To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
(Hinsdale) G.S. Wilder, who has successfully manufactured chisels and other edge tools here for several years, has had the pleasure of seeing his goods, on account of their superior quality, widely introduced not only in this but in foreign countries. He has had numerous orders from Australia, Cuba, South America, etc. The demand for them is still widening...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 16, 1875
News of the week
The big flour miles of Lerdio Brothers at Callao, Peru were burned July 26, and two Chinamen who were chained to a wall in one of the buildings for attempting to break their labor contracts were roasted alive.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 12, 1875
The New Granada earthquakes
Mail advices received from different places in Columbia [i.e. Colombia] more than confirm the horrors of the earthquakes in New Granada in May last. In Cucuta alone over 10,000 people were killed, in addition to other thousands who were seriously injured. Everything in the place is in ruins - not a house remains standing, and to add to the horrors, thieves and robbers from the surrounding country have swept down upon the stricken place and despoiled the remnants of inhabitants of what little they had saved from the general wreck...
Dr. William Clark, paleontologist of the Smithsonian Institute for Tennessee, has found, 16 ft. below the top of some mounds near Franklin, some chalk beads, once glazed red, two copper bobbins with hempen or flaxen thread around them, and the representation of an idol indented on copper plate metal, much corroded. He says they must have been the work of Aztecs, or at least, of civilized people.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875
Letter from New Mexico
We give below the main portions of a letter from Fred W. Eals, residing in Laguna, New Mexico, to James C. Pratt of Deerfield, Mass. Mr. Eals has lived in New Mexico for several years, and has been in the employ of government as surveyor. He is son of the late Dr. George E. Eals of Ohio, and his mother, Mrs. Lucretia Eals, now resides in Deerfield. "This territory is at present undergoing a change for the better. Hitherto the Mexicans have had their own way in such matters as might be in dispute between themselves and the "American" or English speaking people; and it is needless to say they were always cleared, no matter how unjustly or illegally they acted. Hence the territory has not been developed to the extent that neighboring territories have. It has always been said by men who have investigated the subject, that New Mexico, by reason of the geographical location, is adapted to the production of such grains as belong to the North as well as to the South, and such is the fact.
/ Nearly the whole of New Mexico is available for grazing, whether of cattle or sheep, and immense tracts, well watered, are awaiting the herds, which will prove an exceedingly profitable investment for those who come early. Last year a large number of Californians came here for the purpose of looking up sheep ranges, and I have given several of them information relative to the sections I have been over while surveying. You can decipher from the above that I think very favorably of the chances for a man desirous to succeed.
/ The Mexicans are not a difficult people to get along with, provided that you do not meddle with their religion and other prejudices. They must not be flattered or petted. The Alcaldes and prominent Dons require a show of deference. The lower classes must be ruled. It is also necessary to only wink at some of their habits, which are exceedingly repulsive. They are susceptible of becoming strongly attached to an "American" and in such cases, invariably stick like grim death. Their language is readily acquired.
/ The Indians are not, in the main, troublesome. The tribes under government contribution are confined ordinarily to the West. Pueblo Indians are quiet and orderly, and are decidedly more successful in farming than their neighbors, the Mexicans. In fact, I consider them a better class of people.
/ The mineral resources of the territory are not inferior to those of any part of the Union. The gold and silver regions in the eastern portion are generally in the hands of wealthy companies. Those in the west await the hardy and experienced prospectors, and will not be very valuable until the population is sufficient to keep the Indians quiet.
/ Stock raising and trading are sure sources of great profit. Labor is cheap, being from 25 cents per day to from 15 to 20 dollars per month and board. The price of cattle is about $8 dollars per head, although in some cases they have been bought as low as $4. Sheep, $1.50 per head, cheaper farther south. Herders (boys) can be had for $10 per month. The increase is very rapid.
/ A good ranch can be taken, or desirable location purchased of the natives for from $25 to $200. Government posts are numerous, and a ranch man or trader can always dispose of his stock or grain to good advantage. If possible, I will procure a speech by Hon. S.B. Elkins (delegate) and forward to you. Now, my dear Sir, if any of your friends think of coming West, New Mexico is the place to settle in. Please favor me with a reply. Address Laguna, via Albuquerque. Yours respectfully, Fred W. Eals".
Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 3, 1875
News of the week
News is just received of a melancholy accident which occurred at Carozal in the United States of Colombia Feb. 26. A house took fire and a barrel of powder in a shop attached to it exploded, blowing the burning house to pieces and burying beneath them some 60 persons. 4 people were killed, including the owner of the house, 16 badly burned and injured, 18 burned less severely, and 29 others more or less injured.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 29, 1875
The Acapulco massacre
The Acapulco massacre [Look up the original article on this event in the New York Times - Feb. 20, 1875]. The details of the massacre of Protestants by Catholic fanatics at Acapulco, Mexico on the night of Jan. 26th, which have just got along by mail, show that the affair was a horrible and merciless butchery in which the little band of worshipping Protestants defended their lives with heroic daring but vainly against the attack of the butchers (long article).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
By way of reaction from the prolonged strain of the most severe winter many of us have ever known, our whole neighborhood has lately taken itself to masquerading or costuming in every possible form, until this dreaded month of March fairly ’blossoms like the rose’ with innocent merry making. One of the most successful and brilliant of these various festivities was a masquerade party at the Grange Hall, Deerfield, on Wed. eve. last., under the auspices of the "Ladies’ Social Circle" of the Unitarian Society; the object being to raise money in behalf of certain needs of the society.
About 60 people assembled in costume, closely masked during the first part of the evening; the disguises, in most instances, being quite impenetrable, even to familiar friends of the wearers...Several of the most charming costumes were worn by little children. The hall was uncomfortably crowded with delighted spectators, who vainly tried to solve the puzzling mysteries of mask and dress while watching the cotillions and contra dances of the masqueraders. Here was to be seen a Towering Turk arm in arm with a Highland Lassie, while opposite to them, the "Woman in White" bobbed frantically about before the "King of Trumps". A coquettish "Fille de Regiment" with jaunty steps and canteen slung over her shoulder, went down the middle with a gigantic and warlike "Indian Chief".
"America" had for partner a festive young "Darkey" [or Darky], emblematic of the recent passage of the Civil Rights bill, while the grotesque figure of "The Old Woman with Rings on her Fingers and Bells on her toes" promenaded on the arm of a bold "Sailor Boy". A saucy "Negro Bootblack" with apparatus complete, offered to shine the shoes of a "Water Nymph" bedecked with shells and seaweed. A stately "Spanish Donna" [i.e. Do~na] in lace mantilla, devoted herself for the space of one cotillion to the "Master of Mirth", who needed no disguise.
Young gentlemen in the ruffles and knee buckles of the last century amused themselves with the prettiest impersonations of the "Four Seasons" or "Peasant Girls" or "Fairies" as the case might be. A gay "Roman Peasant Girl" in national costume, chatted with stalwart "Highlanders" or glittering "Night", while "Morning" with her starry raiment made friends with all nationalities alike. Throughout the evening, at one end of the hall, the twin "Aunt Betseys" held their admiring court behind a table covered with dainties dear to the heart and palate of childhood.
The star performance of the evening was that of the "Hand Organ Woman" who created much amusement with her comic songs, and who fairly earned the heavy hat full of pennies which she received from the appreciative crowd of listeners. A bountiful supper was served in the cosey [i.e. cozy] refreshment room adjoining the hall; the dancers having previously unmasked, in the midst of much laughter and astonishment on behalf of the bystanders, whose shrewdest guesses were often proved to have been wide of the mark. Dancing was kept up until 12 o’clock, all entering into the spirit of the occasion with evident enthusiasm...And considering only 5 days’ notice was given of the party, the masqueraders themselves deserve many compliments for the beauty and picturesqueness of their costumes; showing both fertile brains and skilful fingers, while even in those most grotesque and fanciful, there was nothing to offend good taste.
We all know that "A little nonsense now and then / Is relished by the best of men". And this "Masquerade Party" clearly proved the benefit of hearty laughter to human nature in general, and to Deerfield human nature in particular.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News of the week
The Cuban volunteers, about whose bloodthirstiness so much was said a few years ago, are beginning to show their colors now that the old butcher Valmaseda is again at the head of affairs. 22 young men of Cuban birth, residents of Cienfuegoes [i.e. Cienfuegos], were recently arrested in their homes at that city by the volunteers, and without even the farce of a trial, were shot outside the walls. (Look up Valmaseda in the New York Times Archive online).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 22, 1875
News of the week
Letters from Guadalajara, Mexico, give an account of an earthquake of more than usual force on the 11th of Feb., which shook a large portion of Northern Mexico. The little town of San Cristobal was almost entirely destroyed and 70 dead bodies were taken from the ruins. The center of this disturbance appears to have been the volcano of Ceboruco. The earthquake occurred at night and the terror of the people was increased by the darkness.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, March 8, 1875
The Catholic riots in Mexico
Reports from the city of Mexico state that 8 assaulted by a Catholic mob at Acapulco have died of wounds or were killed outright, while as many more are still badly off. Only one of the assassins died or was killed as far as known up to the present time. An American was killed who has long lived in Acapulco, and who went to the door of the house of worship to quiet the attacking party, where they cut his head nearly off his body. The priest, who is supposed to have instigated the attack, was arrested but subsequently released, as the federal force in town, of only 60 men, was not strong enough to enforce the arrest.
/ As soon as the federal government can place forces in Acapulco, it is supposed an attempt will be made to enforce the laws and secure to the people the freedom of religious worship. Rev. Mr. Hutchinson has sailed for San Francisco, and will soon be en route for Mexico via New Orleans. It is supposed that the government of Mexico has already taken such measures as it can to prevent outbreaks of the kind in other parts of the country, but the ignorant Indian community, "led to glory" through assassinations by bigoted priests, are tough elements to contend with, even by governments whose communications and transportations are scarce.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
A most brutal and wholesale butchery was perpetrated by the Bolivian rebels at the town of La Paz on the 7th. The victims numbered upward of 700, including women, children, old men and peaceable citi
A most brutal and wholesale butchery was perpetrated by the Bolivian rebels at the town of La Paz on the 7th. The victims numbered upward of 700, including women, children, old men and peaceable citizens. The pillage was carried on for 4 days until controlled.
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
Brevet. Brigadier General William Hays died Sun. at Fort Independence, Boston harbor, of heart disease. He was born in Richmond, Va., appo
Brevet. Brigadier General http://members.fortunecity.com/dforbus/uh.htm# William Hays died Sun. at Fort Independence, Boston harbor, of heart disease. He was born in Richmond, Va., appointed to West Point from Tennessee, and graduated in 1940. He served through the Mexican war, and was brevetted captain and major. He also served through the late war, and for the last few years his commission was at Fort Independence...coast defenses...
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 15, 1875
The mound builders
The http://www.factmonster.com/ce6/sci/A0834239.html mound builders - After the last mammoth was slain, it is very probable that many centuries passed before the http://www.harvestfi...Links/02/Chap10.html mound builders came to occupy the soil where these animals had been. The http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mound_Builders mound builders were a race of men who never saw the mammoth at play [or they would have] carved or painted his likeness, as they did those of the birds and beasts they knew...Unfortunately we do not know what they looked like, and as they wrote no books we do not know what language they spoke. All that we know of them is from the wonderful works of industry and skill that they left behind, and especially from certain great mounds of earth they built. It is from the great works that they derive their name. One of the most remarkable of these mounds is to be seen in Adams County, Ohio. It represents an immense snake a thousand feet long and 5 ft. thick, laying along a bluff that rises above a stream. There you can trace all the curves and outlines of the [?] and a http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serpent_Mound tail with a triple coil...Sometimes they are shaped like animals, sometimes like men...In other places there are many small mounds, arranged in a straight line, at distances nearly equal, and extending for many miles. These are supposed to have been used for sending signals from station to station across the country. Then in other places there are signal mounds, sometimes 60 ft. high, sometimes 90, with steps leading up to the top, which is flat, and sometimes includes from 1 to 5 acres of ground. These mounds are scattered all down the valley of the Mississippi, and along many of the tributary streams. There are thousands of them, large or small, within the single state of Ohio. They are not made of earth alone, for some of them show brick work and stone work here and there, though earth is always the chief material. Some of them have chambers within, and the remains of wooden walls, and sometimes charred wood is found on top, as if fires had been kindled there...In Central America there are similar mounds, except that those have on their tops the remians of stone temples and palaces. So it is supposed that the higher mounds of the Mississippi Valley may have been built for purposes of worship, and that although their summits are now bare, yet the charred wood may be the remains of sacrificial fires, or of wooden temples that were burned long ago. It is certain that these mound builders were in some ways well advanced in civilization. All their earth works show more or less of engineering skill. They vary greatly in shape; they show the square, the circle, the octagon, the ellipse, and sometimes all these figures are combined in one series of works. But the circle is always a true circle and the square a true square; and moreover there are many squares that measure exactly 1080 ft. on a side, and this shows that the mound builders had some definite standard of measurement. There have been found in these temples many tools and ornaments, made of copper, silver and valuable stones. There are axes, chisels, knives, bracelets and beads; there are pieces of thread and of cloth, and gracefully ornamented vases of pottery. The mound builders know how to model in clay a variety of objects, such as birds, quadrapeds and human faces. They practiced farming, though they had no domestic animals to help them. They had neither horses nor oxen nor carts, so that all the vast amount of earth required for these mounds must have been carried in baskets or skins; and this shows that their population must have been very numerous or they never could have attempted so much. They mined for copper near Lake Superior, where their deserted mines may still be seen. In one of these mines there is a mass of copper weighing nearly 6 tons, partly raised form the bottom, and supported on wooden legs, now nearly decayed. It was evidently being removed to the top of the mine, nearly 30 ft. above, and the stone and copper tools of the miners were found lying about, as if the men had just gone away. Now when did this race of ancient mound builders live? There is not a line of their writing left, so far as it is known; nor is any distinct tradition about them. But there is one sure proof that they lived very long ago. At the mouth of this very mine just described there are trees nearly 400 years old, growing on earth that was thrown out in digging the mines. Of course the mine is older than the trees. On a mound at Marietta, Ohio, there are trees 800 years old. The mounds must, of course, be as old as that, and nobody knows how much older. It is very probable that this mysterious race may have built these great works more than a thousand years ago. It is very natural to ask whether the mound builders were the ancestors of the present American Indians. It does not seem at all likely that they were, because the habits of the two races were so very different. Most Indian tribes show nothing of the skill and industry required for these great works. The only native tribes that seem to have a civilization of their own are a certain race called Pueblo Indians (meaning village Indians) in New Mexico. These tribes live in vast stone buildings, holding sometimes as many as 5000 people. These buildings are usually placed on the summit of hills, and have walls so high as only to be reached by ladders. The Pueblo Indians dress nicely, live in families, practice various arts, and are utterly different from the roving tribes farther north. But after all, the style of building of even the Pueblo Indians are wholly unlike anything we know of the mound builders; for the mound builders do not seem to have erected stone buildings, nor do the Pueblo Indians build lofty mounds. Perhaps this singular people will always remain a mystery. They may have come from Asia, or have been the descendents of Asiatics accidentally cast on the American shore. Within the last 100 years, no less than 15 Japanese vessels have been driven across the Pacific Ocean by storms and wrecked on the Pacific coast of North America, and this may have happened as easily a thousand years ago as a hundred. It is certain that some men among the mound builders had reached the sea in their travels, for on some of their carved pipes there are representations of the seal and of the manati, or sea cow - animals to which they could only have seen by traveling very far to the east or west, or else by descending the Mississippi River to its mouth. But we know neither whence they came nor whither they went. Very few human bones have been found among the mounds; and those found had almoost crumbled into dust. We only know that the mound builders came and built wonderful works, and then made way for another race, of whose origin we know almost as little (Young Folks' History of the United States).
Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
Cannibalism at sea
Cannibalism at sea - The http://research.yale...iewdetail.jsp?id=768 Friend of India has received intelligence from Batavia [now Jakarta] regarding the sufferings of some of the survivors from the British ship http://www.clydesite...iewship.asp?id=15137 Euxine [which is the Greek name for the Black Sea], bound from http://portal.pohub....cument.pdf?p_id=1201 Shields to Aden , which caught fire and was abandoned in the South Atlantic. Two boats, containing the captain [ http://www.reach.net/~sc001198/ShipsE1.htm T. Cockburn ] and a member of the crew, reached St. Helena, but a third boat, containing the second mate and several men, remained for 3 weeks in the open sea, being ultimately sighted by a Dutch ship, but not before one of the sailors had been sacrificed to provide his suffering companions with food. "On the 12th of June last, the iron ship Euxine sailed from Shields with a cargo of coal and a crew of 32 men and excellent provisions. Everything went well till the 3rd of August, on which date a storm tossed the vessel about so violently that her cargo was shifted to the starboard side; one man was washed overboard, and considerable damage done to the sails and rigging. All endeavors to right her were fruitless, and after large quantities of the coal had been thrown overboard traces of fire were discovered. Although every hatch and opening was closed as tightly as possible, the flames made such headway that on the 8th the same month the Captain decided on abandoning his ship, whose living freight left in 3 boats; the Captain and 13 men in the long boat, the first mate and 8 others in the second, and the second mate and 7 seamen in the third. It was known that St. Helena was 850 miles distant, and it was determined to make for the island. During the first night the boat commanded by the Second Mate lost sight of the others, and at dawn was alone upon the wide ocean. The little vessel was upon the life boat principle, about 30 ft. long, her sides being protected with a bulwark of sailcloth. She had 10 airtight cases, two masts, besides a foreboom, and carried a set of sails and necesary cordage. The provisions comprised 2 cases of biscuits, a ham, a cheese, 12 tins of meat and two small casks of drinking water. By the 9th day the Mate came to the conclusion that he had beens steering too far to the westward, but as the wind and sea did not admit of any change being made, it was decided to go on as heretofore, in the hope of meeting with a vessel, or reaching the coast of South America. The rations were diminished to half a biscuit and a glass of water once a day, and thus the 24th of August approached with no sign of rescue or land. On this date a stiff breeze sprang up as darkness drew on, and at midnight, while a man named De Jager was at the helm and the rest were asleep, the boat capsized, and its occupants suddenly found themselves struggling for their lives. How the accident occurred is not known, but it is surmised that De Jager placed his charge against the wind, as it is certain that he already threatened to "knock a hole in the raft to put an end to the misery of all". Anyway, he "put an end" to himself and another named Reynolds, both sinking, notwithstanding help rendered them by their more fortunate comrades, who had found safety on the upturned keel. In the morning the boat was righted, but all the food was gone. In order to prevent capsizing in future the masts were cut down and only a small sail set, so that the boat might be steered right before the wind. Hunger and thirst characterized the day - a Sunday - and 24 hours later it was agreed that lots should be cast to see which of the number should be sacrificed for the benefit of the remainder. Early on the same day one Muller, after drinking large quantities of salt water, declared that he offered his body as food for the others, and entreated them to kill him. After a time - we quote from the affidavit of James Archer, Second Mate - Manus Schutt proposed that they should cast lots who should fall as a sacrifice for keeping the others alive. To this all consented. Having no other means to make a lottery we hit upon using small sticks of different sizes, deciding that the one who drew the smallest should be the victim. After having made the sticks ready, I held them in my hand while the others drew. On comparing them together, I found that the Italian, Francis Shufus, held the smallest stick. Having also agreed that the lottery should be thrice repeated and that when it should prove that either two or three of us had drawn the shortest stick, these should cast lots among themselves so that the victim should be singled out, we found that the same man had for a second time picked out the same object. Francis Shufus, when his turn came for the third drawing, hesitated to join, and would not draw, upon which the man Sandstrom proposed he would do it for him. This he did, and the shortest stick was found in Sandstrom's hand. Shufus bore it with great calmness, and showed the utmost resignation. He was left alone for some two hours, while we now and then eagerly looked round the horizon to see whether a sail could be perceived, or any help would come; we stood upon the thwarts. Shufus prepared himself to meet his fate by praying and speaking in Italian. He gave us no parting message to be sent to his friends, most probably as he hardly knew English than to say yes or no. His bearing was that of a man whose mind was made up. Since we were past help and feeling that our hunger and thirst had grown beyond further endurance, we saw ourselves driven to sacrifice Shufus. He laid himself down, but before that August Muller had told him that he would take his place and die for him. This Shufus refused, and laying himself down in the bottom of the boat gave hinself up to be tied; then one man held an empty tin, so as to catch in it the blood. Muller on saying that now someone must die for the others, passed the knife round the man's throat. He did not struggle or scream. The blood was drunk by us all. Muller then cut out his liver and heart. These were cut into small pieces, and we ate them mixed with the blood and salt water. At the last moments of Shufus I was at the helm. The head and feet were thrown away; the trunk and limbs were put into one of the airtight tins of our boat which we had opened. We continued on our way. It might have been 2 o'clock in the afternoon when the man Shufus died. Some 3 hours after a ship was seen which, perceiving the boat, made for us. This vessel turned out to be the Java Packet, bound for Amsterdam, and her commander, Captain Trappen, did all in his power to relieve the misery of the 5 unfortunate waifs - James Archer, August Muller, Victor Sandstrom, Manus Schutt, and Alexander Vermenden, who had been 23 days at sea in an open boat and sailed fully 2000 miles.