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Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Bummers in San Francisco
Bummers in San Francisco ... San Francisco has a ...full ... of bummers. Nowhere else can a worthless fellow too lazy to work, too cowardly to steal, get on so well. The climate befriends him, for he can sleep out of doors 4/5 of the year, and the free lunch opens to him boundless vistas of carnal delights. He can gorge himself daily, for a nominal sum get a dinner that a king would envy for 50 cents.
There are two classes of saloons where the midday repasts are furnished - two-bit places and one-bit places. In the first he gets a drink and a meal. In the second he gets a drink and a meal of inferior quality. He pays for the drink, 25 or 15 cents, according to the grade of the place, and gets his meal for nothing.
This consists of,in the better class of establishment, soup, boiled salmon, roast beef of the best quality, bread and butter, potatoes, tomatoes, crackers, and cheese.
Many of these places are fitted up in a style of Oriental grandeur. A stragner entering one of them casually might be under the delusion that he had found his way by mistake to the salon of a San Francisco millionaire.
He would find mirrors reaching from floor to ceiling, carpets of the finest texture and most appropriate patterns, massive tables covered with papers and periodicals, the walls embellished with expensive paintings. A large picture which had adorned a famous drink bar and free lunch house was sold the other day for $12,500. Some of the keepers are men of education and culture. One is an art critic of high local repute, who has written ...very readable...San Francisco. Scribner’s.
[After struggling to read this, I found it to be an excerpt of Scribner’s Monthly, July 1875, "The city of the Golden Gate", by Samuel Williams, p. 274].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
Diphtheria - The best and simplest remedy - Make a salve of the ashes of burned corn cobs and take a little of it often. Also wet a bag of commercial ashes with rum and put around the neck. Experience has proved it a cure where other remedies have failed. From one who knows. Please put this in print to the benefit of the afflicted. [Oh, brother!].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 13, 1875
South Deerfield - The report of the fire, as given by the Springfield Republican on Mon., was anything but satisfactory to the "Law Abiding Citizens", their item in Tuesday's paper to the contrary notwithstanding. The insinuation that Mr.Mulligan allowed a set of roughs to come up on the train, who created "so much disturbance", the citizens do not believe.
On the contrary, we are requested to say that they are very grateful to Superintendent Mulligan and the company which came with him, for the very prompt manner in which they responded to the call for aid, notwithstanding they did not get here to render much aid, they did manifest a disposition, for which they have the hearty thanks of all Law Abiding Citizens". [Very blurry section follows]
Then the insinuation that the Irish were more drunken and disorderly than any other class is a mistake, perhaps not purposely. On the other hand there were many Irish [?] as they always have on such occasions in this place. As for the liquor flowing freely we will say nothing, as judging from the report we presume the said reporter knew better about that than the "Law Abiding Citizens" [more blurriness - sorry]. Law Abiding Citizen.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Shelburne Falls - The Shelburne Falls Cornet Band will give a picnic and clam bake at Lamson's grove on Fri. aft. Ice cream, soda, and other refreshments will be served. The picnic will be run without any intoxicating beverages.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Great fire at South Deerfield
Great fire at South Deerfield - over $40,000 worth of property destroyed. One of the most destructive conflagrations that has ever visited Franklin County raged at South Deerfield Sat. night, sweeping out of existence the two village hotels, the finest private dwelling house in the place, a manufacturing establishment, a livery stable with several buildings, sheds and other property.
About 15 minutes before 12 o’clock, fire was discovered in the trimming room, in the second story of the ell part of John Ockington’s carriage shop, which was located on Depot Street, a little west of the Main street of the village. Before the alarm became general the flames with almost lightning rapidity spread to the main building, a large 2 story wooden structure, used for the various branches of the carriage business, and a repository for finished work.
Mr. Ockington’s books were rescued, and a portion of his stock, but a carryall, buggy, express wagon, sleigh, and a no. of carriages in different stages of construction, tools and lumber and stock of various kind were destroyed. ..The wind, which was blowing strongly from the north and north west, carried the flying cinders in the direction of Main Street.
Ten and a half ft. from the shop was the livery stable owned by W. Houston and occupied by Frank Warren. Hardly 15 minutes from the breaking out of the fire the stable had caught, and in a very short time was reduced to ashes...The next building reached by the devouring fire fiend was the Hayden Hotel, a large 2 story wooden building in the south west corner of Main Street and Depot Street, 75 ft. distant from the stable. It was owned by L. Hayden and occupied by his son Charles Hayden.
...Nearly all the furniture was removed from the building, but still considerable valuable property was destroyed. Miss Benn Hayden occupied a fancy goods store in the block, and her stock was nearly all saved.
100 ft. to the south on Main Street was Loren Hayden’s fine dwelling house, built but a short time ago, the most extensive residence in South Deerfield, and well furnished. Only a part of the furniture was saved, and the building and most of its contents were soon in ashes. In the rear, 27 ft. distance, was a large new barn which with its contents of hay and grain were destroyed....
While the conflagration was waging its war of destruction upon this corner of the street, another had broken out with equal fury on the opposite corner. The Bloody Brook House, belonging to C.P. Aldrich, was in a few moments a mass of flames. This long building, extending over 100 ft. on Main Street, with a new ell on Depot Street, its barns and numerous outbuildings melted before the flames like frost beneath the rays of the sun.
Efforts were made to clear out the contents but they were mostly unavailing, and the furniture, a piano, billiard table, provisions, bedding, etc. were lapped up by the greedy element. In the large grocery store of L.T. Harris, in the ell part of the building, but little was taken out. Scudder, a jeweler, saved most of his stock, but shot himself through the hand while handling one of his revolvers. J.T. Burnett occupied a room as a barber shop, but met no serious loss.
S.F. Fisher, who had a harness shop in the building, packed his goods and tools in trunks, and saved nearly all. P. Corkins, the shoemaker, another occupant, was alike fortunate. Several boarders in the hotel lost their clothing, but fortunately no one perished or was seriously injured.
Providentially there was a change in the wind, and the fire made no further progress in a northerly direction; though a horse belonging to Edward Jones of Greenfield, which is adjacent, was scorched and vigilant watching was required to prevent it from igniting. O.S. Arms’ house, on the east side of Main Street opposite Hayden’s, was several times on fire. All of the furniture was taken out, and by cutting through the roof and applying water as best they could when flames were discovered, he and his neighbors managed to save the building.
On the corner of Main Street opposite the Hayden hotel, is a large wooden building belonging to C.A. Pierce. This too was scorched. and the roof was frequently on fire, but it was saved without serious damage. Its occupants, M. Roch, druggist, Boyd & Houghton, dry goods, Mrs. B. Parsons Mansfield, milliner, O.S. Arms, post office and shoe store removed a portion or all of their goods, and had them more or less damaged. William B. Houston, who occupied a tenement on the 2nd floor, had his furniture taken out.
Deacon L.H. Fellow’s house, some 20 ft. from the post office, was also on fire and its contents taken out, but the fire was kept at bay by the use of small hand pumps, such as are used in gardens and in washing carriages. C. Mosher’s livery stable was saved in the same way. Numerous other houses and buildings were at different times on fire, but the assembled people were able to put them out.
South Deerfield is without a fire engine, reservoir, or any organized means for extinguishing fire. The people who assembled in obedience to the alarm could do little but assist in moving furniture and goods, and the fire in the destruction of the buildings mentioned had it all its own way. Within two hours from the breaking out of the flames in Ockington’s shop they had done their work, and nothing was left but tottering chimneys and smouldering embers.
About a quarter past 12 a dispatch was sent to Springfield for help and an hour or two after, two steamers and a hose cart arrived, making the run from Springfield in 40 minutes; but it was too late to be of service, and if the engines had come earlier there would have been little water that could have been made use of. The train soon returned.
The Deerfield Guards, under Captain B.F. Bridges, who had returned from msuter the afternoon previous, were early called to guard the property scattered about the streets. Some disturbance was created by boys who had confiscated liquors, but it was quelled without serious trouble. The fire was seen for miles, and burning brands were carried as far as Sunderland.
Mr. L. Hayden was so prostrated from the excitement incident to the fire that there were rumors yesterday that he was not likely to survive; but these rumors were probably exaggerated. John Ockington, one of the principle sufferers, is away at the seaside.
[Article goes on to discuss policies and amount of insurance, but this is all nicely listed in the NYTimes article].
Though there is some doubt about the origin of the fire, the prevailing belief is inclined to incendiarism. There had been no fire about the carriage shop after 3 o’clock the previous afternoon. The place in the building where it broke out was quite a distance from the forging shop. The calamity is a serious blow to the community.
[See the article "Losses by fire" in the Sept. 6, 1875 issue of the New York Times Online Archive].
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
Cheapside as it was more than 50 years ago
Cheapside as it was more than 50 years ago - A good deal of business was transacted at Cheapside even as late as 1819. Two stores were in operation, one situated on the west, the other on the east side of the covered bridge. Robert Bardwell and Clark Houghton were the storekeepers. A line of boats, owned by Clark Houghton, run [sic] regularly to and from Hartford, and freight came in there to be distributed among the merchants of Greenfield and vicinity, even to merchants in Rowe, Whitingham, Wilmington and others west of here.
In later years Allen & Root of Greenfield run a line of freight boats to Hartford, and had a store on the landing, and sold quite a large amount of heavy goods. Uncle George P. Field had a bakery there and sold crackers - and good ones, too - to the people in all this region. Robert Field tended the gate, and made cut nails by hand, with the aid of a heading machine, and had a two story building on the side of the road next to the river.
There was no tavern there in those days, so the storekeepers had license to retail the ardent. The consequence was that in dull days, or rainy days, lots of thirsty bodies presented themselves to be lined inside with something to take. Old St. Croix was cheap then - about $1 per gallon; new rum .33 per gallon. Oh, how they did drink!
The main farm in Cheapside was owned by a man who died many years since, and not one foot of said farm is owned at present by any of his heirs; neither is there now a slab to mark his resting place in the cemetery, near the railroad station at Old Deerfield.
At the time when a division of the old county of Hampshire was talked of, there was a strong effort made to have the shire town of the (then) new county of Franklin established at Cheapside, but the man who owned at that time, hundreds of acres of land in that locality, would not sell any for the purpose, so that village today is not as valuable as in 1819. W.
[Those interested in Cheapside simply must read "History of Greenfield: Shire Town of Franklin County, Massachusetts" by Francis McGee Thompson, and Lucy Cutler Kellogg].
Many who are suffering from the effects of the warm weather and are debilitated are advised by physicians to take moderate amounts of whiskey two or three times during the day. In a little while those who adopt this advice frequently increase the number of "drinks" and in time become confirmed inebriates. A beverage which will not create thirst for intoxicating liquors, and which is intended especially for the benefit of debilitated persons, is Dr. Schenck's Seaweed Tonic, containing the juices of many medicinal herbs...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 23, 1875
A man, somewhat confused in his ideas by imbibing too large a quantity of that forbidden juice, stole a pair of boots from the shop of Job Haskins a few nights since, and got soundly thrashed for the trouble.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
Situated up among the hills, yet we have some beautiful valleys as well as the lovely mountain scenery - we are a busy people - few if any loungers or unemployed, all have something to do, notwithstanding the cry of hard times so often heard. There are 3 cotton mills, many more lumber mills, 2 butter box manufactories, most kinds of mechanic shops, all of which are doing a good business.
Some very fine carriages are made here; there are several stores, 5 churches, two Methodist Episcopal, one Congregational, 2 Baptist. Five secret societies, viz. Grand Army Post, Sons of Temperance, two Sovereigns of Industry and a Grange; that we have a good hotel we hardly need assert as those who pass this way know, as well as others who read the papers.
We have many good farms well cultivated and from appearances are about to yield satisfactory harvests; the late rains have done much to improve crops. The farmers are getting wiser and are raising less tobacco than in former years, other crops receiving more attention such as grass, corn, oats, etc. and are looking well.
We know of no place in town where intoxicating liquors are sold, and one drunk is rarely seen. We have no railroad but there is considerable talk of one. Our schools, some 15 in number, are good, comparing favorably with those around us, and our mail facilities and modes of conveyance to and from are equal to larger towns, and places on railroads with the exception of the iron horse.
A good number from more crowded towns stopping here during the warm weather, yet there is room for others.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
The latest case of mistaken identity occurred on Sat. A certain toper sent his boy to the village for a bottle of the ardent. The boy seeing the rosy face of the cashier, through the bank window, supposed that was the proper place and applied according to instructions. Unwilling to send the lad away with an empty bottle, the man of checks forgave the youth for his unwarranted judgment, and filled his whiskey bottle with ice water, refusing the proffered cash upon the plea that he would charge it as usual.
Mary E. Woodard vs. Samuel S. Eastman et al. - This was an action of libel brought by the plaintiff, the wife of Elbridge O. Woodard of Greenfield, against the defendants, publishers of the Gazette & Courier, claiming $5000 as compensation for the damage to her character, by a certain item published in the paper of the defendants on the 25th of Jan. last. The following is the plaintiff’s declaration, and the plaintiff says the defendants printed and published, and caused and procured to be printed, published and circulated, in a certain newspaper, edited and issued by the defendants at Greenfield, in the same county, this false, scandalous and defamatory libel of and concerning the plaintiff, a copy whereof is hereby annexed:
Copy of libel annexed: "Our village was disturbed by a lively row Sat. eve. It appears that Elbridge G. Woodard, whose wife is employed in the kitchen of the Mansion House, had learned from intercepted letters that one Bailey, a blacksmith of Shelburne Falls, had planned an elopement with Mrs. W. Woodard [meaning thereby the plaintiff; and further meaning that she, the plaintiff, had secretly devised, agreed and arranged with the said Bailey, and he with her, to run away and leave her lawful husband, the said Elbridge G. Woodard, and to live with him, the said Bailey, in adultery], his brother Galusha Woodard, and a friend were in waiting at the appointed hour, and when Bailey made his appearance at the rear of the Mansion House, pounced upon him, one Woodard using his fists and the other a whip-stock. Officer Kimball finally separated the parties, but Bailey was badly punished. Thoroughly scared, he rushed for his team at the American House, and made hasty tracks for home, while Woodard, in another sleigh, followed in his pursuit."
Whereby the plaintiff was and is greatly injured in her name, character and reputation, and was and is held up and exposed to public ignominy, shame, and disgrace, and was and is otherwise, greatly damnified. By the plaintiff’s attorney, Charles G. Delano.
Defendants’ answer - And now the defendants come, and for answer say, that they admit that they are the publishers of the Gazette & Courier, and that the article set forth in plaintiff’s declaration was published in the issue of January 25, 1875. The defendants deny each and every other allegation contained in said declaration, and leave the plaintiff to prove the same. They deny that said alleged libelous article is false, scandalous or malicious. They deny that said plaintiff has been in any way injured in her name, character or reputation by said publication...And the defendants aver that said article, as published by them, is substantially true; and they say that the village was disturbed on said Sat. eve. by a lively row; that the plaintiff was employed at the Mansion House; that letters had been intercepted, and that the plaintiff’s husband had learned from said letters that one Bailey had planned an elopement with the plaintiff; that said husband and Galusha, his brother, were in waiting at the appointed hour, and that when Bailey made his appearance in the rear of the Mansion House, they pounced upon him, one with fists, and the other with a whip-stock; and that the parties were separated by Officer Kimball; and Bailey was badly punished, and rushed for his team at the American House, and drove rapidly homeward, pursued by Woodard.
And the defendant further say that said article, set forth in plaintiff’s declaration, was so published by them in good faith, without malice toward the plaintiff, as current news of the day, and substantially as stated by the husband of the plaintiff to the defendants and to the bystanders and to others, on said Sat. eve., and at other times...That said words "that one Bailey planned an elopement with Mrs. W." do not, in their plain, common and natural import, accuse the plaintiff of any action whatever in the matter. It is Bailey who has planned...By C.C. Conant, Defendant’s Att’y.
It was decided to proceed with the case, and C.G. Delano, Esq., counsel for the plaintiff, opened by alleging that the words of the obnoxious item were false, and would be an injury to his client for a long time; would lacerate her feelings and hold her up before the community in shame and disgrace. Admitting that a portion of the facts were true, he said the objectionable words were those which alleged elopement...The counsel then read an item alluding to the libel case, from a recent issue of the Springfield Union, the responsibility for the publication of which he tried to trace to the defendants...
The first witness called by the prosecution was the junior editor of the Gazette & Courier, who was asked under oath, the extent of the circulation of the paper. [This is rather a delicate question with some publishers, but we have no reason to be ashamed of our growth, in the court room or elsewhere]. Mary E. Woodard was next put upon the stand. She had lived in Greenfield about 10 years, and had been married 17 years to Elbridge G. Woodard. She held property and did business in her own name. The publication of the article which she had alleged was libelous, had been made the subject of no little talk and comment about town, and she cited instances when it had been the occasion of sneers and derision when she walked the streets.
People who had been friendly before now cut her acquaintance. She described an interview which she had with Mr. Eastman after the publication of the item. She said that she was real sorry that it had appeared, and asked him to retract it; but he said it was all true, and he could prove it. On the cross examination she said she had worked at the Mansion House 3 days, at the time of the disturbance there. Her husband came for her that night about 7 o’clock in the eve. to take her home. He went out to get his horse; had been gone half an hour when he came back and said there was a gentleman at the door who wanted to see her. She went to the door, saw a gentleman and went right back.
Afterwards she heard a noise but didn’t hear anything said. Didn’t know what the disturbance was about; didn’t anticipate any row; didn’t know what it was. Saw Bailey the week before at the house of friends at Shelburne Falls, and played cards with him. She saw her husband the next day after the fracas, but didn’t see him again that night. She never got a letter from Bailey; didn’t know whether her husband had intercepted one or not; she never wrote to him. She had lived in Coleraine a number of years with her husband. He was in the war 3 years. She had no talk with Mr. Doolittle after the trouble at the Mansion House about the matter, never told anybody that her husband had intercepted letters.
She never told Maggie Tracy anything about it nor Jim Butler. She never had any trouble at Coleraine with her husband; never heard any stories about her character; didn’t remember asking Hugh B. Miller if an accusation of unchastity by her husband was sufficient ground for divorce. She never told Euclid Owen that she was "going to get a good slice out of Eastman". never asked him if they could go back more than 5 years on her character. Didn’t sit on a sofa with Bailey at Shelburne Falls; never told him that he was the "first man that ever turned his back on her". In direct testimony she did not expect her husband to call upon her the night of the fracas. He asked her if she got a letter from Bailey, and she told him she hadn’t.
The prosecution rested their case her, and C.C. Conant Esq. opened for the defense. He told the jury that he would prove that the complainant’s character could not have been greatly injured by the publication, because it was already soiled by a reputation for unchastity in this and an adjoining town; but it would appear in testimony; that the statement published was substantially true. He would show that Bailey received a letter, and came to Greenfield to meet her in obedience to it; that this proposed meeting was the reason that Woodard committed the assault, and because Bailey was going to run away with his wife. Before the witnesses for the defense were called to testify, Lilla B. Woodard, a daughter of the plaintiff, was put upon the stand by the prosecution, and she said that she had complained to her mother about the treatment she receives from the children at school in consequence of the scandal.
The first witness for the defense was Samuel S. Eastman, the senior editor of the Gazette & Courier. He described the interview with Mrs. Woodard at his house after the publication. she asked him if he had not published something about her, and he replied by inquiring if Bailey did not come to meet her, and if letters were not intercepted. She did not deny, but she said "You can’t prove it". She did not ask him to retract or apologize, but was violent in her talk and behavior, and said she would give him all the law he wanted.
E.A. Hall, the junior proprietor of the Gazette was called to the stand, and said that he wrote the item giving an account of the disturbance, that he had no malice towards Mrs. Woodard, and knew her only by reputation. In the cross examination he told how he obtained the facts, as published, by Officer Kimball, whom Woodard had told that he (Woodard) had intercepted letters from Bailey to his wife, arranging to run away with her. Darwin F. Hamilton, a clerk in the post office, did not recollect of a letter passing through the office directed to Mrs. Woodard.
George Doolittle, proprietor of the Mansion House, said the plaintiff worked for him two days at the time of the fracas. He recollected the disturbance. Mrs. Woodard was in the pastry room at the time, adjoining the kitchen, where the sound of voices outside could be plainly heard. He saw Mrs. Woodard when she came for her pay, and she said she ran away because of the trouble. Maggie Tracy, meat cook at the Mansion House, testified that she slept with Mrs. Woodard the night after the disturbance. Mrs. W. told her then that her husband said he had received letters from Shelburne Falls directed to her.
Mrs. Woodard told her that she was "a’feared" to go home. At the time of the disturbance, she (Maggie) was in her room, second story, facing Federal Street, and heard Woodard say that the man was going to run away with his wife, and that he had letters in his pocket to show it. Joseph A. Bailey of Shelburne Falls was the next witness put upon the stand. He saw Mrs. Woodard at Shelburne Falls, at the house of one White, where he joined with her in a game of cards. He left her about 11 o’clock. He came to Greenfield the night of Jan. 23, and hitched his horse at the American House; went to the Mansion House alone; met a man at the entrance of the stable yard, of whom he inquired for the hostler; the man lead him to a short distance and then assaulted him.
He didn’t know as he saw Mrs. Woodard or any other woman. He received a letter from "M.E. Woodard" that day, asking him to meet her in the eve. at the American House. He met a man there, by the name of Hossington, who told him that she wasn’t there. When he was with her at White’s, at Shelburne Falls, she said, when he was seated beside her on a sofa, that "I was the first man that ever turned his back on her". On the cross examination, Bailey said that Hossington told him at Shelburne Falls, the day of the fracas at Greenfield, that he would get a letter from Mrs. Woodard. When he stopped at the American House he went in and took a drink of whiskey. He denied that he knew Mrs. Woodard was at the Mansion House. When asked his name during the fracas, he said it was "Hilliard".
Hugh B. Miller of Coleraine was next called. He had known plaintiff since 1860; her reputation for chastity in Coleraine was not good, and he should think that it was the same at Greenfield. Thomas D. Purrinton of Coleraine knew this woman, and her reputation for chastity was not the best. Charles Webster Smith of Coleraine had heard people say "she" was not what she should be. J.B. Clark of Coleraine said her reputation for chastity was not the best. Dwight Jewett of South Deerfield was acquainted with the plaintiff, and her general reputation for chastity was bad. When cross examined, he said her father and brother had called her character into question. C.B. Tilton of South Deerfield corroborated Mr. Jewett’s statement. Alfred Wells of Greenfield knew Mary Woodard’s reputation, and it was bad. Bela Kellogg of Greenfield said her reputation for chastity was not what it should be.
J.H. Beals testified that his place of business on the night of Jan. 23, was opposite the kitchen of the Mansion House on Federal Street. He thought the noise of the fracas could be heard 20 rods. The distance from the pastry room across the kitchen was 14 ft. He could hear the talk in his store with the door shut. He heard Woodard ask Kimball to arrest Bailey, and when the officer said he would arrest him if he didn’t stop, Woodard said "Mr. Kimball, you don’t understand, this man has had sexual intercourse with my wife" or words to that effect.
C.H. McClellan being called, said that he was a storekeeper in Greenfield. Had known plaintiff in Coleraine and Greenfield, and her reputation for chastity was not good. J.M. Monson has known her for some years, and her reputation has been bad ever since he knew her. Euclid Owen testified to having had conversation with plaintiff in reference to the case. She had asked him how much she was likely to get; a thousand dollars would do her a great deal of good; she meant to "get a good slice out of Eastman". she asked if they could go back on her character to the time she lived in Coelraine. He told her that they could not go back more than 5 years.
Henry L. Miller said that his shop was 22 paces from the entrance to the Mansion House. He heard Woodard’s voice answer to a question "This man was going to run away with my wife". He heard it distinctly. George A. Kimball, the officer who quelled the disturbance, testified that he heard the noise of the fracas as far off as Howland & Lowell’s store, some 15 rods. He found Bailey in the custody of Woodard, told the latter to let him go, and the former to clear out. Kimball declined to arrest Bailey because he had no authority. In answer to his inquiry, Bailey gave his name as "Couillard". Woodard said his name wasn’t Couillard, but Bailey, as he had a letter in his pocket.
The disturbance was within 3 ft. of the windows of the kitchen. Thomas Todd, employed in the Federal Street Market, testified that he went out when he heard the row; saw a fellow running and Woodard after him. In answer to his inquiry, Woodard said the fellow was after his wife. Heard Woodard say to Mr. Kimball, that he had got a letter in his pocket to show the man’s name. This last statement was corroborated by Samuel J. Lyons, who heard a portion of the conversation. Miss Belle W. Eastman, daughter of the senior proprietor of the paper, corroborated her father’s testimony in regard to the conversation between him and Mrs. W., at the interview at the former’s house. She remembered distinctly shutting the hall door when ushering Mrs. W. into the house. Mrs. Woodard did not ask her father to retract the statements in the publication.
The defense here rested their case, and the prosecution then called the following witnesses, who had known the plaintiff and had not heard her reputation called in question: S.L. Shattuck, George W. Potter, Joel Wilson, Hattie A. Sessions, Sarah H. Brown (of Leyden), Lewis W. White. The latter lives at Shelburne Falls, and it was at his house where Bailey was introduced to Mrs. Woodard. They played "Old Maid". Hossington, his wife’s brother, was present. He didn’t see anything out of character. The testimony of Mrs. White was substantially the same. Elbridge G. Woodard, the husband of the plaintiff, was slow called to the stand. He couldn’t describe much of the Mansion House fracas.
He said the letter he told Kimball he had in his pocket was from the Warrior Mowing Machine Co., on the back of which he had some memoranda. He said he heard Bailey was coming there from Bill Hossington. He didn’t have any letter which he had destroyed. He didn’t know that he had told S.D. Bardwell of Shelburne Falls that he had destroyed a letter from Bailey to his wife. He didn’t know that he had left instructions at the post office to have all letters addressed to his wife detained and given to him. On the night of the fracas he didn’t know Bailey. He thrashed a man he did not know, and that he couldn’t see in the dark. He followed him to Shelburne Falls.
Went to Bardwell’s to enter a complaint against Bailey for riding out with his wife. He was over there the same day in Bailey’s shop with Hossington, told him about Bailey and his wife. He didn’t tell Mr. Bardwell that Bailey said he had had all he wanted out of Mrs. Woodard. At this point the prosecution called to the stand Dr. Charles L. Fisk, L.L. Luey, George Pierce Jr., James Newton, A.A. Rankin and S.O. Lamb, who couldn’t recollect that they had heard Mrs. Woodard’s character called to question.
S.D. Bardwell, a magistrate at shelburne Falls, was called by the defense in rebuttal. Woodard came to him on the night of the 23rd of Jan. saying that he had taken a letter from the post office in Greenfield, directed to his wife, purporting to come from Bailey, arranging a meeting. He (Woodard) was exasperated and proceeded to catch Bailey when he came according to his appointment. A complaint of rape was made on Woodard’s representation. On cross examination Mr. Bardwell said that Bailey was tried before him on the complaint, but was discharged because neither Mr. nor Mrs. Woodard appeared against him. Euclid Owen was also called to the stand to contradict Woodard’s statements. Woodard told him that he was about starting for Conway that Sat.; he went into the post office and took out a letter for his wife and noticed it was from Shelburne Falls. He opened it and found it was from Bailey. He didn’t say what he did with the letter.
The evidence in the case was now in, and W.S.B. Hopkins Esq. of Worcester presented the cause of the defense to the jury. It was one of those cases that it was always unpleasant to try, but nevertheless should be tried fully and fairly. There were several points in the statements of the alleged libelous article upon which both sides agree. The counsel for the prosecution objected to the portion which says: "One Bailey, a blacksmith at Shelburne Falls, had planned an elopement with Mrs. W." Were these words libelous? The words were capable of two constructions, and it was left for the jury to determine which was intended...
[Follows a long rehashing of the evidence]. Judge Aldrich charged the jury at considerable length, and with unusual clearness. He explained the difference between slander and libel. A libel is a false imputation which is written or published, holding up the slandered party to more public ridicule and contempt than would words spoken in slander. the plaintiff claims that she has sustained damage in consequence of the article published. The defendants admit the publication. they say that it is not libelous, does not hold up Mrs. Woodard to shame and ridicule. It was not claimed that there was any actual malice on the part of the defendants.
The question of inference or interpretation of the words should be decided by the jury; they should determine the obnoxious meaning; should see practical common sense to reach a verdict; they should decide whether the words were applicable to the plaintiff or not; whether Bailey planned an elopement with Mrs. Woodard or without her aid. If the import of the language was that it was a plan of Bailey alone, then it was no imputation upon Mrs. Woodard. the defendants say that if it was a charge upon Mrs. Woodard, they can prove that it is true. It was for the jury to say whether the truth was established or not.
The judge reviewed the evidence. If what Woodard said in the fracas was competent evidence, it must be proven that it was within the hearing of his wife. This the jury should determine. If the matter is libelous and also true, you must find for the defendants, if libelous and untrue, the verdict should be for the plaintiff. In fixing damage to character, the jury should take the standing of the woman before the public for chastity. A bad character may be hurt, and it was for them to determine the extent. It was competent for the defense to show a bad reputation 10 years before. If a woman years ago was lascivious, the presumption is that her character continues the same. The jury were to judge whether before the publication she was a pure woman.
The case was given to the jury at 4:30 on Thurs. Their first duty was to choose a foreman, as E.D. Merriam, the foreman previously chosen, was challenged off. The judge kept the court open till 9 o’clock in the eve. and then adjourned, and the jury were out all night. At 9 the next morning, they announced that they had still failed to agree, and were called into the court room. The judge took the occasion to say that he thought the case a clear one, and it should not have detained them but a short time. In a case of this type, the burden of proof rested with the plaintiff. It was necessary for the defendants to show only the truth by a preponderance of evidence.
They should show the truth by a fair amount of testimony, absolute truth was not insisted upon. It was the duty of the jury to render a verdict if possible. They should pay proper respect to each others’ opinions. He then sent them out to make another attempt. About half past 11 in the forenoon, the jury sent in for instruction, asking if the word "appears" used in the article alleged to be libelous, did not indicate that there was no direct charge. His Honor instructed them that that was the very point which they themselves must determine. He added that he wanted them to understand that he was not detaining them. If they were satisfied that they could not agree, they might say so and be dismissed. But the jury retired to their room, and in 5 minutes returned a verdict for the defendants. They had had a siege of 19 hours and were dismissed until Mon. morning.
The counsel for the plaintiff had filed a bill of exceptions, which has not yet been approved by the judge.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
W.C. Bryant's young trotting horse, valued at some $500 or $600 was taken sick early last week, with symptoms resembling the "epizootic". On Sat. Prof. Cressy of the Agricultural college was sent for to make an examination and if possible, relieve the animal. Dr. Cressy pronounced the malady an attack of puerpura haemorrrhagica [i.e. purpura haemorrhagica] a sequel of the epizootic, symptoms of which are painful swelling, especially about the head and at the end of the nose. Its duration in fatal cases seldom exceeds one week, inasmuch as the effusion into the vital organs takes place so rapidly that it cannot afterwards be removed by absorption. Dr. Cressy thought there was some chance for the recovery of the mare, and promised to visit it again today. He administered nitre, turpentine and gin.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 9, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
One of the Bardwell’s ferry roughs, with more Greenfield whiskey that he could carry, settled down in front of Lamb’s music store to sleep it off Sat. aft. Officer Kimball being called upon to remove him, found the man had still life enough to show considerable fight, and was obliged to put "leaders" on him before he could take him to jail.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 9, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items
About 4 o'clock nearly every aft., from half a dozen to a dozen or more men, mostly railroad hands at work on the Troy & Greenfield railroad can be seen staggering toward the depot from the various rum holes of this village, to take the train west. This is the "practical" working of the license law. It did not use [i.e. used] to be so under the prohibitory law and the State Constables.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
The social evil in Colorado
The Denver Chronicle of Apr. 25th contains the following:
"Alderman Case, on behalf of the Judiciary Committee, has submitted an ordinance to regulate the social evil in this city, which will come before the council for adoption. Section 1 of said ordinance authorizes the mayor, on application, approved by the city physician and the committee on police, to issue permits to keep houses of prostitution on payment of 50 dollars per quarter, and to sell liquor therein as if provided with liquor license. The applicant is obliged to furnish, with good sureties, a bond, in the penal sum of 300 dollars, for keeping a quiet and orderly house, and not permit any gaming of any name or nature therein, and for the faithful observance of all city ordinances.
Section 2 provides that the inmates of these houses shall, in no manner, hang out any signs to indicate their character, and shall be accessible, at all times, day and night, to the police. Section 3 compels all private prostitutes to take out license as above. Section 4 provides that no virtuous girl under the age of 18, nor male under the age of 21, shall be permitted to enter these houses without the written consent of their parents.
Section 5 forbids the "nymph" from, in any manner or form, plying their vocation upon the streets, or at the door or windows of the house, nor shall they make any open, meretricious display of themselves upon the street or in any public place. Section 6 makes it a misdemeanor, punishable by a fine of no less than 10 dollars, no more than 50 dollars, to violate any of the provisions of this ordinance, and authorizes the mayor to revoke the permit.
Section 7 repeals all former ordinances in conflict with the provisions of this ordinance. Section 8 provides that the ordinance shall take effect June 1, 1875. In submitting the report, the committee say that since the public mind had been directed to the necessity of dealing with this social evil question, they felt called upon to frame some provisions to regulate the same and keep the same under proper restrictions".
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
News of the week
A couple of young men called at the farm house of Emerson Hill in West Berlin, Vt. on Sat., his wife being alone, got some dinner and then called for money and liquor. Mrs. Hill ordered them to leave and dashed most of a pail of hot water in the face of one, who attempted to seize her, scalding him badly, while his companion, coming to the rescue, received the remainder on his arm.
Becoming alarmed, they left the house and set fire to the shed, which was seasonably discovered and extinguished by Mrs. Hill. Mon. forenoon they set fire to some small buildings belonging to Mr. Hill in the woods, which were also extinguished by her and a neighbor. In the aft. she saw a woman approaching the house, but suspecting it was a man in disguise, shut and locked the door on him, when 4 men armed with revolvers appeared and broke the door in with an ax.
Mrs. Hill escaped through a back window, and they pursued and fired two shots at her, one of which grazed her ear. The neighbors were alarmed and several men, armed with guns, have been in pursuit of the rascals, but at latest accounts without success.
On Fri. July 9, a person traveling up Hawley road, in the vicinity of Mr. Mansfield, might have seen parties of 2, 3, and 5, stealing along behind bushes and fences in a very suspicious manner, each one bearing baskets or pails carefully covered. When all these groups of wayfarers had gathered under the trees above the brook they started for the house to take Mrs. Mansfield by storm. Mrs. Mansfield was born in Middleborough, Mass. July 9, 1788, so this was her 87th birthday, and her friends and neighbors had gathered to celebrate the event.
The dear old lady was taken completely by surprise. After the usual congratulations had been made and the people were comfortably seated in the parlor, Mrs. Mansfield began to relate some of her youthful experiences. She told of daring feats of horsemanship and hairbreadth escapes in dealing with fiery steeds. Mrs. Mansfield's guests then presented their birthday gifts. There were aprons, ties and bows, a dress and collar, oranges, lemons and figs, a bottle of blackberry wine, a bountiful supply of snuff, a book mark, and most noticeable of all, a large pincushion with a set of pins in the center and stars in the corners. I know not whether the maker intended the stars to have any particular significance or not, but they reminded me of the promise: "They that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars forever and ever".
Mrs. Mansfield has been a communicant of the church for half a century, and has led a most lovely and consistent Christian life. Towards the end of the afternoon tables were set under the trees, but a shower coming up they were removed to the spacious dining room. The tables were loaded with an abundance of choice viands that kind friends had provided. The aged couple sat at the center of the long table, under a floral arch made by their grand-daughter, Miss Essie Sears.
Just before tea was announced, Dr. Trow of Buckland and a friend of his drove up, and by their presence added to the pleasure of the occasion. Over 40 persons partook in the feast. Dr. Trow made an eloquent speech, which, I regret to say, I am unable to repeat. He called to mind the many changes that the venerable couple had witnessed in the long life that God had allotted to them, and speaking of all the friends and companions of their youth having passed away, compared their present state to that of the few solitary trees scattered over the mountain side beyond the Charlemont fair grounds, where formerly a forest had stood [and stands again]. http://www.charlemon...SCHFairgrounds.shtml W.E. Mansfield then gracefully thanked the company in his parent's behalf. One of the no. present read the following: "Lines to a dear friend on her 87th birthday"...Quizzie.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 19, 1875
Week before last was one of picnics, emphatically so, at Sylvan Grove in this town. On Mon. the 5th, the Hibernians from Keene N.H. celebrated the nation’s birthday by a picnic, which was numerously attended, there being several car loads of men, women and children. They brought their favorite beer in great abundance, and their own police to preserve order and guard the festivities of the occasion from all interruption that might ensue from the "working" of the beer. The police were mostly of the Yankee blood, large and powerful looking men.
They brought along with them two fine bands of music, a brass band, and a string band, to stir the soul with harmony. National pride was quite apparent on this occasion, several of the leading ones wearing the green plume and other trappings of Irish nationality. Upon one large and beautiful banner, we saw the name of Emmett, a name dear to every Irish heart, and a name worthy to be revered by every patriot. Upon the whole this picnic appeared to be a very enjoyable affair, and well enjoyed by all concerned, giving no unfavorable impressions of the Irish character.
There were some very sprightly and amusing single jig dancing, both by males and females, which was almost "super" Yankee. [?] There was only one beer fight, and this was soon checked by the long, bony arms of a Yankee policeman. One of those combatants did not belong to the party from Keene. As soon as clear from the grasp of the policeman, he made tracks as fast as his ten toes could carry him, for fear of being handcuffed and tied to a tree, a summary, but very proper and effective way of treating the license loving public when inclined to pugilistic sentiments.
At a seasonable hour the party all left for their homes in sober good nature, all feeling they had had a good time, and honored the birth of their adopted country. The next picnic in order was that of the two Baptist Societies from Springfield, called the Sunday School Picnic, and was the largest gathering of the kind held at Sylvan Grove this season, there being 9 car loads of old and young, and was evidently a gathering of [?] first social rank of the place. They also had two bands of music, a brass band and a string band, and in addition they had a choir of male singers, whose vocal powers can hardly be beat if equaled.
We cannot recall the time when we have been so highly pleased with social music. And we were not a little surprised, but very "agreeably" so, to learn that the Baptist people can "trip it on the light fantastic toe", and call the same an innocent and sinless amusement, as well as other professing Christians. Truly old prejudices are giving way and common sense is gaining ground...
Thurs. July 8, a colored picnic from Springfield occupied Sylvan Grove, numbering 201 grown up persons of both sexes, and 31 children. They called themselves the Pilgrim Baptists, and during their stay here their conduct was very exemplary and seemed perfectly consistent with the Christian name and character. Their sense of Christian propriety forbade them to indulge in dancing exercises, which seems almost an instinct of the African race, consequently they had no music but vocal, some of which was exceedingly charming to the ear. They were scrupulously neat in appearance, well dressed, though not fantastically so, which is considered by many to be an African characteristic.
They were all shades, from a jet black to a light quadroon, many of them having the straight auburn hair and the Saxon blue eye. Many of them gave evidence of a good degree of general intelligence and learning, being able to converse with ease upon various topics, especially religious topics, to which they seemed much inclined. Their demeanor, through the day, was such as to claim the respect of every one present; and we were very willing to admit that they rightfully belonged to the great Christian brotherhood of man.
Several of the first class citizens of the place showed them marks of politeness and courtesy, by carrying them about town in their carriages. "A blessing on him who cheers the downtrodden".
Fri. July 9, the Unitarian Society from Northampton held a picnic at Sylvan Grove. This party numbered 150, a number highly respectable for the Society, which we understand is quite small. It was quite evident from appearances that this party was composed of people of both sexes from the first circles of refined society in points of politeness and moral culture. They were accompanied by a band of music of 6 pieces, called the Arlan Orchestra, T.S. Billings, leader, a gentleman highly distinguished for musical talents, as also were the others of the band. The music of this band probably cannot be beat by any band in Western Massachusetts. Mr. Billings is, no doubt, an amateur of music from birth.
Of course a dance followed the sweet strains of this music; indeed, they couldn’t help it, so bewitching is the power of music over the head and heels. Among the dancers first up on this occasion we saw an old gentleman, 83 years old; and had you seen nothing of him but the nimble and elastic step of his feet, you certainly would have said those feet were not more than 20 years old; a remarkable instance of green old age. This was no less a man than David Damon, a well known citizen in the first circles of Northampton society. [See the Google book "Early Northampton", 1914],
(Pardon us for calling names). Nothing happened in word or deed to mar the enjoyment of this pleasant occasion. There was no smell of ’license" stronger than good tea and coffee, with plenty of cool lemonade. Joy and social kindness shone in every countenance, showing the unspeakable advantages of refined society. Even the gentle bearing and graceful manners of the little children lent a charm to the occasion. Such a picnic we would gladly see repeated. Scribe.