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Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875
Oration of Hon. George B. Loring at Bloody Brook, Sept. 17, 1875 - Fellow citizens: 200 years ago an event occurred on this spot, which on account of its significance and its touching details, has passed into that long heroic line over which the mind of man is compelled to pause and ponder...At the name of Bloody Brook the men, women, and children of New England started and held their breath in horror, in that primeval time when the sickening tidings were borne on the wings of the wind as it were from hamlet to hamlet...
The sad event of the 18th of September 1675, calls upon us still to remember the trials through which our fathers passed and to rejoice over that fraternal spirit which bound them together in their day of sorrow, and watered the soil of this charming valley with the choicest blood of the sons of Essex. I stand on ground made sacred to you by the sacrifices of your hardy and devoted progenitors; but I meet here the names of Lothrop and Stevens and Hobbs and Manning and Dodge and Kimball and Trask and Tufts and Mudge and Pickering, of the three-score braves who died that you might possess this goodly land and these pleasant homes...
How would they who were familiar with the cruel warfare of the savage; whose ears had heard the shrieks of the tortured mother mingling with the groans of her dying child, and whose eyes had beheld her fear, her patience and her despair; whose highway was an Indian trail, and whose home was a frontier block-house - how would they rejoice over these sunny fields, these laughing harvests, these busy towns, these tasteful homes, this cultivated landscape adorned with these institutions of learning and religion; and how would they count their own sufferings but small when compared with the manifold blessings which have descended upon the spot made sacred with their blood?
...Deerfield two centuries ago, was on the very confines of civilization - one of the outposts of a feeble Christian people, who had hardly a foothold on this continent, and between whom and the strongholds of power and wealth and learning, rolled 3000 miles of stormy and almost unknown sea. The fate of a great and wide spread empire rested then in the hands of a few colonists scattered along the Atlantic seaboard, divided in interests and tastes, perishing continually from exposure and want, not all actuated by the highest motives, but all recognizing, as by an unerring instinct, the fundamental principle out of which was to grow the American government, and all in danger of being exterminated at any time by the "pestilence which walketh in darkness and the destruction which wasteth at noonday".
Scattered up and down the great extent of territory stretching from the Passamaquoddy Bay to the capes of Florida were but about 200,000 souls, of whom Massachusetts, with Plymouth and Maine, may have had 44,000; New Hampshire and Rhode Island, with Providence each 6000; Connecticut from 17,000 to 20,000; that is, all New England, 75,000...
These people had come largely from that "Germanic race most famed for the love of personal independence". They were not men of high estate, but they were men who possessed an inherent love of land, with all the individual honor and freedom which go along with it...
Of one colony said "Spotswood, a royalist, a High churchman, a traveler", "I have observed here less swearing and profaneness, less drunkenness and debauchery, less uncharitable feuds and animosities, and less knaverys and villanys than in any part of the world where my lot has been"...
In all their customs they were obliged to exercise the utmost simplicity and they voluntarily regulated their conduct by those formal rules, which, in their day, constituted the Puritan’s guide through the world. We are told, as an illustraton of their character and manners, that by the laws of the Plymouth Colony, in 1651, "dancing at weddings was forbidden". In 1660, one William Walker was imprisoned one month for courting "a maid without the leave of her parents".
In 1675, because "there is manifest pride appearing in our streets", the "wearing of long hair or periwigs", and so "superstitious ribands, used to tie up and decorate the hair were forbidden under severe penalty"; the keeping of Christmas was also forbidden "because it was a popish custom". In 1677 an act was passed "to prevent the profaneness of turning the back upon the public worship before it was finished and the blessing pronounced".
Towns were directed to erect a cage near the meeting house, and in all this all offenders against the sanctity of the Sabbath were confined. At the same time children were directed to be placed in a particular part of the meeting house, apart by themselves, and tything-men were ordered to be chosen, whose duty it shall be to take care of them. So strict were they in their observance of the Sabbath that "John Atherton, a soldier of Col. Tyng’s Company", was fined 40 shillings for wetting a piece of an old hat to put into his shoes, which chafed his feet on the march; and those who neglected to attend meeting for 3 months were publicly whipped.
Even in Harvard College students were whipped for gross offenses in the Chapel, in presence of students and professors, and prayers were had before and after the infliction of the punishment. As the settlers of Deerfield are described as being of "sober and orderly conversation", we may suppose that these laws and customs were here rigidly enforced.
[Here follows a section on "subsistence and diet of your ancestors". Also talks about how they were good farmers, fishermen and readers]...
...Possessed evidently of a common origin, for "between the Indians of Florida and Canada the difference was scarcely perceptible", they were divided into tribes, which differed from each other mainly in their fighting capacity, and the vigor with which they roamed from place to place; and they were liable at any time to be swept off by disease, or exterminated by war, or absorbed by other and more powerful tribes.
In language, the North American Indian was limited by the material world, an abstract idea finding no birthplace in his brain and no expression on his tongue. "In marriage the Indian abhorred restraint, and from Florida to the S. Lawrence polygamy was permitted". Divorce meant merely desertion. The wife was a slave. Domestic government was unknown. The Indian youth grew up a warrior, adorned with vermilion and eagle’s feather, as fleet of foot as the deer, and as tolerant of hunger as the wolf; the Indian girl grew up a squaw, degraded and squalid and servile.
A rude agriculture, resulting in a weedy corn crop, and a few squashes and beans, was the Indian’s, or rather the Indian woman’s occupation; he had neither trade nor manufactures. "There can be no society without government; but among the Indian tribes on the soil of our republic, there was not only no written law - there was no traditionary [sic] expression of law; government rested on opinion and usage and the motives to the usage were never imbodied [sic] in language; they gained utterance only in the fact, and power only from opinion...
The Indian had a government without laws; a State without institutions; a church without faith, or creed, or head; a town without schoohouse or meeting house; a punitive system without jails or gibbets; a history based on tradition; a religion based on superstition; he was ignorant of the ownership of land; and knew nothing of a system of inheritance.
As in peace he was an idler - so in war he was a marauder. An organized army was to him unknown. He fought in small bands, seldom over 50 in number, to surprise and slaughter. He pursued, and killed, and scalped. He had neither commissariat nor hospital. He fought his enemy in the rear and in ambush; and he tortured and roasted and devoured his captives. These were the national characteristics which our fathers found on this continent.
Nor did their attempts to modify and humanize and Christianize them meet with much success. The Indian could be tamed, but he was the Indian still...Neither John Eliot nor Roger Williams was able to change essentially the habits and character of the New England tribes..."They are unspeakably indolent and slothful; they deserve little gratitude; they seem to have no sentiments of generosity, benevolence or goodness".
The Moravian Loskiel could not change their character...In New Hampshire and elsewhere schools for Indian children were established; but as they became fledged they all escaped, refusing to be caged. Harvard College enrolls the name of an Algonquin youth among her pupils; but the college parchment could not close the gulf between the Indian character and the Anglo American.
The copper colored men are characterized by a moral inflexibility, a rigidity of attachment to their hereditary customs and manners. The birds and brooks, as they chime forth their unwearied canticles, chime them ever to the same ancient melodies; and the Indian child, as it grows up, displays a propensity to the habits of its ancestors...
The trouble lay deeper. Year after year the Indian discovered an irreconcilable difference between himself and the stranger...When he entered the home of the settler, he discovered that the joys of the fireside could never be found in the group squatted beneath the shelter of the wigwam. He felt the antagonism - and his soul burned within him. The strife was not for land...It was for supremacy. And as revenge is stronger than ambition, and hate is stronger than avarice, so the war raged with unspeakable fury, and was as cruel as the passions of a desperate savage could make it.
The great contest which grew out of this antagonism, and lasted more than a year, unabated either by the heat of summer or the frosts of winter, threatening destruction to the New England colonies, was known as Philip’s War. With the story of this conflict you are all familiar. The peaceful death of Massasoit at a good old age, after a long life of friendly relations with the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies; the sadder death of his son Alexander, worried out of life by the failure of his intrigues against the colony, and the exposure of his meanness and his crimes; the gradual development of the worst of passions in the breast of Philip, and his passage from treachery to war are all fresh in the memory of all who have traced the hard path which our fathers traveled in the work of settling these shores.
The war which began in Swanzey on the 24th of June, 1675, reached this spot on the 18th of September - three months of murder, and fire, and all the bloody horrors of savage warfare. At the time the war broke out Deerfield had been settled 10 years, or had been deeded for the purposes of settlement to John Pynchon that length of time. It was then, as it is now, one of the most delightful spots in New England...
And here in the luxurience of that natural beauty, and in the wealth of wood and stream, the Indian found his favorite resort. In this town and in the towns of Hadley and Hatfield he mustered a numerous and a powerful tribe. And upon these lands purchased by the settlers, with titles confirmed by the court, the whites and Indians lived together in peace for years. It is amazing with what rapidity the war, once opened, spread from village to village, and from tribe to tribe in this wilderness...
The Pocumtucks had received their orders - and in a day had stepped from the blessings of peace to the misery of war. having promsied to deliver up their arms, on suspicion that they might misuse them, they broke their promise, fled to Sugar loaf Hill, engaged with Captains Beers and Lothrop commanding the English here, lost 26 of their number, and then sought shelter under the standard of King Philip...
Deerfield too was abandoned; and the attempt to secure a quantity of wheat which had just been partially threshed by the farmers there before their flight, resulted in the massacre which still thrills me with horror, and the anniversary of which we have met to commemorate...From behind hundreds of trees the savages poured their deadily [sic] fire. At the first volley many were killed, and the remainder were panic stricken...Lothrop...was among the first to fall. The savages, numbering nearly 700, "rushed upon the defenceless men, and the work of slaughter was soon complete.
But 6 or 7 Englishmen escaped to tell the tale, of whom one had been shot and tomahawked and left for dead, and another forced his way through the yelling ranks of the savages with the but [sic] of his musket...
While the Indians were employed in mangling, scalping and stripping the dying and the dead, Captain Moseley, who, as has been observed, was ranging the woods, hearing the report of musketry, hastened by a forced march to the relief of his brethren. The Indians, confiding in their superior numbers, taunted him as he advanced, and dared him to the contest. Moseley came on with firmness, repeatedly charged through them, and destroyed a large number with the loss on his side of but 2 killed and 11 wounded...
A quantity of bones lately found in that quarter is very probably the remains of the Indians who fell there at the close of the action. The united English force encamped for the night at Deerfield. They returned in the morning to bury the dead and found a party of the Indians upon the field stripping the bodies of their victims. These they quickly dispatched, and the remains of the brave young men, or some portion of them, were committed to the earth near the spot which we have this day consecrated anew to their memory.
The stream on whose banks they fell, and whose water ran red with their blood, has been called from that day, in memory of the disaster, Bloody Brook...[Two more entire columns follow, but they are quite blurry and unreadable].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
The Catamount Hill Coleraine Reunion
The Catamount HIll Coleraine Reunion - The reunion of the present and former members of Catamount Hill, Coleraine occurred on Wed. Sept. 1. There was quite a large gathering of people, and the exercises which were as follows, were interesting and endorsed by those present: Reading of Scriptures by Andrus Shippee [also seen as Andros Shippee], President of the day, from Benjamin Farley’s old family Bible; Prayer by Daniel Davenport, an old resident of the hill; Hymn, Coronation Chronological History, by Dr. A.F. Davenport; Hymn, arranged for the occasion:
"This mountain, ’tis of thee
Land of sweet memory
Of thee we sing
Land where our fathers died
Land of their early pride
Aye from this mountain side
Let music ring.
Our native Mountain, thee
Land of the parent tree
Thy name we love.
We love the rocks and rills
Thy woods and towering hills
Our heart within us thrills
Like that above.
Welcome from Western lands
Thrice welcome in our hands
Ye friends of yore.
From distant home released
To mingle in glad feast
With kindred from the east
As wont before.
Let music swell the breeze
And ring from all the trees
Sweet memory’s song
Let every tongue awake
Let all that breathe partake
Let rocks their silence break
the sound prolong.
Our fathers, God, to thee
The highest praises be
To thee we song
Long may our lives be bright
Protect us by Thy might
Great God our King.
Family History, by Miss Emma Farley; Song, by Miss Gertrude Baker; Old Oaken Bucket, by David Cary; Sixty Years Ago, by Miss Nellie Ives; Dinner; After dinner there were speeches from a number of those present. The following is Dr. Davenport’s http://archiver.root...Y/2001-06/0991943526 address:
And it came to pass in the reign of George and Martha, that certain tribes of the people who dwelt in many parts of the land, bethought themselves that they would leave their birth right to their brethren, and depart from the land of their fathers and go into a far off country, and make by the sweat of the brow a more noble inheritance, both to themselves and to their children.
And there was in these days a mighty wilderness, and no man kneweth the end thereof. Neither did any man dwell therein, save a few of the wandering tribes of the Gentiles called the "red man". And these did neither plant nor gather into barns; only slay a few wild beasts with the bow and arrow, for they were archers.
And now in the midst of the wilderness arose up even into the heavens an exceedingly high mountain, which was fair to look upon from the plains below, for it was covered with mighty trees even into the brow thereof. And then did roam upon this mountain many wild beasts, but the one that did most abound was one which was very fleet of foot, and did prey upon the lesser beasts of the forest, and upon the flocks of those who journeyed hither, and was called the catamount, and the region did very much abound in rocks which were the fastnesses of these beasts, and there was a cave which did reach even to the bowels of the earth in which these beasts did make their dens, and so much had they increased and multiplied that they were a terror to the coming tribes of the mountains, wherefore that place is called Catamount HIll to this day.
Now the names of some of the tribes who first journeyed hither were these: Aaron, whose surname was Cary, Israel and Peter, and Amasa of the tribe of Shippee. Alden, who was also named Willis. Elihu of the tribe of Holden, and Paul, who was also called Davenport. And these said among themselves, come, let us get up and make some war upon the forests, and drive out the wild beasts, and make unto ourselves habitations.
And all the elders of the tribes said they would do so, for the thing was right in the eyes of all the people. And Aaron said unto Jemima, his wife, come, let us gather ourselves together, even from the middle of the Borough, and let us with our children travel westward, and they came and took up their abode upon the east side of the mountain.
And behold Hezekiah, whose surname was Smith, dwelt also on the east side of the mountain, even unto the entering in of the wilderness from the river. And their flocks were multiplied, for they dwelt among plants and hedges. And Peter went up and Amasa and all lsrael unto this mountain, and the tribe of Farly.
And Anan, also called Bass, went with Joseph, whose surname was Farnsworth, and they dwelt near together in the hollow according to their generations. And in those days came Paul and Alice, his wife, and they made war upon the wild beasts of the forests, and they pitched their tent and dwelt at the border thereof, where they cleared the land and had green pastures, and their flocks and herds were multiplied and they also begat children, whose names were Zacheus, Thomas and Paul, Daniel and Levi; and they also had daughters given unto them: Lydia, Sally and Alice.
And now Alice lay sick of a fever, and great fear came upon the whole household for she was nigh unto death. And Paul saddled his beast and did go for one Nathaniel, who dwelt in the valley by the river, and whose appellation was "Dr. Nat". And he came with saddlebags and he gave unto her pills of buckthorn and aloes,and the drink of herbs, queen of the meadow, motherwort and sarsaparilla, and after many days she recovered, and great rejoicing came upon all the household.
And behold Nathaniel found that she was fair to look upon, and he said, come in unto me and let us dwell together. And Alice said, I will go; and they went to dwell at the head of the meadow, in a house builded by one Artemas and Ruth. And now it came to pass after this, Joel, one of the Chiefs, and Zenas, the son of Cary, sent messengers to Nathaniel, and timbers of cedar, with masons and carpenters to build him a barn. And they builded it 40 cubits long; the stable thereof was 10 cubits, and a threshing floor 10 cubits and 20 cubits for a bay.
Now it came to pass in those days, as Aaron sat in his house, that Aaron said to Jemima, his wife: "Behold, our meal getteth low, and our children hunger for bread, give unto me! I pray thee a bag that I may fill it with corn and go to the grinders". And Jemima said, go do all that is in thy heart. And Aaron arose and went. And it came to pass as he was journeying homeward from the mill, the even was come and darkness fell upon the whole land, and a great fog encompassed him about, and his way was lost. And Aaron lifted up his voice and cried aloud "Jemima! Jemima!! JEMIMA!!!"
Now Jemimah heard the cry of Aaron and answered, In here am I. But he heard her not, for her voice was weak. So she straightway took a stick and beat vehemently upon the side of the house, and Aaron hearing the sound thereof hastened homeward. Now the sons of Aaron were Zenas and Levi, but Levi died before his father and had no children. And the children of Zenas and Sally, his wife, who were of the tribe of Maxam, were these: Charlotte and Mariettie, John and George, William, David and Levi, 7 in all.
But the days of Mariettie on the earth were as a shadow, and she was not, for God took her; and Charlotte had wisdom and knowledge granted unto her, and she came in and went out before the children and taught them. And the sons of Zenas were skillful to work in stone and in timber and in tilling the land.
And behold, William was wiser than the others about bees, and the queens of Italia, and did make unto himself a great name. And David, like one of old, was a mighty man and a slayer of beasts and of cattle, and behold, the flesh thereof he did keep in markets, and with it he did feed the tribes of Aaron.
And now after many days it came to pass that Aaron and Jemima, being full of years, died. And Zenas and Sally reigned in their stead.
Now Amasa, Israel and Peter were the three divisions of our tribe, who came to dwell in the hill country and they went even unto the top of the mountain and sought pastures for their flocks. Even over against the habitations of the wild beasts. And behold the house of Amasa increased greatly, and Andrus, Nancy, Jesse, Alvira and Jerusha, Henry, Chauncey, Nathan, Thankful and Kate, all these mentioned by their names, were the children of Amasa and Rhoda.
And after these days Rhoda saith unto Amasa, behold how our house has been multiplied, let us enlarge our borders, I pray thee, that there may be room in our house to dwell there. And this saying pleased Amasa and he straightway brought his cattle and his oxen, and gathered stones and timber and did build him an house, such as one as had not been there before him. He also made shingles of cedar and spruce and covered his house therewith.
Now Amasa was a man of great stature, even 5 cubits high. And Rhoda wrought fine linen and kersey, and with it did make clothes for her family and for Andrus, her first born. For behold, Rhoda was an helpmeet unto Amasa.
Now the children of Israel were Ira, Zovia, Azuba, Anan, Amasa, Catherine, Abraham, Israel, Martha and one younger called Darling. Now the children of Ira, the first born, were these: Delana, Dordana and Diana, and a son, a shepherd, who died in his youth. And Ira spake unto Dilla, his wife, to appoint their daughters to be the singers. So the daughters were appointed, and with their neighbors did often make merry with corn huskings and apple pearings [probably meant parings] with playing and dancing, making great noise with viols and with harps.
And it came to pass in these days that George took wives from the daughters of Ira, and went to dwell with Zenas, his father. And Zenas saith "Unto thee will I give the land of our fathers, even the house of Aaron, for the lot of thine inheritance" and he abode there many days. And George had exceeding much riches and honor, and he made himself treasures of silver and gold. Also storehouses for the increase of corn and stalls for all manner of beasts, and cotes for flocks, for God had given him substance very much.
And George prospered in all his works, and now sleeps with his fathers; and they buried him in the chiefest of the sepulchres of the sons of Aaron. And all the inhabitants of the hill town did him honor at his death, and Clark, his son, reigned in his stead.
And behold, Ira dwelt many years upon the mountain heights, well content with his lot. And one door of his house opened southward, and he was wont to remove his waistcoat and tarry long, even in the heat of the sun. Before his door, even near the steps thereof, the sweet-heart which Dilla had planted and watered waxed strong. And the sunflower towered high, even 6 cubits, and their fowls, their geese and their turkeys did gather in the shade thereof.
After these things it came to pass that Ira was stricken with a malady too grievous to be borne, and he died and rested with his father. And Dilla went to dwell in the house of her daughter, near the banks of the river; and in fullness of time she died. And behold, now the house of Ira was left desolate.
And it came to pass in those days that Peter saw that it was not good for man to dwell alone. Now Dorcas was of the tribe of the Pikes, and Peter saw that she was fair, and he said unto her: "Dorcas, if you love me less buss [?] and they went to dwell together; and they builded them an house near the brook by the side of a rock, and nigh unto the habitations of Paul and of Levi. And lo! a mighty storm arose and it beat vehemently upon the house, but it fell not for it was founded by the rock, and darkness was upon the whole land for it was night.
And lo! while Peter and Dorcas slept, a thunderbolt descended from the heavens and did rend the house, and even the bed whereon they slept! and behold, it did divide in twain the soap trough, and did scatter the contents broadcast over the house and the children. And the dog and the swine were killed, and grat fear came upon all the household. And Peter arose and spake unto Dorcas, his wife, "Come, let us arise and give thanks unto the Lord, for he has been merciful unto us; He has saved us from the mighty judgments of the Lord".
And the next day was the Sabbath, and many people gathered in the house of the Lord, and as they went, they tarried at the house of Peter and Dorcas, and with them did offer up thankofferings [sic] that they were saved from the terrors of the thunderbolt, and He had made their lives precious in his sight. And Peter gathered with all the people in the house of the Lord, and Myres, the Elder, arose and said "The Lord hath been good unto his people; yea, He hath showed a great mercy even unto the house of Peter".
So Peter arose and sang a hymn:
"God moves in a mysterious way,
His wonders to perform
He plants his footsteps in the sea
And rides upon the storm".
And all the people said amen. And the Lord blessed Peter and his seed was multiplied: Peter, Susie, Rolly and Fanny, Annie,, Josiah, Patience, Eliza, Paul, Silas and Mila. These were his children - 11 in all.
And it came to pass in those days that Daniel the prophet was joined to one of the tribe of Barnes, and her name was Patty: and Daniel was famous in his time as an expounder of the Scriptures, mighty in speech, and all the people came to hear him declare the truth on his day. And behold, he was sorely distressed, inasmuch as his substance was oftimes destroyed by fire, and desolation came upon his whole household.
And Daniel humbled himself before the God of his fathers, and the Lord favored Daniel and greatly blessed his household. And these were the sons of Daniel: David, Thomas, Alonzo, Orrie, Tirtious and Hiram; but the names of his daughters were Lucinda, Emily and Caroline. And it came to pass that these all went by themselves in families, some even to the four quarters of the earth, but David and Lucinda did abide near the house of their father.
And after these days Patty the Prophetess died, and Daniel lamented sore. But in process of time, it came to pass that Mary entered into Daniel’s house, and lo! there was restored unto him sevenfold in Mary, who was greater by far than all his former household. For since the time of the fathers there was not found the like in all the tribes of the mountain.
Now it came to pass that Abraham, the son of Farnsworth, dwelt in the house of Joseph; and after many days Joseph died and Abram [sic] reigned in his stead, with Dolly, who was of the house of Holden. Now Abram was a tiller of the land, and behold, he was barefooted on the top of his head, as was also his father before him. And it came to pass that Orin was pleased with Roxy, the daughter of Abram, and he took her to wife, and they went to dwell in the house left by Nathaniel; and after many days Orin died, and Roxy tarried and reigned there.
And Riley, her brother, did dwell in the house of their father Abram. Now Dolly’s two brothers, Elihu and John, dwelt also on the south side of the mountain near the house of Anan, whose surname was Bass, and behold Anan had an impediment in his speech, and when he was old and infirm he rested from his labors; and Adna and Rebecca reigned there many years after.
And it came to pass that Abram, the son of Shippee, said unto himself, Behold, I myself am a man, and I will leave even the house of my father Israel. And he married a wife from the tribe of Farley, and her name was Lucy, and they builded them an habitation and dwelt on the north side of the mountain. Now there were daughters born unto them (but behold the son shone not his face in all their household).
Fanny, Jane and Nancy, Martha, Almira and Parthena were the names of the daughters of Abraham. And it came to pass that when men did multiply on the mountains, and daughters were born unto them, that the sons saw the daughters, that they were fair, and they took them wives of all which they chose. And one, a Levite, took the firstborn of Abram; and behold all the daughters were scattered abroad. And after the death of Lucy desolation came upon the whole house. And again, after many days, Abram was joined to another and went to dwell near the plains, in an Ashfield.
And it came to pass that Peter, the brother of Paul and Silas, said unto Polly, let us pitch our tent and dwell near the house of our fathers, for so it seemeth good. And now behold near by their habitation was a dense swamp, and Peter was a man of great daring, and he fain would have walked upon the surface thereof, but his faith was weak, for there was much water there.
And behold a great calamity fell upon Peter, inasmuch as his nose was divided asunder and one of his eyes were blinded by the kick of old Gilpin, and Peter was sore discouraged, and all his household; and he said unto Polly, "Come, let us journey into a far country, where peradventure we shall find greener pastures for our flocks, and a richer inheritance for our children".
And they went on their journey and Nathaniel possessed the land. And behold Nathaniel was a man of great stature and of large understandings, and he was wont to remove the coverings thereof, and to tarry long among the eels and turtles that did much abound in the meadow ditches.
Now the length of this meadow, and the breadth thereof, was exceedingly great, and in it were many islands, both great and small, covered with trees and shrubs, and with herbs; and lo, Nathaniel and Alice were wont to go out and bring in of the abundance thereof in their season; for behold Nathaniel was a disciple of Hippocrates, and was possessed of the healing art in a great degree; and he had vessels of wood and of iron in which he did compound medicines for the cure of divers maladies.
And now it came to pass when the harvest was ended, and winter drew near, Nathaniel spent the long evenings thereof making baskets of willow, and hooping the sieves which Alice did weave from hair, and did bind with the leaves of the flag. And now Robert, their firstborn, was skillful to work in brass and in iron, and to grave all manner of graving, and to find out any device that was put to him.
And lo, it came to pass that he was pierced with a chisel, and so were his days numbered. And now Nathaniel’s 4th son was called Truair, after one, a high priest, who traveled the circuit of the hill country. Now Truair did in habits much resemble his father; he was a tiller of the ground, and he bethought himself that he would journey in a far country, where he might find more fertile fields; and he bought a parcel of land where he spread his tent.
And there his possessions increased much. And it came to pass in the sixth month - the month Sivan - that he was cultivating the land, when lo, there descended upon him a thunderbolt; and he was taken up dead, and they buried him in the field of burial, in the land of strangers.
And now it came to pass that there was born unto Nathaniel a daughter, and her name was called Lydia. Now Nathaniel and Alice did set their hearts upon her, because she was their only daughter, and well favored. So Lydia dwelt in her father’s household until his death. And she did many things that were praiseworthy, for behold she was a woman zealous of good works. And after many days it came to pass that Lydia was beloved by one Emerson, of the tribe of Cary, and they dwelt henceforth with the Adamonians.
Now Ammon, Joseph, and Jason were also of the household of Nathaniel, and behold they were diligent in sowing wild oats among the rooks and the hedges, and even over the ridgepole of the houses and barns. And after they were well brushed in, it came to pass that they did leave their father’s house, and did join themselves into the society of the Odentologues. And behold they were skillful in the making of gold and silver and of ivory, and did make appliances of cunning device and workmanship, which did even eat and speak for themselves; and all the Edentulous did greatly rejoice.
So they were very diligent in repairing the crumbling incisors, bicuspids and molars, and in all that, pertained to "restoring the contour of the human face divine". And behold one went to dwell with the Gothamites, by the border of the sea; but Joseph builded him an habitation in the Norwood of the Connecticut. and lo, it came to pass, that the house of Ammon was sawn asunder, and again, after many days, it was joified and perfected; and the household of Ammon did rejoice greatly in that they did dwell in broader fields, even in the "valley view" of the winding Hoosac River.
And it came to pass that Levi was a shepherd born (not made) and behold to him fell the inheritance of Paul his father, and he took up his abode there, and did build him an house of hewn logs and timber. Now the house of Levi was more comely than that of Paul, inasmuch as it was broader and higher and was divided into diverse compartments for the convenience of his family. And behold Susan was exceeding glad and said, Come now, let us build storehouses for our flocks, houses for bees, and also for our cheese.
And now Levi was a man of great cunning and he was skillful int he hiving of bees, and their swarms did greatly increase and behold their household did flow with milk and honey. Now Levi possessed lands in great abundance, and his pastures did much abound in rocks and stones, and no beast could feed thereon, save that their noses were well sharpened. So their pastures did run over with sheep and with lambs, both great and small.
And in these days it came to pass that Levi and Susan did take in abundance of the first fruits of flocks, and of cheese and of honey, and of all the increase of the fields, and the tithe of all these things brought them in abundantly, and their coffers were filled with gold and silver. And behold Levi begat great honor unto himself, inasmuch as he tarried long to possess the lands of his fathers.
And it came to pass that sundry members of Amasa’s household did journey westward; and one of the daughters tarried just over the mountain, and was joined to one David whose surname was Ives. And Kate, the younger, did worship the son of Simeon the Myres, and again she was made one of the tribe of Benjamin. And behold after many days she did return to the house of her father.
Now Nathan did much resemble his father in that he was tall and of a comely countenance, and he went to dwell in the Hub, where he did dispense to the tribes thereof of the milk of human kindness.
And now Chauncey the brother of Nathan was exceeding tall, even 5 cubits and over. And it came to pass in the reign of King Winter, when he did give his snow like wood, and did scatter his ice like morsels, and his hoar frost like ashes, that one Barton did gather together all the children of the hill tribes saying: harken ye unto me, and I will dispense unto you knowledge and wisdom, and learning in great abundance.
And now much learning did make Chauncey mad, and so he did sit down heavy upon his seat, and low the teacher was sore vexed, and commanded Chauncey that he rise and sit down again. And lo, Chauncey did all that was commanded him in that he did sit down threefold heavier than before, whereupon the teacher did rend his clothes and he drew forth a raw hide and with it Chauncey was beaten with many stripes until the ire of his wrath was kindled.
And behold he leaped over the counter and seized the teacher by the throat, and held him down until he begged for his life. And behold they armed themselves with shovels and with tongs, that they might be defended against the assaults of each other, and there arose a great tumult, and all the children quaked with fear and trembling. And it came to pass that when the noise of these things went abroad, Joel, Zenas and Levi consulted together, and Mary, the daughter of Smith reigned in his stead.
And now Andros the first born of Amasa was a captain and a man of great might, in that he did brave the storms and tempests of the mountain; he was also a man of great courage and daring in that he did dwell many years nearer the lions than any of the other tribes of the mountain; even after all his father’s household had forsaken him and gone. Now Andros did search diligently among all the daughters of the hill country, but found not one who would do him honor. So he chose to dwell alone in single blessedness, and verily he shall not lose his reward.
Now it came to pass in those days that Alice said unto Emily, Behold, how sin doth abound, and the love of many doth wax cold. Come, let us assemble ourselves together, there am I in their midst. So they took their hymn books and journeyed to the old school house and lighted their candle and placed it under a bushel, but on a candlestick, that it might give light unto all the house. Then after Alice had arisen from her knees they did sing an hymn. And Emily arose and said "Behold, this is the house of the Lord, let us assemble often together"; so Alice lifted up her voice and said "Amen" and they departed to their own households.
And it came to pass that the noise of these things did spread abroad throughout all the region round about. And behold all the tribes of the hill country were greatly moved and they came together by scores and by hundreds. Now Haynes, one of the elders of the people arose, and behold he was like unto Saul the son of Kish, in that he was taller by head and shoulders than the rest of the people, and he cried with a loud voice "Brethren and sisters, hearken unto me". and a great silence fell upon all the multitudes and he said "behold we are all gathered together from near and from far, let us give thanks unto the Lord, sing psalms unto his name".
Now Daniel, whose surname was Dwight, broke forth into singing:
"My chains fell off: glory! I cried
Was it for sinners Jesus died etc. etc. [sic]"
And all the people said amen and amen. And Zenas, who was greatly beloved by all the people, arose and said "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel forever and ever". And behold he did free his mind of a great burden which lay heavily upon it in that he did tell to the brethren and sisters that "he dreamed a dream; and it amounted even unto a vision". And all the people gave ear unto him, and after he had sat down behold Alice broke forth into singing:
"Oh that my load of sin were gone".
And scarcely had the voice of singing died away, when Sarah the Prophetess, the daughter of Hanshaw arose, and as she spoke a great silence fell on all the multitude for she spake of one Joel who had been suddenly taken to his death.
Now all the brethren and sisters knew and loved Joel, and they did mourn sincerely for him. And when these words sounded in their ears, their hearts were filled with sorrow; and they expressed themselves in singing mournfully. And it came to pass that Rebecca arose. Now Rebecca was a woman greatly beloved, and all the people gave ear to her as she said "It rejoiceth my heart greatly to meet with the brethren and sisters, who have come from near and from far". And when she had sat down all the people said amen.
Presently Peter arose, and his head was white and glistening, and a halo glowed around it, and his face did shine even as the light; and he blessed God with all his heart and soul; and behold, all his kinsfolk and neighbors became as lambs for quietness. But Per was greatly beloved, and when he had made an end of his sayings, he sang with a loud voice:
"On Jordan’s stormy banks I stand
And cast a wishful eye
To Canaan’s fair and happy land
Where my possessions lie".
And after this Samuel whose surname was Brown, arose and opened his mouth and said unto them "Men and brethren, it is with me as with Naaman the Syrian, when Elisha bade him go wash in Jordan; yea, more, it was as if the Jordan had been frozen over, and he had been bidden to go wash 7 times in the river. But he essayed the task, and said "Behold I have been ashamed of my brethren in the days that are past, but now do I greatly rejoice to see them zealous of good works". And Nathan, the son of Burns arose, and all the people knew that he had somewhat to say.
And Nathan said "He felt somewhat cold and lukewarm" and sat down, and all the people broke frorh into singing:
"Come Holy spirit heavenly dove
With all thy quickening powers
Kindle a flame of sacred love
In these cold hearts of ours"
And now it came to pass that Daniel the prophet arose. Now behold he was a prophet born (not made) and when the spirit seizeth him, the voice of Daniel was like the balm of Gilead, even like precious ointment upon their heads, that ran down upon the beard; even Aaron’s beard that went down to the skirts of his garments.
Now after this it came to pass that the hour was late and Myres the elder arose, and behold he was halt, and like Samson of old his locks were long and flowing. And he said "My brethren and sisters, if any man does ought to his neighbor, he must go to him and make restitution, or he can never enter into the pearly gates of the New Jerusalem". and all the people said amen and amen.
Now what shall I say more, for the time would fail me, to speak of Sister Farley and others who through faith wrought righteousness and obtained the promise. So after they had sung an hymn, they all departed and slept. And as for the rest of the doings of the tribes, are they not all written in the chronicles of our memory?
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Robert Abercrombie, whose fine new house, on the hill above the Cheapside Bridge, has just been completed, gave a reception and "hop" Thurs. eve. for the benefit of the workmen who have been employed on the structure. The house has been thoroughly built, and commands a grand view of the lovely Deerfield meadows, and our neighboring mountain scenery.
The carpenters employed were Dwight Holden and George Holden and Charles E. Fisk, and they have spared no skill or labor in making a model residence. The rooms are neatly finished off in the wood [sic], and arranged after the most approved style. Mr. A. has a fine spring above his house, which is supplied from it, being piped through out for hot and cold water.
It is also fitted for gas. M.R. Pierce & Co. have done all the plumbing, piping, etc. - an important item in the structure - and C.L. Frink was employed to do the painting. The party was made as free and easy as possible. Forty or 50 people were present. Music was furnished for the dancing by John Putnam and Philo Temple, the latter of whom is a neighbor and quite a noted musician a generation ago. [See Google Books "History of Greenfield" by Francis McGee Thompson, and Lucy Cutler Kellogg].
Refreshments were dispensed in the most hospitable way, and the occasion will be long remembered by all who were present.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 23, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
The water wheel referred to elsewhere in this paper was built by Luther Knights, the practical machinist and mechanical engineer of the Arlington Car Manufacturing Co's. works http://www.midcontin...builders/vermont.htm Mr. Knights is now preparing to make 3 sizes of small wheels which will far surpass the former in beauty of design and capacity. The sizes to be built are 6, 10, and 14 inch, varying in power from the power required to run a sewing machine to 32 horse power. They are to be placed in an iron water box, in such a manner as not to leak, and can be used in a parlor as well as anywhere as far as the shops are concerned. See advertisement in another column.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 23, 1875
News of the week
There was another accident at Niagara Falls last week that narrowly escaped proving fatal. William E. Brook of Trenton, N.J., engaged a guide and started for a trip under the Horse Shoe Fall [i.e. Horseshoe Falls], on the Canadian side. When directly under Table Rock, a huge piece of rock, weighing at least two tons, fell from above, narrowly missing the guide and just grazing Mr. Brook's shoulders, while a large fragment struck his leg, bruising it badly, crushing his foot and pinning him to the ground, so that it took 20 minutes to get him clear.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
R.C. McKinney of Chicopee has been appointed superintendent of the Greenfield Gas Works in place of James Porter. Mr. M. has entered upon his duties, and those having complaints to make or business requiring his attention, should leave word at the store of Howland & Lowell.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 9, 1875
A big tree for the Centennial
California papers mention the fact that a Mr. Vivian is preparing a large piece of one of the Tulare County big trees to exhibit at the Centennial next year. The piece of timber selected is 16 ft. long and 21 ft. in diameter at one end and 19 at the other. The heart of this will be taken out, leaving only about one ft. of the body of the tree attached to the shell or bark. It is necessary to divide it into a number of parts in order to allow it to pass through the numerous tunnels between California and Philadelphia.
The 8 parts will weigh between 30,000 and 40,000 pounds, and will require 2 cars for transportation. One solid foot of this tree weighs 72 lbs., being 10 lbs. heavier than so much water. The timber was taken out of the "General Lee", a tree 275 ft. high. It contained over 200,000 ft. of lumber, besides, probably, about 200 cords of wood. The "General Grant", a much larger brother tree than the "General Lee", and the largest int he world growing in the same grove, is left standing.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
Alonzo Parker has invented a new automatic gas extinguisher, intended more especially for gas posts. The gas is lighted in the ordinary manner and the extinguisher set to turn off the gas as desired, at any given time during the night. The machine is enclosed in a small box, and attached to the post. They are being tried on several posts in the village, and perform the work perfectly.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
An exploring party
An exploring party from St. Paul reports the discovery of an iron mountain rivaling the celebrated mountain of that name in Missouri, 60 miles north of Duluth. The mountain is described as 8 miles long and 1 1/2 miles wide, 1200 ft. above the level of Lake Superior. A party has now gone to make a thorough scientific examination; and if their report is favorable, it is understood a number of Eastern capitalists will begin to develop the work at once. [It became Mountain Iron, Minnesota http://www.ironrange.org/communities/mt-iron/ ]
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
A religious seance
A "religious seance" at Boston Sun. night, at which 12 powerful mediums were to be produced, and do extraordinary things by gas light, was terminated early in the evening by the hoots and jeers of the audience. During the eve. the magician Herman [Hermann the Great http://www.magicrealm.50megs.com/html/history.html ] was called on the stage and offered to do all the feats performed by the "spirits" if allowed to enter the cabinet.
This privilege was refused, and he then performed outside numerous tricks with handkerchiefs and ropes, greatly to the amusement of the skeptical portion of the audience, and the disgust of the mediums and their followers. Prof. Tobin announces that he will expose the so-called spiritual manifestations next Sun. night.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
The Hampden County Commissioners have contracted with R.L. Goss of Montague City to build them 4 scows with a tonnage of 30 tons each, at a cost of $1100, for the proposed work of protecting the east bank of the Connecticut River beyond the bridges. They are to be delivered at the bridges by 7 o’clock Mon. morning, Aug. 16th.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
Franklin County tax payers
Greenfield - no. of polls, 927; in 1874, 929; valuation of personal property, 1875, $853,973; in 1874, $828,853; valuation of real estate, 1875, $1,969,665; in 1874, $1,954,790; total valuation, 1875, $2,823,638; in 1874, $2,783,653; rate, 1875, $14.50 per thousand; 1874, $13.50 per thousand.
The following is a list of persons who pay a tax of $25 and upwards, not including fire district tax, which will be about $3 on $1000.
Abell, George A., $41.15
Austin, Thomas N., $33.90
Adams, George C., $87.70
Adams, Peleg, $360.50
Adams, John A., $85.52
Amidon, J.H., $26.65
Avery estate, $30.45
Allen, William H., $89
Allen, F.R., $89
Allen, S’s Sons, $304.50
Allen, George A., $44.05
Allen, Quintas, $83.20
Allen, John S. & Son, $44.82
Arms, George A., $413.80
Arms, Elihu G., $46.95
Aiken, David, $65.80
Ames, James M., $129.75
Ames, James M., trustee, $87
Ames, George, $33.90
Alexander, A.A., $38.83
Farrell, Lewis, $36
Fisk, Dr. Charles L., $53
Fitzgerald, P.M., $60
Fitzgerald, John, $70
Field, F.E., $31
Farnsworth & Persons, $30
Field, Albert A., $29
Field, Charles R., $183
Field, & Hall, $29
Forbes, William A., $119
Fuller, Mrs. H.M., $36
Frary, George W. $115
Forbes & Foster, $6
Fellows, M.S., $78
Felton, J.P., $99
Field, Mrs. A.R., $75
First National Bank, $174 (had Nirst)
Franklin County National Bank, $362
Grennell, George, $212 (also seen as Grinnell)
Graves, John J., $45
Graves, Luther L., $35
Graves, Mrs. J.M., $31
Graves, Alonzo, $89
Gascouigne, J.F., $49
Griswold, W., estate, $40
Griswold, Duloie, g’d’n, $108
Griswold J.F., $83
Gunn, Levi J., $66
Greenfield Tool Co., $420
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
At the meeting of the Greenfield Gas Co. Thurs., Rufus Howland, George W. Potter, William B. Washburn and S.O. Lamb of Greenfield, and George Dwight of Springfield were chosen Directors. At a meeting of the Directors, Rufus Howland was chosen President, and S.O. Lamb, Clerk and Treasurer.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
Buena Vista stone
The Buena Vista stone http://bulk.resource.../113/113.US.153.html of which the Chicago Custom House is constructed, has been tested by a government chemist and found to contain a considerable quantity of petroleum, and also to be unable to resist the action of frost. It is not considered fit for building purposes.
Ethan Lord has commenced the erection of a new mill, to be occupied by W.D. Smith in his wool waste business. The building is on the old scythe shop site, and will be 100 by 90 ft., and furnished with one of Leffell's turbine wheels of 10 horse power.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 5, 1875
Brief notes of a pleasant excursion
The Massachusetts Press Association left Boston on the morning of June 23, for their annual excursion. The party, including ladies, numbered almost 90...On this excursion two first class cars and a smoking car on the Boston & Albany road were devoted to the exclusive use of the excursionists...The sandwiches, cakes, etc. were neatly packed in pasteboard boxes for each individual, and were liberally accompanied with iced lemonade.
At Albany...there was a change to the fine cars of the New York Central Railroad, and we were soon steaming with almost lightning rapidity through the beautiful Mohawk Valley. The flat farm lands here are of an unsurpassing fertility. There does not appear to be an acre that is not under cultivation....The Mohawk runs parallel with the road for many miles, and on the opposite side of the river is the Erie Canal. The latter, which has been one of the great institutions of the Empire State for many years, appears to New Englanders to be a rather slow method of transportation. The canal boats, which we pass in quick succession, seem hardly to move, so snail like is the progress which they make, but what is lost in time is saved in expense. If it was not for the Erie our coal and grain would never approach the present low prices, and upon it has depended largely the wealth and development of the great Western States.
But...the day was fearfully hot, and our excursion cars were in the rear of a very large train; and the dust and cinders that poured into the windows soon blackened our faces, filled our eyes and ears, so that when we reached Syracuse about 8 o’clock in the eve., after a ride of 350 miles, we were a sad looking set, more like a band of miners from the coal region, than people who patronized soap and water. We were, however, nicely quartered at the Globe and Vanderbilt hotels and through the transforming influences of the bath, clean linen, and a good supper, were soon ourselves again.
The party left Syracuse soon after 6 the next morning, by the Auburn branch of the New York Central. At Auburn we got the chance to see the extensive buildings of the State Penitentiary, but did not stop for a close inspection of the establishment. A short ride brought us to the wharf at Cayuga, where we embarked on a small steamer for a delightful trip of 38 miles through Cayuga Lake...
With song and mirth the happy excursionists were soon on the top wave of enjoyment. At Goodwin’s Point a landing was made and the party visited Taghkanic Falls To reach the Falls we climbed a steep descent of a mile, under a broiling sun, and were hardly, when we reached the summit, in the most favorable mood to fully appreciate this wild freak of nature. These falls are on a small stream, and 215 ft. in perpendicular height, while the rocky gorge is nearly 400 ft. down.
It is a wild and picturesque spot, but at this season there is not a large flow of water over the fall. A hotel has been built upon the summit, within a stone’s throw of the fall, and it is quite a resort for excursionists and picnic parties.... Afterwards we landed at the beautiful town of Ithaca, at the head of the lake. the principal business here is apparently the transferment of coal. The coal is brought by rail from the mines in Pennsylvania and transshipped to the canal boats, which convey it across the lake and thence through the canal to the Eastern markets. Our quarters were at the Ithaca Hotel, a first class house...After a sumptuous dinner, carriages were provided for a visit to Cornell University.
The college buildings occupy a beautiful site overlooking the lake, and can be seen miles away...The college was opened in 1868, and everything about the premises is neat and new...The founder of the college, Ezra Cornell, Esq. endowed the institution with more than three millions of dollars...Our party assembled in the Library of the college, and were addressed by President White...It was the purpose of Mr. Cornell to found a university where any person could find instruction in any study, and well has his purpose been carried out. It recognizes no distinct religious belief, though its aim is to promote Christian civilization...
Upon the grounds an opportunity is afforded, as at our Agricultural College, for the practical study of agriculture. There is a carpenter shop, furnished with power and machinery, where students who have tastes in that direction can cultivate their skill in wood work. A large machine shop is fitted with lathes and a variety of machinery and tools, and we found here a dozen or more young men hard at work with sleeves rolled up, dressed in colored shirts an overalls, hands and faces begrimmed, just like "greasy mechanics".
Several valuable inventions have been made in this shop, and much of this work is put to a practical use. In the same building is a printing shop with a large assortment of type and presses...Cornell University recognizes the co-education of the sexes. Young ladies are admitted on the same footing as young men, and are advanced through the same studies...the young men, who at other colleges have been accustomed to practices that were vulgar and demoralizing have voluntarily given them up since the admission of the young ladies, and so far from the mingling of the sexes leading to unpleasant talk and scandal, as some had predicted, not a breath of suspicion of anything out of character had ever existed...
Before leaving the college grounds we were driven to Fall Creek Gorge a wild, romantic locality, where the waters of a small stream leap and splash over the rocks of a wild ravine in its mad course to the lake below. We left Ithaca at 7 in the eve. over the Utica, Ithaca and Elmira Railroad, the President of which is Gen. W.I. Burt, the Postmaster of Boston. General Burt had accompanied our party, and we were indebted to his kind attention and influence for many courtesies. On this road we pass through Elmira, and about 10 o’clock at night, in the midst of a drenching rain, arrived at the town of Watkins at the head of Seneca Lake. After a little confusion we were provided with carriages and driven through the pitchlike darkness up the steep ascent to the Glen Mountain House [See the NYPL Digital Gallery for great photos], which has been erected above the famous Watkins Glen.
There is no natural wonder on the American continent, with the exception perhaps, of Niagara Falls, that surpasses the Glen...Says Bayard Taylor: "In all my travels I have never met with scenery more beautiful and romantic than that embraced in this wonderful Glen, and the most remarkable thing of all is that so much magnificence and grandeur should be found in a region where there are no ranges of mountains...It is only since 1869 that the Glen has been accessible to the public...[A very large section follows about the Glen and its hotels. To be continued next week].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 15, 1871
Let the babies dig in the dirt
We once asked an old Winnebago squaw how it was that she cured her family by simply covering them every day with fresh earth, leaving only a breathing spot for their noses, and she said: "Earth our mother. Earth make she, and Earth take good care to make she papooses strong; squaw mother make she papooses sick. Earth mother make she papooses strong again. She can’t tell white squaw any more".
Now this poor Indian woman was wise according to her lights. Without knowing why, she saw that the earth was a friend to her children, and therefore gave them to its healing embrace. If the mother be fortunate enough to live in the country, she has the cure of many of her children’s ills quite at hand. Encourage baby to play in the fresh earth, preparing it properly for its enjoyment and cure, with as careful an eye to the comfort of the little thing as you would if it were to take any other kind of a bath. If it has no old dresses, make it a suit of cheap print, tie upon its head a light hat that will protect its eyes from discomfort, and invigorate it.
If it is a city child, and circumstances forbid a trip to the country for the sake of the weak convalescent, have a sand heap made on the warm side of your yard. Instinct will teach it to dig, and digging hardens the muscles and brings strength to the bones, while from the heart of the earth rises a subtle and strong power of healing that we can neither explain nor understand for ourselves, though we have both seen and felt its potency (The Metropolitan).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 5, 1875
Gill, or the old shad fishery
Yielding to repeated solicitations to write something concerning old times at the falls, I copy from my introductory note to the "Shad fishers", given at Turners Falls last winter, hoping it may interest some of your readers. J.D.C.
...With the exception, perhaps, of the Columbia River in Oregon, there never was a more prolific shad and salmon fishery on this continent than this of ours in the years that are gone.
From time immemorial these Falls were the resort of the Indians, to whom the bounty of heaven furnished a superabundance of nutritive and luscious food in the season; and the fact that something like a permanent settlement and home was here made by these nomads of the wilds who are usually here today and gone tomorrow tells the whole story of bounteous supply. Our plows crumble their bones and turn up their rude implements of the chase and warfare; and almost every farmer of the vicinity has his private collection of these relics, picked up from time to time during his agricultural operations.
An old proverb, derived from the Indians, was common among their white successors, to the effect that when the shad tree was in blossom, the fish were in the river, and that they remained prime and palatable while the bough showed white. The fishermen, red and white, are gone; the fish are gone; but the little shad tree still shows us its token annually in our woods and on our river braes.
In the month of June, after spawning, the fish become less firm in flesh, and the "last run" were thin and emaciated. "Poor as a June shad" was another proverb common among the fishers, and still heard and repeated among our river people.
The fishing of the Indian was ended on the morning of the 18th of May, 1676, 199 years ago next May, when Captain Turner cut them off by surprise, and destroyed their settlement. It was one of the delights of my boyhood to spend odd leisure hours and winters in the society of some of our oldest inhabitants -- participating in the scenes enacted here at the Falls, and gather a fund of story and anecdote from their recollections. These old men are all departed’ but I have the pleasure of thinking that I have been able to rescue from oblivion many facts and incidents of interest in the olden times in this locality....
So very plentiful and so easily procured were the fish here in the days of our fathers that the people were absolutely ashamed to have the fact patent that they made much account of shad as an article of food. The fish were styled "Gill pork", and many a cautious housewife, surprised by the approach of a neighbor while in the act of cooking a fine fish, had thrown it behind the back log to hide it from his observation. Tempera mutanta!
So pure were the waters of our river in those early days that the fish were of the finest quality, and much larger than those taken in the North River, the Potomac, or any other of our waters. In the fishing season the falls were resorted to by people from circumjacent towns, and from the western hills, with teams, for the purchase of their annual supply of fish for salting. The usual price to these customers was 3 coppers apiece -- equal to about 2 cents. A barrel of A no. 1 shad was no costly thing in those days. I can show the antiquarian a fine meadow in Gill, worth now $100 per acre, which was originally purchased by one of our old fishers for the avails of one day’s fishing at the Falls.
Attempts are now making by artificial building and the construction of fish ways to induce the fish to ascend the river and multiply as of yore; and you will all join most heartily with me in wishes for success to the efforts making...The maratime [i.e. maritime] operations on the lower sections of the river, the poisonous and discoloring matter cast into its waters by the numerous mills and factories on its borders, with other obstructions, present to my mind an almost insuperable bar to our successful efforts in that line.
The days of our fishing are ended, and the numbers we shall see ascend to our old fishing grounds will be as a struggling and feeble rear guard to a mighty army already gone before...The building of the dam at Holyoke finished the business and cut off our people from their "fish rights"...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
The usual session of the March term of the Superior Court was begun Tues. the 10th, Judge William Allen of Northampton presiding. Rev. A.J. Lyon was present and made the opening prayer. The Grand and Traverse Juries were empaneled with little delay, and the Grand Jury retiring with the District Attorney, the trial list was taken up and run through, showing a larger number of cases ready for trial than is usual, considering the number on the list. The civil cases were put on trial with commendable promptness, and if the same diligence is shown in the trials themselves, the term will not be an extended one. We give below the list of jurors empaneled.
/ Grand Jury - John Sanderson of Bernardston, Foreman; Robert Abercrombie of Deerfield, George W. Bradford of Conway, O. Frank Brown of Rowe, Lowell Brown of Shelburne, Cyrus W. Carley of Heath, Alonzo Crafts of Whately, Richard A. Dudley of Leverett, Alonzo Eldridge of Ashfield, George Gammell of Montague, Lysander Hillman of Charlemont, Joseph W. Houston of Hawley, Seth Leonard of Shutesbury, John I. Mattoon of Northfield, David Mowry of Leyden, William H. Packard of Erving, Simon C. Phillips of Gill, Theo C. Shearer of Coleraine, William Stickney of Greenfield, James M. Tenney of New Salem, Kendrick Ware of Buckland, Lafayette Worrick of Orange.
/ The Traverse Juries are as follows...[long list of names for first jury, second jury, and supernumeraries]. The following bills were found by the Grand Jury against Lewis Buck for Adultery; Levi Huntoon, for breaking and entering; also same for assault; Cornelius Bullman, common nuisance; Town of Heath, neglect to repair highway - two indictments.
/ The following appealed cases are on the docket: Commonwealth vs. Charles Peck, a common seller; same, keeping liquors; John Dempsey, assault; __ Champlin, assault and battery.
/ The first case which was taken up was that of George E. Williams vs. the Inhabitants of Leyden; and that of George E. Williams et al. vs. the Inhabitants of Leyden, depending on the same facts substantially, was joined with the first named action. The actions were for injuries alleged to have been received while traveling on a public highway in the town of Leyden, the amount claimed by the former case being $500, and in the latter case $1000. The second mentioned action was brought by Williams and his wife for injuries received by her, but upon objection by the defendants' counsel that the husband and wife were improperly joined, that the said action should have been in the name of Mrs. Williams alone, it was moved to have a non-suit entered in the case; but leave being given by the court, the plaintiff amended by striking out the husband's name from the second action and the trial proceeded.
/ The plaintiffs to the suits, at the time of the accident, resided at Montague City. The day of the accident, which occurred in September, 1873, the plaintiffs, with their two children, a Mr. Drake and his child, 6 persons in all, started from Montague City, after dinner, in a common two-seated carryall, with one horse, and came to Greenfield. This being the second day of the Agricultural Fair, the party spent some time upon the fair ground in Greenfield, about 4 p.m. starting for Leyden, where they arrived about 6 o'clock. After supper, it being then quite dark, and raining slightly, the plaintiffs and their two children started with the same team to go from the residence of Mrs. Dorril to Leyden Center.
/ While midway on the crossroad, and while ascending a hill, the horse suddenly stopped and commenced backing, upon which both Mr. and Mrs. Williams jumped from the vehicle, the latter having a child two years old in her arms, just as the horse and carryall went over the wall and down a bank some 5 or 6 feet high. The carriage and harness were broken, and Mr. Williams received some slight abrasions of the skin upon his limbs; but though Mrs. Williams did not seem to be much injured at the time, it proved by subsequent events that she did receive severe and perhaps permanent injuries. It was admitted on the trial that the road was a town way, and that the town was lawfully bound to keep said way in suitable repair. The town also, while admitting that there was no railing at all at the point where the accident occurred, contended that, considering the travel and use for which the way was ordinarily used, it was in suitable repair and no railing was needed.
/ On the question of injury received by Mrs. Williams, all the leading physicians from Greenfield, and also one from Montague, were called to the stand. The evidence of the medical gentlemen, both as to facts and as experts, giving the probabilities in certain supposable cases, agreed remarkably well. From evidence adduced, it seems that Mrs. Williams was troubled with severe pains in the head immediately subsequent to the accident; that about 8 days thereafter she suffered a miscarriage; that previous to the accident she was a strong and robust woman, while since that occurrence she has been very nervous, had much pain, and is not a strong or well woman at present.
/ The evidence of the defense was exceedingly weak and mostly of a technical nature. The court held the plaintiffs very close to the law, ruling amongst other things, that if the negligence of the plaintiff or the viciousness of the horse were a contributing cause of the accident, the plaintiffs could not recover. He also instructed the jury by request of defendant's counsel, that if the jury should find that the horse stopped and refused to go forward, at a point not less than 25 feet from where they went over the wall, and the driver lost control of the horse and did not regain control before the accident, their verdict must be for the defendants; that if the horse was vicious at the time of the accident, though never had been before, if the viciousness contributed to the accident, the plaintiffs could not recover. The jury were instructed as to the estimate of damages and required to bring in the verdict and damages if any, in each of the two actions separately. The case seems to have created considerable interest, the court room being filled with spectators during the whole of the trial, lasting 2 days. Verdict for plaintiff in both actions. Damages in case of Mr. Williams, $200; and for Mrs. Williams, $175. C.C. Conant and S.O. Lamb for plaintiffs; Charles Delano and C.G. Delano for defts. [The question remains as to whether the other child and the driver remained in the carriage, and were not hurt].
/ Mary R. Newell vs. Ira Carpenter appt. This was the next case in order, and was an action of tort, wherein the plaintiff sued the defendant for $100 damages, for breaking and entering her close, trampling the grass and digging up the soil. This is a purely Greenfield case, and one that has been the subject of much remark in its various forms; it may be said to have agitated the 'Log Plains' district, from center to circumference.
/ The facts in the case are, briefly, that for many years prior to Mr. Newell's death, a small hydraulic ram has been used and operated by a small stream of water which has its course through the lands of Mr. Carpenter, and afterwards winds its way through the lands of the plaintiff. In order to divert the water and get the required head sufficient to generate the ram, a slight dam has been maintained for year after year, without complaint or objection from the defendant. Soon after Mr. Barnard Newell's death (the plaintiff's husband), the now defendant, brought an action for alleged injury from the flowing of his meadow, in consequence of the said dam, erected and maintained on the plaintiff's land. This action was at last settled after being taken to the Supreme Court, by an entry of judgment for Mr. Carpenter, with a nominal damage of one cent.
/ After this settlement the dam was lowered, and only raised to a height barely sufficient to run the ram, but not high enough, the plaintiff's witnesses testified, to throw any water back upon the land of Mr. Carpenter. This state of things did not seem to suit the ideas of all concerned, and the next move was an entry by defendant upon plaintiff's land, to remove the dam or portions of it, and to make a free channel for the stream. The injury mentioned was soon repaired by the neighbors, and the ram was again at work, supplying water to the plaintiff's premises. A truce from hostilities ensued for a time, but only to break out afresh and with still greater violence. Mr. Carpenter and his hired man, again came on the plaintiff's premises with the implements of destruction, and commenced digging a new opening for the exit of the water from the dam - which by the way was but a few inches in height. Mr. L.G. Barton, who resides near, was apprised of the state of affairs, when he and his hired man appeared upon the scene, armed with the instruments of construction, and then began: A serio-comic battle of the spades! / With might and main the conflict raged / From dawn till eve of day / At last the strength of arm had failed / The dam still closed the way/.
/ The evidence of this passage at arms was graphically described by eye witnesses, during the course of the trial, and was extremely ludicrous. But this case has also a serious side, and involves several as nice questions of law as has probably any, before the courts for years. The defense claims that the real question decided, in the previous suit alluded to, was the right of the plaintiff to maintain the dam. They also allege that, that was the understanding when it was agreed to have the verdict of nominal damages entered, and further justify the destruction and entry charged in this action on the ground of abating a nuisance, so adjudged by the verdict in the former case. To this, the plaintiffs say, that the previous decision had nothing to do with the question of the right of maintaining the dam, but only applied to the flowing of the defendant's land. Thus a nice point comes up, as to how far the judicial decision rendered in the former case, shall be admitted as evidence in the present one.
/ The criminal business will be taken up this morning. The Court will attend to naturalizations on Tues. at 2 o'clock. The Court adjourned Sat. noon till 10 o'clock Monday, at which time the arguments of counsel will be made on the case of Newell vs. Carpenter.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News of the week
Recent arrivals from the Black Hill region give flattering accounts of the mineral wealth of the country. One man brings rich specimens of gold, silver, plumbago [I don't know, plumbago looks like a perennial flower to me], lead and copper, and says that there is more gypsum there than 10 railroads could haul away in 50 years. (Building up to Custer's last stand).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
Where they come from
Where they come from - by Olive Thorne [the pen name of http://www.harpers.org/NightMonkey.html Harriet Mann Miller ]. You’ll be shocked, I fear, when I tell you that your doll came out of a rag bag; her curls from the back of a goat, and her elegant china tea set out of a small hole. But what will you say when I tell you that your http://hgic.clemson.edu/factsheets/HGIC3180.htm jelly is made out of old boots, and your delightful perfumery from horrid smelling coal tars. You don’t own all the made over things in the family, either.
Johnny’s new http://www.bharattextile.com/dictionary/66 beaver cloth overcoat was worn out on the back of a beggar, and perhaps even played the part of a scarecrow in some farmyard, before it went into the rag bag and began to come up in the world again; and the http://www.adrynight...20Physiology129.html "Table Gelatin" which everyone in the family likes to eat, once did duty as skin on the back of a rat. The pearl of your paper knife lined the shell house of a modest little creature at the bottom of the sea, while mamma’s shell comb was the comfortable roof over a Sea Tortoise.
Your guitar strings were indispensable to the internal comfort of some poor pussy or unfortunate sheep, and your piano would be but a dumb wooden box, without some of the same internal arrangements of a horse. Your nice hair brush first saw the light on the skin of a hog, and its pretty back of papier mache came out of the ragman’s bag. The crinoline that stiffens the bottoms of ladies’ dresses was used originally to switch the flies from the back of a horse, and the mattress on which you sleep so comfortably served the same use before it fell into the manufacturer’s hands.
Your dainty toilet soap - dear me, how can I tell you! - was made of dead cats and dogs, found in the streets, and the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almond "bitter almonds" which so delightfully flavors your candy came from the horrible smelling coal tar, while the choicest are as deliciously flavored with -- putrid cheese. The scent hairs of that offensive creature, the skunk, furnish some desirable additions to the toilet table, used for removing freckles and tan, and the dreadful stuff left in drains is changed into a fashionable toilet article, and adorns the face of ladies. To be sure these disagreeable materials have some pretty rough handling before they come out in their new colors. The old boots, for instance. They do not step from the gutter into the jelly kettle by any means. They go through a long process of washing and soaking in lye and smoking with sulphur, and steaming and boiling, before they come out white and delicate, and fit for the table. T
he coal tar to grow into perfumery goes through the hands of chemists, who treat it with I don’t know what dreadful chemical processes, and the dead dogs and cats are boiled to extract the grease, purified, whitened and perfumed before we use them as a soap. The doll whose ancestors inhabited a rag man’s den endured unheard of operations of washing, soaking, bleaching, chopping, molding, and so forth, before she took her place in the nursery to amuse the little folks, and the clay from the mud hole was washed and patted and whitened and kneaded, and baked and glazed before it ventured to call itself china, and take its place on the tea table.
The horse tails that stiffen the dresses and stuff our mattresses are washed, and soaked, and boiled and baked before we use them, and the intestines which make the voice of guitar and piano went through long processes of scraping, soaking in lye, and washing, before they were drawn out into the fine, tough strings you are familiar with. The rat skin which we eat under the name of gelatin first flourished as the thumb of a kid glove, and after being worn out in that capacity went through ever so many purifying processes, somewhat as the old boots did, before it ended on our table.
Nearly all the things that we throw away in [?] or even in our drains - the most disgusting things you can think of - are valuable, and after going through the hands of skilled workmen, come out in new shapes and have new fields of usefulness. The feats of old fashioned fairies, who turned pumpkins into carriages, and shabby old gowns into elegant robes, do not compare with these wonders performed in our work shops by rough looking men in shirt sleeves and white aprons.