Judgment for plaintiff, amount $30...Nathaniel Holmes et al. vs. Stephen L. Pratt - Judgment for plaintiff on note...for $59.10, upon which $40 had been paid before suit. William R. Armstrong vs. R.L. Goss. Judgment for plaintiff...for $400...Nathaniel Holmes et al. vs. Thomas Lap[?]. Judgment for plaintiff for $11...
George W. Potter et al. vs. R.J. Goss. Judgment for plaintiff on 2 notes, one for $732 and another for $82.89, also an account of $319. Total, $1134.52. Frank L. Eldridge vs. R.L. Goss et al - Judgment for plaintiff on note, amount $350...In the case of S.L. Shattuck et al. vs. George Jones, in which a verdict for plaintiff was given by the jury, a motion was filed for a new trial. But the motion has been overruled.
The docket has been well cleared of old cases this term, some 40 being settled out of court, to which no reference has been made in our reports. Judge Aldrich has earned the thanks of suiters by his persistent labors in holding this, the longest term of the Superior Court, known for many years. The court adjourned for the term Fri...The law term of the Supreme Judicial Court will begin Sept. 28, with the full bench.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The horrors of idolatry
The horrors of idolatry - Miss Harriet Brittan is writing some interesting letters depicting life in India, to the "Christian at Work". From a recent one we make the following extract in which she describes a religious gathering: "And now to turn to a sad sight witnessed during my visit to Allahabad...".
[Long article discusses diseased beggars, religious pilgrims who come once a year to bathe and shave at this spot. She describes one street "which appeared to be entirely devoted to fakirs...men who are supposed by self-inflicted tortures to have become very holy...They were about the vilest creatures that it is possible to describe; it made you shudder to think that humanity could be so degraded...These men were almost all of them almost entirely nude - none of them had any covering but one filthy little piece of rag, not more than a fig leaf...
Their hair and beards were all long and matted with filth, their bodies smeared with a mixture of cow dung and ashes; some of them had a thick mixture of whitewash or white plaster, with 1, 2 or 3 broad stripes, like, blood, down the forehead...One man...sat in a bed of ashes, with 4 fires built around him on either side; not of course close enough to burn him, but close enough to scorch him and cause great suffering...
There was another, a miserable looking creature, who for many years had held his arms up over his head with his hands crossed. At first when he began to do this, he was obliged to have his hands bound to poles, to keep them up until they stiffened in that position...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
A horrible disaster in Missouri
Thomas Donahue, proprietor of a boarding house in the lower part of Carondelet, Mo., near the Vulcan Iron Works, was drowned in a privy vault on his premises Fri. aft., and Charles Prunty, James Henry and Joseph Schlichtig, who successively descended into the vault to recover Donahue’s body, were overcome by the foul air and vapors of the place, and died before they could be rescued.
[A slightly different version appears in the New York Times Online Index of July 31, 1875 under the title "Four deaths in an outhouse vault". Some of these articles defy belief].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875
A destructive fire in Wapping
All of the buildings of Dexter Childs in Wapping, Deerfield, consisting of a dwelling house, a new shed 70 ft. long, corn house, a barn built 5 years since, 84 by 57 ft, and 25 ft. high, with all modern improvements, a tobacco barn 36 by 40 ft., over 200 ft. of buildings in all were destroyed by fire on Tues. night about 10 o'clock, hardly a stick of timber being left. The fire was first discovered in the extreme eastern end of the buildings, the buildings extending west to within a few feet of the road, and was first discovered by Mr. Childs, who had been out into the main barn and put his horse out about half an hour previous, and let out a yoke of cattle.
/ He took no light with him, and is a man who never smokes. His theory as to the origin of the fire is, that there must have been a tramp in the tobacco barn, who had taken up his quarters there for the night, and was roused up by Mr. Childs, who made considerable noise in getting his cattle out, lighted his pipe for a smoke and set the straw in the barn, of which there was considerable, on fire. He does not believe it was purposely fired as he does not know that he has an enemy that would do it. In the barns were a ton of tobacco, two horses, a cow, two calves, two shoats and a goat, with all the farming tools of the farm, wagons, harnesses, etc., which were all destroyed; even in the barn yard a cart loaded with manure was partly consumed.
/ In the yard were 8 head of cattle, which the moment the bars were let down, scampered off into the lot like wild ones. Mr. Childs had a sick sister-in-law in his house, who was perfectly help less, and a sick son. The son was able to take care of himself, but the sister-in-law had to be carried from the house. Nearly all of the furniture of the house was saved in a good condition, but all of the provisions in the cellar was lost. Mr. Childs has an insurance of about $8500, $600 of which is on a small house and barn standing a short distance south of his residence and considerable of it on his crops, which had been used up. He had no insurance on his furniture, the policy having expired on Sat. His loss must be considerable over the insurance available. The house was one of the oldest in Wapping, being a low gamble roof one, and built 80 years ago by Mr. Child's grandfather, Henry Childs, Esq. It has been successively occupied by Mr. Child's grandfather, his father, and himself.
/ Over an acre of clover near the tobacco barn was burned over, several trees badly scorched, and the cinders flew over two miles north to the Deerfield North Meadows. The citizens of Wapping generally had to water the roofs of their buildings during the fire. Mr. Childs, who is one of the leading farmers and most respected citizens of Deerfield, has the warmest sympathy of his neighbors and friends, and dozens of doors were thrown open to himself and family. He will not rebuild this season, as he has plenty of timber on his farm to rebuild with and cannot get it out before another season.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875
"Cleanliness is next to godliness", says the familiar proverb, and certainly upon it depends much of our health and happiness in this world. Scientific investigation in the past few years has clearly demonstrated the fact that many of the diseases that are so prevalent during the summer months are traceable to local causes. Sometimes it may be defective drainage from sink or privy, poisoning the water in the well or filling the air with foul gases that are inhaled, and plant the seeds of disease; or again, there may be near the house stagnant pools of water from which arise the fatal miasma.
/ ...Every New England housekeeper, no matter what may be her station in life, is sure, when the warm days of the spring come, if she does not get impatient at the season's delay and inaugurate operations before, to pull up all of the carpets in the house and scour the paint from the parlor to the kitchen. This done, the house is put to rights, and she feels as proud of her little campaign against dirt, as the general who has successfully measured his strength with an armed foe. But after all this thorough cleaning of the inhabited rooms of the house, there is the cellar, in which barrels and bins which have contained the potatoes, apples and other vegetables and fruits that were laid in for the winter's supply, having still in different stages of decomposition what has been unused. Frequently a large quantity of mouldy rottenness, that sends forth an unsavory, unwholesome smell.
/ While about the cellar, boards and rubbish are decaying and the beans are covered with mildew and fungus...A thorough cleaning of cellar and outbuildings should be inaugurated; the pig sty should be placed a safe distance from the house, drains should be examined, and be sure that your water is sweet and wholesome. What is saved in doctor's bills will pay for your trouble ten times over, not to speak of the danger to your life and to the lives of those you love if these precautions are not taken.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Another woman on Sat. left her baby in its carriage on the sidewalk while she stepped into a store to do her shopping. The wheels ran down the inclined plane and dumped the infant into the dirt under a horse's feet; but the mother came out, picked up the child, brushed off the soil and fertilizers, put it back into the carriage, blocked the wheels with a dry goods bundle, and left it to shirk for itself once more.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
Col. D. Wells and H. Wells, who are building a fine, large barn had a "raising" last Tues. aft. About 80 men and boys were present, and accomplished a good deal of work. Instead of the "new rum" which in olden times was thought so necessary at a raising, an abundant supply of lemonade was found a far more refreshing beverage. The barn, which is being built under the direction of Nathan O. Newhall and Son, is 45 by 80 ft., with basement for manure pit and stables. It will be arranged with all the modern conveniences, and is in every way a first class structure, being built with large timber, in the most thorough manner. The Messrs. Wells got out all the lumber last winter, and their sawing bills amounted to between $200 and $300. The barn will be slated by Mr. Johnson of Brattleboro.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 12, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Now Greenfield has got the spelling mania bad. The first match, under the auspices of the Baptist Society, at Washington Hall Fri. eve. attracted a crowd of people. The first contest was between "sides" headed by Dr. C.L. Fisk, Sen. and Euclid Owen. There was some difficulty at first in inducing people from the audience to go upon the stage and exhibit their orthography, but finally some 30 were persuaded...The spellers were from all classes: school teachers, printers, doctors, pupils from the schools and old ladies and gentlemen who had won laurels at spelling schools nearly half a century ago.
/ G.D. Williams Esq. was selected to put out the words, using Adam's Speller. This contest was decided after putting out 70 words, of which 12 were missed by Dr. Fisk's side, and 16 by Mr. Owens, giving the former the victory. The words were usually those in common use, and the following were those missed: Meridian, Pagoda, Argillaceous [check it out at Wikipedia], Dissolution, Inexorable, Millennium, Roebuck, Popinjay, Roguish, Ornithology, Liturgy, Halcyon, Snath, Poudrette [a manure made from "night soil"], Battalion, Indices, Legerdemain, Distention, Merriment, Distil [Distill is the more common spelling nowadays], Inhibition, Livelihood, Yeleped [Who knows? Looks like it's mostly a misspelling of Yelped online], Papillary, Teetotaler, Congeries, Tambour, Tyrannize. The words Confident and Legging, which were at first declared misspelled, were afterwards decided to be correct by other authority.
/ There was now an intermission, to permit the audience to indulge in hot maple syrup or ice cream, after which a selection was read by a Miss Quimby of Springfield. The contest for prizes was open to all who chose to compete, and about 40 were willing to try their luck. When a word was misspelled, the person missing would resume his or her seat. The first to go down spelled extinction Extincsion, the word Sinecure took down 4, and when it came to Hebdomadal [means Weekly. Did you know?] 16 or 17 were extinguished at one fell swoop, and then they dropped one after another until the number was reduced to about half a dozen who stuck well.
/ The village Postmaster finally stumbled on Diverse and others were cut off, until two contestants only remained standing, and the tournament reached its highest point of excitement. The word Porcine at last took Mr. Simons, the Cashier, off his pins, and Mrs. George Newell was left the champion of the field. She readily mastered word after word until finally she was forced to succumb to Seigneurial, and the audience gave her hearty applause. A cabbage head was presented to Nathan Smith, the first to go down, a speller to Mr. Elliot, and another to Mr. Marston, printer, who kept up longer than the others of his craft; a Globe Dictionary to Mr. Simons, who won the second prize, and Webster's Unabridged to Mrs. Newell, who well earned the first prize. And so ended the Spell which had been attended with no little interest. The entertainment closed by another reading by Miss Quimby, Saxe's "Game of Life". The receipts were about $100, which will net the Society some $60.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 5, 1875
Bradley's superphosphate of lime - warranted uniform in quality
Bradley's superphosphate of lime - warranted uniform in quality. [Illustration of a 200 lbs. sack of the stuff with a bird sitting atop a pile of guano, while two other birds pass overhead. Another illustration shows possibly a South American Indian standing in a corn field, holding a staff]. The animal matter contained in the entire bone is restored to this compound in the most concentrated form, making a powerful manure - acting quicker than any other, and giving more general satisfaction to the Agricultural community than any other known phosphate. Manufactured by Bradley Fertilizer Co., 24 Broad St., Boston. A.K. Warner, Agent.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News about home (Greenfield)
The Lady Washington party last Thurs. at Washington Hall, under the auspices of the ladies of the Unitarian Church, was a very pleasant affair, and attracted a goodly number of our citizens. An excellent supper was provided, and the tables were well patronized. Lady Washington, Mrs. J. Keith, held a reception at the upper end of the hall. She was richly attired in a light silk, cut with a long court train, and did the honors of the occasion with the queenly grace that distinguished the wife of our first President.
/ George Washington was personated by W.D. Lucy, arrayed in a dark costume with white wig. Among those who came to do homage to this Republican Court were a number of ladies and gentlemen of the olden time, arrayed in a variety of rich and showy toilets. Many of the dresses were silks that had done duty at weddings half and even a century ago, and since, treasured as precious heirlooms, but those not fortunate enough to possess these family relics improvised substitutes for the occasion, which, if they would not bear inspection in daylight, were in many instances brilliant and striking, and served the desired purpose very well.
/ The gentlemen were caparisoned in a variety of costumes, one 'red coat' even, being tolerated in the throng. About 8 o'clock the dancing was preceded by a grand march, when the ancient toilets could be seen to good advantage. The floor was well taken up by the followers of Terpsichore, who accompanied the excellent music of the Orange Quadrille Band, through many lively measures, including the "Old Virginia Reel". Seldom has Greenfield had a more successful party, and those who planned and executed the preliminaries deserve great credit. The receipts were $161, but money making was not the special object of the occasion. [Some lovely words were used in this article, like 'personated' and 'caparisoned', but it still strikes me odd when older folks are referred to as 'ancient toilets' ;-) ).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
(Greenfield) Mis Fanny Moody was appointed critic at the meeting of the Greenfield Lyceum on Fri. eve., and the exercises opened with the reading of an admirable critique of the previous eve. by Miss
(Greenfield) Mis Fanny Moody was appointed critic at the meeting of the Greenfield Lyceum on Fri. eve., and the exercises opened with the reading of an admirable critique of the previous eve. by Miss Jennie M. Rowley. After considerable discussion over an amendment to the bylaws, permitting volunteer disputants to occupy 10 minutes in speaking, it was laid upon the table. The second number of the Beacon, under the editorial management of Mrs. W.S. Severance, was read by that lady. It was replete with excellent matter on a variety of topics, and was listened to with attentive interest. The question for the eve. of discussion was "That the course pursued by the president in the so-called Louisiana Difficulties is justified by the laws and state of affairs". A board of decision on the debate was appointed...The committee gave the argument to the affirmative....At the next meeting the exercises will include a short address from Dr. W.S. Severance on the local sewerage question, and the discussion of the following question: "Resolved, that justice to all concerned demands that the civil rights bill passed by the National House of Representatives should become a law of the land"...Miss Amanda Jones will edit the next number of the "Beacon" to be read in two weeks from the last meeting.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
John M. Smith of Sunderland read a very practical paper on the winter management of stock at the Hampshire Farmer's Institute Sat. He believes stall fed animals do better than those that run in the
John M. Smith of Sunderland read a very practical paper on the winter management of stock at the Hampshire Farmer’s Institute Sat. He believes stall fed animals do better than those that run in the yard, and recommended feeding grain, carrots and beets, but thought poorly of turnips and cabbage. He thought there was more money in raising lambs or in making butter and cheese than in fattening beef. The next meeting at north Amherst on the 13th will be devoted to the discussion of manure.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
(Greenfield) There are but a few weeks now until our voters will be called upon to make appropriations for the coming year. Although we believe in tight economy in town affairs, we think the town sho
(Greenfield) There are but a few weeks now until our voters will be called upon to make appropriations for the coming year. Although we believe in tight economy in town affairs, we think the town should make some outlay for sewerage. There is a great deal that will have to be done before we have a perfect system. It cannot all be accomplished in one year or two but a beginnning can be made. Let the town appropriate all it can afford for this year for the purpose, and let the work progress from year to year until the end is attained. There is no disguising the fact that our open sewers have become an intolerable nuisance, the source of illness and perhaps death. We want to see the subject fully agitated, and the town take wise and judicious action.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
Manure - Every farm has the material, if rightly used, to vastly improve its capability to improve crops if not to make it as fertile as need be; and money is often expended for commercial fertilizers, when one half used in working on the farm would do more good to the present crops, and have a more lasting benefit. Every pig kept till 9 months old, if rightly supplied with material, would make 5 cords of valuable manure, which would pay his keeping and fatten him so that his pork would be clear gain. Every well fed cow, if all her droppings and http://www.cowurine.com/ urine are saved and composted with suitable absorbents, will during the year make 8 cords, with the labor of good brains and elbow grease. And the sink slop and waste materials of the house, with night soil and other offensive, decaying materials, would if properly composted, make 10 cords of valuable manure for corn or grapes. Then muck, leaves and the deposits in fence corners and hollows would furnish much, and weeds, too! rich in everything required by plants, if composted before the seeds ripen, would return what they take from the soil and also from the atmosphere, thus increasing the richness of the soil, instead of filling it with seed to be battled with for several years. If farmers would save and increase their manure heaps on the farm there would not be so much complaint about worthless commercial fertilizers (Utility).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 18, 1875
A specimen of Paris tragedy
A specimen of Paris tragedy - The body of Emily Maraune, 11 years of age, the daughter of a http://www.wordreference.com/enfr/shirker fumiste in the http://www.paris-pro...ade_vitrine/0004.htm Rue de Fouarre , who left home on the 23rd of Nov., with 500 francs belonging to her father, has been found in the Seine. It has been ascertained that a youth of bad character, age 17, named Eugene Henry, with whom she had formed an acquaintance, induced her to steal the money. She gave it to him with the exception of a few silver pieces. Being afraid to return home, she passed the night in the public latrines. The next evening, meeting him near the river, she told him she could not remain in Paris, but intended going to a distance, and asked him to return the money. He shook some coins out of his handkerchief and, on her stooping to pick them up, he slipped a noose around her neck, strangled her, and threw the body into the river. On being arrested, he attempted suicide. He has since confessed to the murder. Part of the money was found in the house of his mother. A pork butcher in one of the markets has also been apprehended, together with two of his companions.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 4, 1875
Impurities in water
Impurities in water - A case which has recently occurred at South Norwalk, Conn., where 3 persons in one family died in consequence of drinking water from a well tainted by drippings from a sesspool [i,e, cesspool], ought to be a warning to all persons to beware of the typhoid poison sure to be found in wells, near dwellings, if any of the house drainage can porcelate [perhaps they meant percolate?] to them. The gelatious [i.e. http://www.bfhd.wa.gov/eh/ludw.php gelatinous ] matter often found upon the stones of a well is poison to the human system. Wholesome water is always odorless and colorless. To test its purity thoroughly place in it a few grains of lump sugar and expose it stoppered to sunlight in a window. Should the water become turgid soon after an exposure of 8 or 10 days, it is proof that it has been contaminated by some kind of sewerage. If it remains perfectly clear, it is pure and safe. Such an experiment as this costs nothing to make, and it would be well if all families who have the faintest reason to suspect that their drinking water is impure would take this way to ascertain the truth of the matter, in order that they may provide in time against the insidious and deadly poison contained in all water contaminated with sewage.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 7, 1874
The prevalence of diphtheria
The prevalence of diphtheria - its symptoms - treatment and prevention - At the meeting of thr New York Board of Health, Dr. Stephen Smith, Chairman of the Sanitary Committee, presented the following paper in relation to diphtheria:..."Mode of attack...caused by the inoculation of the air passages with the diphtheric poison, which from this point infects the whole system: the local inflammation is attended with the formation of membrane exudation, the fever and general symptoms are the result of this...How it spreads: Diphtheria is therefore a contagious disease (not perhaps as marked as scarlet fever) induced by contact with persons infected. It may be diffused by the exhalations of the sick, and the air surrounding them, or directly by the exudation, as in the act of kissing, coughing, spitting, sneezing, or by the infected articles used, as towels, napkins, handkerchiefs, etc. The http://paaap.org/immunize/course/slide26.html poison clings with great tenacity to certain places, rooms and houses, where it may occasion cases after the lapse of months. Symptoms: In ordinary attacks the poison begins to act ...It lodges upon the tissues, but like a vaccination, causes but slight sensible efects in from 2 to 4 days; there is marked prostration, dryness of throat and pricking pain in swallowing; the throat becomes red and patches of white exudation appear, and the glands of the neck swell. In mild cases these symptoms subside on the third or fourth day from their appearance...Predisposing conditions - Diphtheria attacks by preference http://www.idph.stat...epics/diphtheria.htm children between the ages of one and 10 years, the greatest mortaility being in the second, third and fourth years, children of feeble constitution and those weakened by previous sickness, and those suffering from catarrh, croup and other forms of throat affections...Most severely affected are those who live on low, wet grounds, in houses with imperfect drains or surrounded by offensive matters, as privies, decaying animal or vegetable refuse, in damp rooms, as cellars in overcrowded and unventilated apartments. Diphtheria is not affected by either heat or cold, drought or rain. Preventions - the dwelling or apartment - Cleanliness in and around the dwelling and pure air in living and sleeping rooms, are of the utmost importance wherever a contagious disease is prevailing, as cleanliness can both prevent and mitigate it. Every kind and source of filth in and around the house should be thoroughly removed; cellars and foul areas should be lime washed, and every occupied room should be thoroughly ventilated. ..wood work painted...No child should be allowed to kiss strange children, nor those suffering from sore throat. The disgusting practice of compelling children to kiss every visitor is a well contrived method of propagating other grave diseases than diphtheria...The well children should be scrupulously kept apart from the sick, in dry, well aired rooms...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
Court Record - The third week of the Superior Court opened last Mon. aft., as per adjournment. In the case of Colton vs. Manning, the arguments, by Judge Aiken for the defendant and Charles Delano for the plaintiff, occupied the whole aft., and the court charged the jury Tues. morning. The evidence in the case was that Steel, the drummer or agent of the plaintiff, had a certain territory to which he sold golds for him, the plaintiff being a jobber of small wares, having his place of business in Boston. It was also proven that the said Steel had collected from various parties, in payment of goods bought, large sums. A part of the amount thus collected had been transmitted to the house at Boston; but that, after a time, it was found that Steel had collected and not paid upward of $1200. One of the creditors of the plaintiff was the firm of Manning & Farley of Shelburne Falls. The greater part of the indebtedness of the firm had been paid to Steel, and for which he had accounted to the plaintiff; but on one of the last bills a quantity of groceries had been turned, being on account of said Steel. The defense exhibited letters from said Colton to Steel, directing him to collect certain amounts, and also acknowledging sums of money which he had already collected, and which facts the defense claimed was authority, and that no proper notice had been given to the defendant or to Steel that he was not to make collections for the house. The defense further alleged that in fact the acts of Steel, in making all his collections, were either done by express orders or had been subsequently ratified and confirmed, thus relieving the defendant from all responsibility for making said payments. The defense also insisted that the matter was between Colton and Steel, that the fact of his being a defaulter was no fault of the creditor, and that the only reason for the suit was, that the plaintiff, finding he had been defrauded by his own agent, Steel, sought to make himself whole by now alleging and swearing that Steel had no right or authority to make collections and receipt for him. In answer to this, the plaintiff brought forth a paper signed by Steel in which he acknowledged that he had no authority to make collections and receipts for the plaintiff. ..Much of the evidence was contradictory, and the jury, after being out all day, brought to a verdict for the plaintiff of $74.34. S.T. Field and Charles Delano for plff.; D. Aiken, H.M. Puffer and G.D. Williams for deft. At the conclusion of this case, the second jury were discharged for the term. The following cases were decided without a jury trial and final judgment rendered thereon. Orrilla L. Whipple vs. Allsaint Denny, app't. and trustee. This was an action of contract for board. The case first came before F.M. Thompson Esq., who gave judgment for the plaintiff for $37. From the magistrate's decision the defendant appealed, and the case being referred to G.D. Williams Esq. as auditor, the latter made an award for the plaintiff of $40.77. Judgment entered on verdict of auditor. G.L. Barton for Plff.; C.C. Conant for Deft. William Nash and wife versus the inhabitants of Warwick. This was an action of tort for alleged damages received while riding on a certain highway in Warwick, by reason of the same highway being defective. Judgment for plaintiff for one dollar damages, without costs. Burleigh & Hoyt for Plffs., Bacon, Hopkins and Bacon for Defts. Lawson Elmer vs. Edmund E. Richardson. This was an action to recover for certain money expended on a tract of land in Buckland, under a mortgage, with interest and expenses. The case being referred to an assessor, judgment was entered on his report. Amount of all, $1167.61. C.C. Conant for Plff.; Davis & Fessenden for deft. The Athol Savings Bank vs. Abby J. Pomroy. This was an action on the foreclosure of a certain mortgage given by the defendant and her husband, Daniel Pomroy, since deceased, to Damon E. Cheney, and by him assigned to the plaintiff. The said Cheney also gave a collateral note of $2500, at 9% per annum, to cover all money he might borrow, in different sums, of said plaintiff. On an agreed statement of facts, conditional judgment was given at the November term of the Superior Court for 1873, for the plaintiff, on so much of said collateral note as had been loaned, with interest at the rate of 6%. From this the plaintiff appealed to the Supreme Judicial Court, the plaintiff desiring to collect on the collateral note at 9%, but the judgment of the lower court was affirmed and final judgment for the plaintiff entered at this term for amount loaned, interest, etc., in all, $3642. C.C. Conant for plff.; A. Brainard for deft. William L. Bradley vs. Franklin Bartlett. This was an action on a promissory note for $105.25, given by the plaintiff for fertilizers, but which he claimed was without consideration, inasmuch as the said fertilizers did not produce the effect on deft's crops as represented. The Deft., however, allowed himself to be defaulted, and judgment entered for the deft. Davis & DeWolf for Plff.; C.G. Delano for Deft. Richard Norris et al. vs. John Fitzgerald. This was an action to recover for certain goods sold, to the value of $135.75. Judgment for Plffs. for full amount. G.L. Barton for Plffs.; A Brainard for Deft. Enoch Washburn vs. Isaac Spear. This was an account of contract for amount of $119.31, but which the Deft. alleged had been mostly paid. On agreement a verdict of $20 without costs was entered for plff. R.D. Chase for Plff.; F.F. Fay for Deft. O.C. Allen vs. Edward Thayer. This was an action of contract. Judgment for Plff. for $28.25. G.L. Barton for Plff.; A. Brainard for Deft. Charles H. Munn vs. Rector L. Goss et als. This was an action on a promissory note, dated Dec. 3, 1869, for $200 , upon which two payments of $20 each had been paid and two endorsements of interest. Judgment for Plff.; C.C. Conant for Plff.; A. Brainard for Deft.; S.O. Lamb for other parties. Charles H. Munn vs. R.L. Goss et al. This was an action on a promissory note, dated Feb. 28, 1874, for $200 on demand, at 12%, per annum. Judgment entered for plaintiff. C.C. Conant for Plff.; A. Brainard for Deft. The First National Bank of Greenfield vs. L.N. Bailey et als. This was an action on a promissory note, dated Feb. 26, 1874, for $400, payable 4 months after date. Judgment entered for Plff. for amount of note, interest and costs. O. Lamb for Plff.; C.C. Conant for Defts. Isaac Parker, Ex'r. vs. Moses Stebbins. This was an action on a note given by Deft. to Nancy Wood of Deerfield. The Deft. brought an acount in offset. The case being referred to an auditor, judgment was given on his award. Amount for Plff., $18.34. A. Brainard for Plff. Davis & DeWolf for Deft. Samuel R. Pierce vs. Charles Haywood. This was an action on a promissory note of $200. Judgment entered for Plff...The First National Bank of Greenfield vs. L.N. Bailey et als. This was an action on a promissory note, dated Dec. 13, 1873, for $1000. Judgment for Plff. for amount of note, interests and costs...Cephas Clapp vs. John Murphy. This was an action on a promissory note dated April 16, 1873, for $650. Judgement for Plff...Isaac Parker, Ex'r. vs. Moses Stebbins. This was an action on an account which the Deft. had an offset. The case was referred to an auditor, who reported that there was due the Deft. $555.20, on which Judgment was given...Franklin Russell vs. Moses Stebbins. This was an action similar to the previous one and like that was referred to the auditor, who reported $244.10 due to Plff...Waymes N. Potter et al. vs. John T. Fitch et als. This was an action of contract to recover on a quantity of grain delivered to the Defts. The case has been continued for some time, and at this term judgment was entered for the Plff. for full amount. The following named foreigners were naturalized this term: John H. Royer; John Martin Single; http://boards.ancest.../surnames.brummer/52 Christopher Brummer , Edwin Stark, Matvas Prokop, Louise Frantz, Ardon Engermann, Charles Frantz, Albert Mills, William Mills. The following made the primary declaration: Jeremiah Campbell, James Boyle, David Dule, 2nd., 2nd, Michael Moran, Thomas Flynn, Patrick Connolly, Michael Handrehan. Besides the usual cases settled out of court, the present term has cleared the docket of an unusual number of old cases which have been carried on the docket from term to term, much to the pleasure of both counsel and clients. The general public probably have little idea of the number of actions of one kind and another brought in our courts, as it is safe to estimate that not over half of the number brought are carried to final judgment, while of this number many are not publicly reported as being of no general interest. The court adjourned for the term Tues. aft.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
http://www.nfid.org/...heet-diphtheria.html Diphtheria in Greenfield - Editors Gazette and Courier: Feeling that it is the duty of some person to call attention to the causes of the unusual amount of sickness in this town at the present time, and also to the large number of deaths from a single disease, I take the liberty to bring the matter before the people in this manner, being impressed with the importance of having something done immediately, if possible, to check the progress of this disease which is causing so much alarm. Anyone who is in the habit of passing through Federal Street cannot but have noticed the horrible stench that arises from the ravine, which is a short distance from Main Street, and into which runs all the http://www.whale.to/m/butler.html sewerage [or sewage] from the hotels, stores and buildings on the north side of Main Street. Anyone who knows the places of residence of those who are and have been afflicted with diphtheria the past few weeks, will notice that in the majority of cases their residence is in the vicinity of this ravine, or who have had to pass it a number of times daily. There are at the present time a large no. of cases of http://www.todayinsc...mentOfDiphtheria.htm diphtheria in New York and other places, and there have been a large no. of deaths. The greater part of the sickness and death in these cities has been in those localities where the sewerage was imperfect. The town of Greenfield needs a good system of sewerage; it is absolutely necessary for the health and prosperity of the town, and if some steps had been taken last spring, when the matter was talked over, there is not much doubt but that we should have been spared this large amount of sickness. There can be but little done in this direction before another year, but it seems to me that the Glen water might be introduced at some point into the above mentioned ravine, and left running long enough to carry away to its proper place the large amount of filth which has been accumulating on account of the absence of rain, which ordinarily carries it away. It seems to me that unless something is done, the sickness will increase. Those who have cisterns near their houses will do well to have them thoroughly cleansed, as stagnant water is often a cause of sickness. I give these few ideas in order that the matter may be talked up by our people, for it seems to me that the causes of this trouble are evident enough.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
(Greenfield) Open Sewer nuisance
(Greenfield) http://www.presbyterian.ca/pwsd/apiraq6.html Open Sewer nuisance - To the editors of the Gazette & Courier: Dear Sirs: I would like to ask the citizens of Greenfield, and more especially those of Davis Street, also Federal, School, and Chapman Streets, if we have anyone elected whose business it is to look after our streets and keep them in a healthy condition? If we have no one, let us have someone, and that at once. A nuisance like the one on Davis Street, between Mr. Briggs' and S.T. Conant's house and opposite Mr. Taintor's, ought not to be tolerated a moment. One of our best doctors said yesterday, he thought it was partially owing to this nuisance, which caused this awful disease, diphtheria, which is now raging with such violence in that part of the town. If our Selectmen don't think it is a bad place, let them pass along there some good frosty morning, about 4 or 5 o'clock. I will warrant they won't undertake the thing again unless something calls them there which is of the utmost importance, and then they would have to hold their breath until they passed that place. This nuisance is made by a small brook running from near the Mansion House through the above streets, fed by a number of our houses. But where I would call attention more particularly, is the place where the drain which runs from the American House empties its filth into the brook on Davis Street. The Selectmen have been notified of this nuisance a number of times, but pay no regard to it. Now, if anything more can be done, do for mercy's sake let us know. I for one will take hold and fill the hole with dirt that will stop some of the stink which arises there, if anyone else will volunteer. Tax Payer.