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Apr 13, 2021
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

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Article Archives: Articles: Drug Abuse

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 24, 2010

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 20, 1875
John Chinaman in New York

John Chinaman in New York - The New York Tribune describes the haunts of the Chinese in that city as follows:

In the Sixth Ward is a small district where most of the Chinese in New York live. A visitor to their opium smoking dens may go to Baxter Street, just below Franklin, where was formerly Donovan’s lane, the resort of the most desperate villains in the city, but which is now a Y-shaped court shut in on all sides by high tenement houses.

On the ground floor of one of these buildings is the establishment of "Old John", a Chinaman 74 years old, who has been in the United States 47 years, and was the first of his race to become naturalized. His quarters comprise three rooms. By the door is seated his assistant, who gives out the drug. Upon one side of the room is a low platform or dais; sometimes there are two, one above the other, like births upon which men are to be seen reclining in the different stages of opium intoxication. [How interesting - guess that’s where the word ’berths’ comes from].

The pipes consist of a bamboo stem and a porcelain bowl about 2 inches in diameter, in the centre [sic] of which is a small receptacle for the opium. A small piece of the drug is taken up on an iron rod and heated until it is dried to a proper consistency. Then it is inserted into the pipe, and the smoker slowly draws the smoke through, soon filling the whole room with a peculiar smell.

The proprietor furnishes his customers with pipes and a place to lie down. The drug is weighed out upon a rude pair of reed scales. The weight used is a silver coin. Each smoker is provided with a small horn box, which will contain about 15 cents’ worth of opium, enough to last an average smoker all night. The preparation is undoubtedly adulterated, since it costs the druggist $23.50 a pound.

A few doors below, on the same side, is another place where smoking is carried on, which does not differ materailly from Old John’s. There is, however, a temple connected with it. On the wall is hung a gayly [sic] painted picture of some Chinese god, at whose shoulder, on one side, man’s good angel is represented, and on the other, his evil angel.

The faces are very grotesque, and resemble those painted upon tea chests. Hanging upon the picture are numerous tinsel and paper flowers, with faces painted upon the petals, and a little below the picture is a shrine upon which stand two candles, to be lighted only upon festival occasions.

In the middle is a dish containing sand, in which are the burned fragments of several joss sticks. The pious Celestial lights one of these, and placing it in the sand on the altar prays to his deity. From the ceiling hangs two Chinese lanterns, and there is also a glass vessel containing some kind of vegetable oil in which floats a burning wick.

A cup of the same oil is placed in the shrine for the especial use of the god. Upon the wall are hung bulletin boards where the news which agitates the Chinese world is pasted. A curious scroll, resembling the red cover on a pack of fire crackers, attracts attention and proves to be a directory of business of the principal Chinese merchants in San Francisco.
 

Subjects: Art, Beverages, Births, Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Chinese, Criminals, Drug Abuse, Drugstores / Drugs, Economics, Emigration and Immigration, Fairs, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Furniture, Glass / Windows, Households, Light, Literature / Web Pages, Names, Old Age, Racism, Religion, Roads, Smoking and Tobacco

Posted by stew - Sat, Feb 7, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
The Belchertown tragedy

Of course the death of Nettie Barrett, aged 17, by her own hand at Belchertown, and the narrow escape of her companion, Frances S. Bridgman, 14 years old, from a like fate, have created the profoundest sensation in that quiet community’, and the funeral of the former at the Methodist Church Sun. was largely attended. Indeed the whole affair is such a strangely sad one that there is a wide interest to learn all possible particulars concerning it.

The girls were bright and attractive, belonging to the higher village circles. Miss Barrett was sent to Belchertown last April by her mother, who lives at south Amherst, to continue her education, and was to have been examined for the High School Sat., and baptized Sun. in the Church which witnessed her burial; and Miss Bridgman, who had been her almost constant companion of late, was the adopted daughter of Calvin Bridgman.

Miss Barrett had the reputation of being a rather wild person, and the girls were in the habit of being out late nights. Miss Barrett was the leader, and her conduct had become so notorious that her guardian, Franklin Dickinson, had a serious talk with her Thurs. on her behavior. When she returned that eve., she remarked to Mrs. Daniel Packard, with whom she was stopping, that they "wouldn’t be troubled with her being out any more nights".

At 8 o’clock, she and Miss Bridgman - who had been secreted in the room - were observed by neighbors to leave the house. They procured the fatal morphine at the drug store of Mr. Barnes, the elder, a few days before, they had unsuccessfully undertaken to get the poison of the son, who refused to give it without a prescription. Mr. Barnes claims that he supposed it was for Calvin Bridgman. At what time and how the girls got into Packard’s house again is not known.

About half past 7 o’clock Fri. morning, Mrs. Owen, with whom Frances Bridgman was boarding during her parent’s absence, came over in the greatest alarm about her, saying that the night before the girl had left, after bidding them a tearful farewell. Mrs. Packard went immediately to the room and there the victims lay, one in a deadly stupor and the other writhing in terrible agony.

The bed was covered with candy, and Miss Bridgman explained that they had overeaten of this. Efforts were made to revive Miss Barrett, who refused to take anything but cold water, and then determinedly said "Go away, I want to sleep". When Mrs. Packard had left the room for help, Miss Bridgman hailed a little girl and threw down this note, written in a confused, uncertain hand, and unsigned:

"Mr. Barnes - will you be so kind as to send me as much chloroform as here is money enough, five cents’ worth?"

She threw down also two letters directed to George T. Slauter, Belchertown, and Wilbur F. Nichols, at Wilbraham Academy, bidding them farewell and asking them to act as bearers. Then followed an exciting scene in the little bedroom Poor Nettie Barrett was dying. Miss Bridgman confessed that they had taken the morphine, that the candy was only a ruse, that there had been scandalous stories in the town about them, that she did not wish ever to see her parents again, and hoped and expected to die.

She quietly watched her dying companion and waited for the expected chloroform. With the death of Miss Barrett however, came the desire to live, and she requested salt and water to enable her to vomit more.

The wonderful nerve and mingled frankness and cunning of these little misses as displayed during the whole affair, are brought out by the scenes immediately preceding the tragedy. Only 5 hours before they entered the little bed room, they gayly played croquet with some young people, holding in their hands the candy which they were to sprinkle on the bed.

Miss Bridgman wrote what she thought was her last letter to her father, in simple, affectionate, yet determined words. She would meet her parents in a world where there were no scandalous tongues, and where they could live in peace.

[Now don’t ask me how I got there, but I believe that Frances S. Bridgman is actually Emma Francis Bridgman, daughter of Franklin A. Bridgman, born in 1860].
 

Subjects: Amusements, Beverages, Children, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Drugstores / Drugs, Economics, Education, Family, Food, Furniture, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Households, Literature / Web Pages, Mourning Customs, Obituaries, Orphans and Orphanages, Poisoning, Religion, Rich People, Scandals, Suicide, Women, Words, Water

Posted by stew - Fri, Feb 6, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 6, 1875
News of the week

A singularly bold and successful robbery is reported from Savannah Ga. 11 countrymen, after disposing of their produce, went to sleep on their own quilts in the basement room of a house; in the morning they woke up to find that every one had been robbed of all his money, over $400 in all, chloroform having probably been used, as nobody was awakened during the operation.
 

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Food, Robbers and Outlaws, Vendors and Purchasers, Clothing

Posted by stew - Wed, Feb 4, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
Hampshire County items

Belchertown was excited Fri. over a very sad affair, two girls, each about 16 years old, attempting to kill themselves with morphine Thurs. night, one of them dying Fri. morning. They were Miss Frances S. Bridgman, an adopted daughter of Calvin Bridgman http://bhshistorypro...lepages.com/commerce and Miss Nettie Barrett, only daughter of Mrs. Silas Barrett of South Amherst, who was stopping in town.

The girls, who had been together most of the time, got their morphine of Mr. Barnes, the druggist Thurs. eve., and took the dose the same night. Fortunately Miss Bridgman was taken with vomiting, and so recovered, but Miss Barrett died at half past ten o’clock the next day. The cause for the deed is not known as yet. Mr. and Mrs. Bridgman had been to the sea side, but were expected to return Fri. night.
 

Subjects: Children, Drug Abuse, Drugstores / Drugs, Family, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Obituaries, Orphans and Orphanages, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Suicide, Vacations

Posted by stew - Tue, Dec 16, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 2, 1875
A man of will

Smikes made up his mind to stop chewing. He never was much of a chewer, anyhow, he said...(Read the whole story at Google Books "The Library of Wit and Humor" by Ainsworth Rand Spofford).
 

Subjects: Diseases, Drug Abuse, Jokes, Literature / Web Pages, Smoking and Tobacco

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 15, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
Arrival of "Yellow brothers" in San Francisco

Long article. [See the New York Times online index for July 11, 1875, entitled "Arrival of Chinamen: one thousand seven hundred landed at San Francisco: Scenes at the Wharf"].
 

Subjects: Animals / Reptiles, Barber / Hair, Chinese, Drug Abuse, Emigration and Immigration, Racism, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Transportation, Clothing

Posted by stew - Sat, Dec 6, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 5, 1875
Monroe

June 23, a little son of William F. Tower of Monroe, aged about 17 months, died through the effects of taking what is called "elixir of opium" which is nothing more nor less than Laudanum, and which was given by the mother, in 15 or 20 drop doses once an hour, by the advice of an old Florida woman, who said it would cause the worms which were supposed to be in the child’s stomach, to have a good sleep, in an hour or so give a good dose of senna and the worms would be expelled from the child, and all would be right; but the child went to sleep never to awake, and the worms have not made their appearance yet.

The bereaved parents have the sympathy of all the neighbors, and no blame whatever is laid to them, as they were entirely ignorant of the poisonous effects of the drug they were giving. After the mother saw that her child was breathing with quick inspirations and rattling in the throat, she took it in her arms and carried it one third of a mile to the nearest neighbor for assistance, but it was too late. The last dose had been given about 11 o’clock on Wed. A.M., and about half past 2, some 3 hours after she arrived at the neighbor’s house, and everything was done by them to empty the stomach of the child, such as tickling the throat and giving emetics, etc. but to no effect.

The child never moved a muscle from half past 3 till it died, which was about 11 at night, living some 12 hours after the last dose It is a sad thing to see the child cut down in health as it were, and at an age when all the cares of the parents and affections of its brother and sister were at its very height of enjoyment. The little fellow was at play in the morning as ever and at 11 at night was a corpse. This should be a sufficient warning to every one, how they use poisons or take the advice of old women and Indian doctors, who run wild in the woods and get a great skill in medicine without the trouble of study.
 

Subjects: Child Abuse, Children, Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Education, Family, Insects, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Native Americans, Obituaries, Old Age, Poisoning, Quacks and Quackery, Trees, Women, Monroe (MA), Florida (MA)

Posted by stew - Thu, Dec 4, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 5, 1875
The dangers of chloral

The London Lancet prints a warning against the habitual use of the now fashionable hypnotic chloral . Because it does not produce the immediate evil consequences due to opium and is a far more powerful sedative than bromide of potassium, it has become popular, and is even, as the Lancet deplores, largely recommended by medical men. It has taken its place in the medicine chest and on the dressing table, and is often employed without advice or caution. In some cases, the use of it has resulted in death in healthy persons, and in other cases, its action has given play to diseases which have proved fatal, although without its aid they would not have done so.

But these cases are to have the effect on the public which in professional eyes should be assigned to them...It stills unpleasant emotion, removes disagreeable sensation, and paralyzes the will. This can hardly occur repeatedly without some permanent effect. ..Delirium, imbecility, and paralysis of the pharynx and aesophagus [i.e. esophagus] are among the symptoms which have occurred in reported cases and which have ceased when the habitual dose was discontinued. All the time the supposed need for the sedative increases, the craving for it may become as intense, as intolerable, as in the case of opium -- the patient moaning for the chloral, which he can hardly swallow, and sleep gradually becomes almost impossible, except under artificial influence.
 

Subjects: Accident Victims, Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, English (and England), Furniture, Insanity, Literature / Web Pages, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 14, 1875
Hampshire County items

Mrs. Jennie Strong, wife of George Strong of Northampton, the bill poster, attempted to commit suicide Sat. by taking a large dose of chloral, but medicinal aid was promptly secured amid she is in a fair way of recovery, although she says it is her purpose to try again.
 

Subjects: Diseases, Drug Abuse, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Medicine / Hospitals, Suicide, Women, Work

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, June 7, 1875
News of the week

A boy in a Bowdoinham school was pricked with a pen having ink upon it by another boy a few days ago, from the effects of which he now lies in a critical condition, the pain of the wound being so severe that he is kept constantly under the influence of ether.
 

Subjects: Accidents, Children, Drug Abuse, Education, Medicine / Hospitals, Poisoning

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 24, 1875
Dyspepsia and ulcerated stomach was killing me

Dyspepsia and ulcerated stomach was killing me. I suffered a thousand deaths. Sleepless nights with spasms; no relief from physicians and medicines; narcotics had no effect; considered hopeless. Wine of the Woods cured me. Mrs. J.O. Olmstead, Norwalk, Ct. For sale everywhere.
 

Subjects: Advertising, Connecticut, Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Liquors, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Obituaries, Quacks and Quackery, Sales, Trees, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 17, 1875
News about home: Greenfield items

Henry N. Mygatt, who had been a clerk in Seward & Willard's store for about a year and a half, met a sad death in Springfield on Thurs. He terminated his employment here on Wed. and left town with the expressed intention of going to Washington, where his father resides. It appears that he stopped in Springfield, where, Thurs. aft., about 2 o'clock, he visited a saloon, and calling for drink, told the bar tender that he wanted to take some medicine in his liquor. He said that he had been up nights until his nerves were so disturbed that he had to take something to quiet them before he slept.

/ He poured the medicine - subsequently discovered to be chloral - into the glass from a small vial, drank it with the liquor and went out. He then went to the Berkshire House, and at the bar there took another portion of the chloral with some liquor, and then called for a room, saying he wanted to go to bed. He was shown to his room, and nothing more was thought about it till someone entered the room about 5 o'clock and found him dead in the bed. He had apparently gone directly to bed and fallen at once under the deadly influence of the chloral. From letters and cards found upon Mygatt's person, a telegram of inquiry was sent to Seward & Willard, who requested the Springfield authorities to give proper attention to the remains, and immediately forwarded a dispatch to Mygatt's friends in Washington. Those who were intimate with him here, do not think that it was his purpose to take his own life, but in a nervous mood he took the chloral to obtain sleep and rest, and was a victim of an overdose. Mygatt was 34 years of age and a young man of a fine gentlemanly appearance. He was for some time clerk in the Patent Office at Washington, and for 4 years was an orderly with Admiral Alden on the Wabash, accompanying General Sherman on his European trip a few years ago; and in one way and another had seen a good deal of the world. Mr. Willard became acquainted with him South, and induced him to come to Greenfield. His father reached Springfield on Fri. and took the remains home to Washington. The report that Mygatt had a wife in Washington is incorrect. The affectionate letters referred to, which were found in his pocket, were probably from his sister.
 

Subjects: Accident Victims, Bars (Drinking establishments), Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Emigration and Immigration, Family, Furniture, Glass / Windows, Government, Greenfield (MA), Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Hotels, Inventions, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Medicine / Hospitals, Obituaries, Suicide, Telegraphs / Telephones, Trains, War / Weaponry

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875
Hampshire county items

The house of Joel Abercrombie of Florence was broken into at about 2 o'clock Tues. morning by 3 men, one of whom entered Arthur Abercrombie's room and endeavored to drug him with ether, but awaking before he was entirely under its influence, the would be robbers were frightened and left at once, leaving the bottle of ether in the room. Pursuit was instantly made but without success.
 

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Glass / Windows, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Households, Medicine / Hospitals, Robbers and Outlaws

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875
News of the week

A French woman at Lowell Mon., carelessly partook of morphine, supposing it to be the essence of peppermint, and also gave it to her children. One child died and the others narrowly escaped death.
 

Subjects: Child Abuse, Children, Crime, Criminals, Drug Abuse, French, Massachusetts, Medicine / Hospitals, Murder, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 19, 1875
Hampshire County items

Mrs. Rhodes of the Orient House, who was recently quite severely injured at the Belchertown Depot, seems to have developed a vein of insanity. A careful watch is kept over her, as she has attempted to drown herself, and being saved from death in this way, shortly after took a dose of chloral, from the effects of which, however, she has recovered. Her friends fear that her removal to the asylum at Northampton will be necessary if she continues in her present condition.
 

Subjects: Accidents, Beverages, Diseases, Drug Abuse, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Hotels, Insanity, Medicine / Hospitals, Quacks and Quackery, Suicide, Trains, Women

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 5, 1875
Hampshire County items

Somebody left a mulatto baby about 4 months old in a Northampton farmer's sleigh on Mon. night, and after it was taken to the Poor Farm it was found the little foundling had been heavily drugged. It finally recovered after being unconscious 48 hours.
 

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Child Abuse, Children, Drug Abuse, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Lost and Found, Orphans and Orphanages, Poor, Racism, Transportation

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, April 5, 1875
A Savoy tragedy

The little village of Savoy and the neighboring town of South Adams have seldom been more stirred by any event than by the circumstances connected with the death of Mrs. Mary Jane Fairchild, which occurred on Mon. It seems that Willis W. Fairchild, the husband of the deceased, left her some time ago, and the Savoy Selectmen hired John H. Fairfield to board her. Sat. the elder Fairfield went for Dr. Bowen, the village physician, saying that Mrs. Fairchild had a fit. The doctor found her lying in the woodshed in a terrible state; she could hardly speak, but managed to tell him to look at her back, which was found to be one mass of bruises.

/ The town authorities were summoned and the matter was speedily noised around the town. After the woman's death on Mon. the case was brought up in town meeting and after a full discussion it was unanimously voted that the matter should be fully investigated before the body could be buried. In accordance with this vote, Coroner Pierson of Pittsfield was summoned and held an inquest Tues. and Wed., going very thoroughly into the details of the disagreeable business. The verdict reached was that "the deceased came to her death from exposure". Ill treatment and injudicious and criminal administration of narcotics at the hands of John H. Fairchild and Willie W. Fairchild".

/ Dr. Bowen testified that in his opinion the immediate cause of death was the fact of her taking the narcotics. He left 9 powders Sun. night, containing each 1/6 of a grain of morphine, to be taken once in 3 hours. Monday morning he found that they had all been given to her in 12 hours. Dr. Bowen received some of the virus in a cut finger while handling the corpse Tues., and his hand commenced swelling, so soon and so fast that he was much alarmed for his own life for many hours, but Wed. morning he considered the danger nearly over.
 

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Diseases, Drug Abuse, Family, Government, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Mourning Customs, Murder, Noise, Poor, Trees, Wife Abuse, Women, Berkshire County (MA)

Posted by stew - Sat, May 27, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 8, 1875
The Empress of China [Alute], overcome with grief at the death of her husband, has committed suicide [by an overdose of opium]. A son of the

The Empress of China [ http://www.royalty.nu/Asia/China/TzuHsi.html Alute ], overcome with grief at the death of her husband, has committed suicide [by an overdose of opium]. A son of the seventh prince, a child 3 years of age, has been proclaimed Emperor, and the Empress's mother is a regent.
 

Subjects: Children, Drug Abuse, Obituaries, Royalty, Suicide, Women

Posted by stew - Sun, Mar 5, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
Alleged wholesale murder of babies

Alleged wholesale murder of babies - An old couple named Nelson and Mary Reginolds have been arrested on the charge of murdering 5 young children at the farming establishment of Holliston in Middlesex County between Nov. 1 and Jan. 17. The business of the old couple has been known for a long time, and the two had charge of 200 children during the past three years, by their own admission most of them "illegitimate". Regular physicians, among them Dr. Warren of Hopkinton and Dr. Parker of Milford have visited the establishment from time to time, and everything was supposed to be alright until within a few weeks, but a growing suspicion that great cruelty and perhaps murder outright was perpetrated has been confirmed by Miss Mary Colby, who has been in the employ of the old woman Reginolds, She says that laudanum has been used to carry off the babies, and that the crimes have been concealed in at least three cases, by withholding notices of the deaths from their own clerk. Miss Eliza Shehan confirms this story, and even furnishes a bottle containing the poison from which she says doses have been given to the children. Most of the criminal work is said to have been done by the woman, but Mr. Reginolds doubtless knew what was going on. When the officers went to the house to arrest them the woman had gone to Boston, but she was soon secured. They deny the charges of murder, and say the substance they gave the children was a mixture of laudanum, sweet tincture of rhubarb and camphor, which had been prescribed by physicians.
 

Subjects: Births, Boston (MA), Business Enterprises, Child Abuse, Children, Crime, Criminals, Drug Abuse, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Food, Glass / Windows, Households, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Murder, Obituaries, Old Age, Orphans and Orphanages, Poisoning, Police, Women, Work

Posted by stew - Thu, Mar 17, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
(Greenfield) Don't forget! Don't forget! but give your orders in season for Thanksgiv'g Good Nugs [i.e. Thanksgiving good nugs. I'm guessing he means good nuggets; the only thing this seems to be

(Greenfield) Don't forget! Don't forget! but give your orders in season for Thanksgiv'g Good Nugs [i.e. Thanksgiving good nugs. I'm guessing he means good nuggets; the only thing this seems to be used for nowadays is discussing marijuana]], Malaga and Catawba grapes, nuts of all kinds, French cake and confectionery, http://www.recipesou...food/00/rec0069.html escaloped [i.e. escalloped] oysters , ice cream, http://www.harvestfields.ca/food/03bkc/ca15.htm Charlotte de Russe , Gaston mince Pies , chicken salad. J.J. Richardson, Hope Street. He will bake and frost your cake, or bake your turkeys.
 

Subjects: Advertising, Birds, Business Enterprises, Drug Abuse, Fishes and Fishing, Food, French, Greenfield (MA), Holidays, Meat, Words, Work

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, October 12, 1874
Ancient Connecticut laws on tobacco

Ancient Connecticut laws on tobacco - In the codes of laws passed by the towns of Windsor, Hartford and Wethersfield, in the years 1638-9 may be found the following on tobacco chewing: "Forasmuch as it has been observed that many abuses are crept in and committed by taking frequently tobacko [i.e. tobacco]. It is ordered by the authority of this Court that no person under the age of 21 years, nor any other that hath not already accustomed himself to the use thereof, shall take any tobacko [sic] until he hath brought a certificate under the hands of some who are approved for knowledge and skill in physick, that it is usefull to him; and also that he hath received a lycense from the courte of the same. And for the regulating of those who either by their former taking it, have to theire owne apprehensions, made it necessary to them or uppon due advice, and persuaded to the use thereof, It is ordered that no man within this colonye, after the publication thereof, shall take any tobacko publiquely, in the street, highways or any barne yardes, under the penalty of 6 pence for each offense against this order, in any open places to bee paid without gainsay upon conviction,..And the constables in the several townes are required to make presentment to each perticular course, of such as they doe understand, and can evict to be transgressors of this order".
 

Subjects: Connecticut, Drug Abuse, Government, History, Law and Lawyers, Police, Smoking and Tobacco, Words

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 28, 1874
Twenty fifth exhibition of the Franklin County Agricultural Society

Twenty fifth exhibition of the Franklin County Agricultural Society - Thursday’s cattle show - With the present year, the Franklin County Agricultural Society completes a quarter century of most successful existence. From a feeble existence it has grown to be one of the largest, and in many respects, the best society in the whole State...Every man, woman and child in the County seems to claim a share in this annual festival, and to have combined to make it what it should be, the great celebration of the year.

It has not been a bad season for our agricultural friends, and seldom do they find themselves in better preparation to contribute in all the departments of the Fair. Ceres with her horn of plenty has bestowed her sweetest smiles on the patrons of husbandry, so that even the tillers of the despised "weed" have cause to rejoice. Jack Frost has been unusually tardy, and the season prolonged as it seldom is in our climate, and the beautiful flowers and tender fruits were well preserved to contribute their important share in the attractions of the exhibitions. Of vital importance to the days’ success is good weather; and we are quite as apt to run upon the fatal path of the equinoctial deluge as not, with the chances a little against us.

But Thurs. morning broke clear and bright, and when the mists rolled up the mountains not a cloud obscured the sky, a glorious autumnal day - infusing life and hilarity into the saddest heart, and not far advanced was the morning before Greenfield’s streets were a scene of the liveliest commotion. In came flocking herds of steady paced cattle, their sides as sleek as thorough carding and good keeping could make them; loads of white-wooled sheep, meek and patient in their confinement, coops of turkeys, geese and hens, and all the other specimens of the animal kingdom. But what was of more interest than the rest was the influx of smiling faces. The old shire town may well be proud of the sturdy, honest yeomanry that dwells upon the fertile hills that surround our beautiful valley, for it is their thrift, industry and integrity that contributes so much to its prosperity, and its good name among the towns of the Commonwealth, and the city stranger who may visit our Annual fair, will be impressed above everything else, with the intelligence and high social standing of our farming community.

But we will follow the throng that is passing down through the gates of the Society’s grounds. Here the busiest preparations are going on for the day’s exhibitions...Perhaps the most noticeable among the herds upon the ground was that of Charles Parsons Jr. of Conway. He had 20 head of the celebrated thoroughbred short horns from his "Grass Hill" farm...B.N. Farren of Montague City, who may be classed among the gentlemen farmers, had a herd of 5 Jerseys - the two cows being purchased of F.L. Stebbins and originally came from Stoughton’s herd. One of them has made her 15 pounds of butter a week...H.C. Haskell of Deerfield is among our leading Jersey herdsmen, and entered 11 head...D. Wells and H. Wells of Shelburne entered 20 head of their high grade Durhams - 19 cows with one bull - and a fine looking string of animals they were too, giving evidence of the best of pasturage and careful rending. Their yearling bull is a promising fellow.

He is a descendant of old Northumberland, and the famous Roan Duke, and possesses all the leading traits of his ancestry and will make his mark. Zeri Smith of Deerfield too, had a herd of 20 Grade Durhams and one thoroughbred bull. His stock was all large and made a fine appearance. S.W. Hall of Greenfield is about the only man in the county who makes a specialty of Devons, and had on the ground 4 of his herd of 12. He claims that he can do better with them than anything else - good workers and milkers and can be well kept on very little feed. D.O. Fisk, who is always the most conspicuous exhibitor at our fairs, and carries off premiums in every class put down in the list, believes in a miscellaneous herd, and his stock includes everything. If a man wants a cow of any persuasion he is sure to go to Fisk’s farm and never is allowed to get away without a bargain.

One of a fine pair of steers thought to measure strength with a bull on the way to the fair, and of course came off second best, minus one horn. His herd numbered 10 head, among which were some fine Jerseys. One, "Pet", that calved in May, gives her 10 quarts a day now. He has sold her for $200. "Rose" is a graduate of the Agricultural college, and those who have heard Fisk’s loud talk against that institution, are informed that his prejudice or want of appreciation never came through that heifer. J.S. Anderson of Shelburne had this year 19 head of his splendid high grade Durham stock, that is conspicuous wherever exhibited, and they need no praise from us, for the fame of the Anderson herd is worldwide.

There were 6 cows that weighed from 1600 to 1800, a pair of 3 year old heifers, one weighing 1650 and the other 1550...G.P. Carpenter and W.W. Carpenter of Shelburne entered 27 head including 8 of thoroughbred short horns...Their "Mary Morris" took the first premium at the New England fair 4 years ago, and weighs 1800...Al Kellogg of Shelburne entered a fine herd too, and there were those who did not compete in this class, who were still possessors of notable single animals. P.P. Severance of Greenfield exhibited an excellent Jersey cow, 2 heifers and a 20 month old bull, "Rob Roy". Amos Allen of Shelburne was the owner of thoroughbred Durham, 1 year old that weighed 1156 pounds. William T. Peck of Shelburne has a likely 3 year old heifer that weighs 1420...John S. Taylor of Shelburne exhibited 2 thoroughbred short horn heifers, one weighing 1600 and the other 1380.

Oscar Bardwell of Shelburne had perhaps the most productive dairy cow upon the ground. She is 9 years old, weighs 1375 pounds, and in one week in May made 17 1/2 pounds of butter and the next 17 1/2, which shows that she would be quite a little fortune in any man’s hand. The town teams were about as important a feature of the exhibition as anything. The competitors were Bernardston with 20 yoke, Shelburne with 20, Conway, 15, and Deerfield 12. Bernardston deservedly carried off the palm. Her cattle were attached to a triumphal car, that was gotten up for the occasion at the cost of no little labor and gumption. A lumber reach had been extended about 30 ft. and upon it were arranged shocks of corn and wheat and specimens of every conceivable grain and vegetable, flowers and shrubs, and in the midst were a pen of sheep, coops of ducks, and barnyard fowls, and the whole a grand combination of agricultural products that was exceedingly appropriate, and produced a fine effect.

Among the heavy cattle in the Bernardston string were two yokes belonging to John Sanderson, who it will be remembered, raised General Grant, the largest ox ever produced in this county.[very blurry text]...Sheep, swine and poultry...The swine, too, were a very creditable exhibition. Our farmers are finding that pork can be improved as well as everything else, and notwithstanding the low price of late, it can be raised at a profit. We were particularly attracted by H.C. Haskell’s black Essex sow with her family of 9 pigs. There were several other litters of very promising young grunters, which lack of space only prevents our giving a "first class notice".

The poultry show was another good thing. Including the youth’s department, which was largely represented in this branch, there were 34 entries, a greater number of coops and a more extensive variety of fowls than were ever exhibited on our grounds before. They included the more prominent Asiatic breeds, down through the steady laying Leghorns and black Spanish, to the diminutive Game Bantams. There were several coops of ducks, but few geese and turkey. Prof. Stockbridge’s address - After dwelling as long as we are permitted with the Cattle show, we must now turn to the literary feature of the day. The grand cavalcade and procession which always figures on the printed programme came off (as usual) and the approach of the Greenfield Cornet Band to the grand stand, was the signal for the multitude to concentrate there to listen to Prof. Stockbridge’s oration.

When the assembly came to order, prayer was offered by Rev. A.C. Manson of Greenfield, and President Brown introduced the Agricultural college Professor to the audience. The subject of his address was the "Obstacles to Successful Agriculture in New England". It is undoubtedly true, he said, that different sections of the country have varying advantages for the farmer. The seat of commerce must ever be where the merchant will have easy access to the markets. Manufacturing will be pursued where cheap labor and power can be obtained, and where there is a ready market for the articles manufactured. So too, agriculture will prosper most successfully where there is a combination of favorable soil and climate, and an easy market. Paradise in the imagination of the farmer was the West. Where the location was it was hard to tell, but it was "toward the setting sun, where land was cheap and crops could be raised without toil".

It was the universal opinion that New England was not the place for successful agriculture. But one fact must be borne in mind, and that is, that it is upon the man himself that success depends...The farmer here has no right to say that his soil is sterile and old. That of old England was under cultivation 1000 years before the foot of white men touched our shores, yet it will produce more now than could be raised then. The soil of China was tilled 2000 years before the British Isles were settled, but its fertility and productiveness are far ahead of the latter country...One great evil was the owning of too much land. He believed in large farms for the larger, the greater the per cent the profit, the less implements and labor proportionately to carry it on. But a farmer should not hold an acre he cannot cultivate...The cost of supplying all the fences is an important item. If he had his way he would banish one half the fences. It costs the country annually $250,000,000 to supply and keep up the fences, or $1.25 an acre.

The rest of the farm under cultivation is taxed to keep up the other which pays no income...If a farmer gets $200 he salts it down, just as though God Almighty would not take care of it better in the soil than the officers of a bank. Improve your farms, get better stock, have confidence in your business and yourselves, just as the manufacturer does, when he adds another mill and more power as his business is prospered...The opinion prevails that everybody can carry on a farm. If a merchant fails in business, or a minister or lawyer break down, he goes onto a farm. You would not think of getting a green boy from a farm to run a spinning jinney, but the speaker believed that a majority of farmers were just as capable of running the spinning jenny as they were to carry on a farm.

There is nothing so delicate as the forces of nature in the soil, and the want is a better education and a better knowledge of the needs that must be supplied. New England agriculture was once the production of food and the making of clothing. Now it has changed, for we can’t afford to make the one or the other; we are better off to buy them. Out business is to make a crop for the market, something that will reach the demand. The manufacturing interests need the farmers, and the farmers need the market. We have an advantage in this respect over other options. There is nothing we can produce but will not find a ready sale. If the speaker was allowed to choose a farm, he would locate it somewhere on the sea board or the incline of the Alleghanies [i.e. Alleghenies].

There is here more enjoyment for a man, he receives more of the avails of his labor than in any other section. The address of Prof. Stockbridge, which we have endeavored to give the leading points, was eminently practical, and filled with good sensible advice, and was brief enough to hold the attention of hearers to the close. It was delivered without notes, and in a clear and distinct voice, notwithstanding the uproar around him of bleating sheep and bellowing cattle...with a few fine pieces of music by the band, the exercises upon the ground of the first day were brought to a pleasant termination.

Major S.B. Plinney, the visiting member of the State Board, did not arrive until evening, and therefore did not have an opportunity to see the stock, always the stronghold of our exhibitions. The hall exhibition was the crowning glory of the fair, better in many respects than any we have previously had. Superintendent Warner, who has always done so well in his admirable arrangement of articles for a good display, makes improvements with every year, and is constantly proving that he is the right man in the right place. In entering the hall, the visitor is fairly enchanted by the brilliant attractions that surround him on every side. But one to make a careful inspection is forced to concentrate his wandering gaze somewhere, and we commence by the door with the garden vegetables.

There were 10 entries in the department. W.L. Warner of Sunderland taking the lead with 102 varieties, and everything under his hands have apparently grown with the special purpose of taking the first premium. His biggest squash was a "buster" of 149 pounds, and no. 2 was good for 91 pounds. His beets beat everything out, and potatoes and "garden sass" generally were of the same healthy family. Samuel Stoughton of Gill was an important competitor in this department with 25 varieties. A.D. Smith of Sunderland, with 32 varieties and W.M. Wise of Greenfield, with excellent squashes, etc., and he is, by the way, the champion gardener of all this region, and makes his little patch of ground of an acre or so, bring him a better income than many a farmer’s 100 or more. Of the miscellaneous fruit, F.A. Fisk of Shelburne exhibited 95 varieties, and W.L. Warner of Sunderland, 92, and good fruit it all was, too.

But almost as tempting as anything were the peaches that reminded one of the days when this delicious fruit was among the luxuries of home culture, and not the bruised, ill looking and ill tasting import of Jersey or Maryland that we know it now. There were 9 entries, Amos Stewart of Coleraine, showing 10 varieties, and Joshua Hall of Ashfield exhibiting a platter of some of the finest we ever saw. The exhibition of grapes was not so poor as everyone had predicted after all. There were ten entries. The man who distanced all competitors in this branch is Jacob Steigleder of Shelburne Falls. How he manages to produce such fruit in the open air is a mystery many a grower would like to find out.

He had 28 varieties, and J.P. Howard of Greenfield, another well known grape grower, put in an appearance with 17 varieties, and another exhibitor of prominence was http://www.heywoods.info/c/Csurnames.html Israel Childs of Sunderland. Pears, too, made a tip-top show. the leading exhibitor among the 24 entries, was E.H. Judd of http://www.rootsweb....h/towns/southhadley/ South Hadley , the professional horticulturist, with 28 varieties. Hon. Alvah Crocker of Fitchburg sent up 40 varieties that were very good indeed, and Dr. N.S. Wells of Greenfield, who takes great pride in the fine products of his excellent garden, had 17 varieties that attracted no little attention. There were 13 collections of named varieties of apples.

W. Stewart and G.H. Stewart of Coleraine, taking the lead in point of excellence with 40 varieties, Joseph Anderson of Shelburne had 50, D.Wells and H. Wells of Shelburne, 31. and Samuel Stoughton of Gill, 26. Before we leave these tables we must not overlook the tastefully arranged baskets, a mixture of fruit and flowers the result of the good taste of Misses C.M. Wells, E.A. Fisk, and Mrs. C.E. Bardwell, and J.D. Fisk, all of Shelburne. We now come to the flowers, which were the most complete exhibition of the kind we have ever had. The entire space in front of the hall was a perfect blend of many colored blossoms. Cut flowers were arranged in every conceivable design, while pots of plants, shrubs and foliage gave the necessary background. Conspicuous were the contributions of Mrs. S.W. Boutwell of Leverett, consisting of arches of wild flowers, parlor bouquets, hand bouquets and collections of verbenas, asters, etc.

L.M. Hayward of Greenfield had pots of plants, cut flowers and verbenas, that truly entitled him to the first premium, which was awarded by the Committee. J.H. Osterhout of Greenfield exhibited a large box, containing nothing but pansies. Mrs. Charles Richmond of Greenfield, bouquets and pot plants, E.D. Merriam of Greenfield a century plant, Mrs. J.W. Buddington of Greenfield, cut flowers, James D. Ball of Montague, beautiful verbenas, Mrs. H.C. Haskell of Greenfield, a fine pyramid, while lack of space only prevents us to mention. Take it altogether; there was nothing wanting but sufficient money to be bestowed in deserving premiums on the part of the Committee.

What arrested the attention of the visitors to the hall more perhaps than anything else, was W.A. Forbes’ display of carpets. Taking the space back of the stage, he filled it almost to the ceiling, using hundreds of yards of carpeting of varied patterns, arranged so as to produce the most desirable effect. There was a heap of work in making the display, but the superintendent of the hall declares that he would rather have given $25 than have it omitted from the exhibition, and we trust that Mr. F. will be more than repaid for the labor by the opportunity it gave to convince the ladies of the county that they need not go abroad to get their carpeting. We are sorry to say that Mr. Forbes was the only dry goods merchant who made any entries at all.

Don’t let us make a similar record next year. One corner of the stage was occupied by J.L. Lyons, who showed a beautiful chamber set and other articles of furniture from his first class establishment. The different sewing machines were in a lively competition as usual. E.H. Marsh of Montague showed window gardens, brackets, etc. and G.F. Newell of Greenfield, window gardens and ferneries. Conspicuous in the center of the stage, C.M. Moody exhibited a specimen of his wonderful ingenuity in the way of arranging autumn leaves. In a frame 6 or 8 ft. long, and on a white back ground he had spelled out "Nothing But Leaves", forming beautiful rustic letters and getting a happy blending of the many hues of the leaves, set off with different varieties of ferns.

Mr. M., too, entered different styles of ferneries of his manufacture, with pictures and other articles from his store. J.D. Bouker had a case of picture frames and moldings, and another of fancy articles. Childs & Payne a case of the nicest toilet and fancy articles from their drug store, M.S. Fellows a case of boots and shoes, and Forbes & Foster a show case of silver ware of the most beautiful manufacture beside fine jewelry, etc. J.H. Hollister also made a good display of jewelry, and showed his wonderful mechanical clock. Popkins, the photographer, deserves especial notice for his collection of pictures. He put up a screen on which to display them at great expense, At the top of the collection was the life size portrait of Deacon Field of East Charlemont, and among the faces were many familiar ones to the people of the county, and all attested to the thorough skill of the artist.

Among some old ambrotypes that he exhibited was a likeness of General Newport, the venerable colored man who is honored as the originator of the Agricultural Society 25 years ago. William Wunsch put in a case of his fashionable millinery, Mrs. E.L. Hammond, who recently opened rooms here a case of beautiful hair work. Merriam had books, fancy articles, etc., and Richardson the caterer, a case of beautifully frosted and ornamented cake, confectionery, etc. The http://www.thetreasu...l?noframes;read=6650 Rumford Chemical Works of Providence R.I. had for inspection, http://www.mc.vander...ostrums/rumford.html Rumford Yeast Powder , said to be the best thing of the kind, a quantity of soap, blacking, and other desirable articles of their manufacture. We come now to the butter and cheese, of which there were 15 entries of the former and 10 of the latter, fully as large a quantity as at any previous exhibition. But the competitors for premiums on bread were more numerous than ever before. There were 21 of wheat bread, 6 of brown, 6 of rye, 3 of graham, while in the youth’s department there were 10 of wheat, 4 of rye, 5 of brown and 3 of graham. Imagine if you can the duty of the committee, who had to go through and taste of all these.

They were at it for hours, and we don’t believe will want to eat any more bread for 6 months. We will let them tell who of the ladies and misses are the leaders in this department of housekeeping, for we don’t know anything about it. Of honey there were 2 entries, maple syrup 6, maple sugar 6, cider and grape wine 8, and pickles, preserves, jellies and canned fruit 11. Among the principal exhibitors of the latter were Mrs. Charles Richmond and Mrs. J.F. Hosmer of this town. Of cutlery, mechanical arts, etc. there were 31 entries. The Millers Falls Co. made a fine exhibition of braces, vices and the numerous useful little articles that they manufacture.

The Tool Shop too made a good display of planes, ox shoes, etc. Of agricultural implements there were 7 entries, prominent among which was the Clark & Chapman Machine Co. with Woods’ Mower, a turbine water wheel and saw mill machinery. The fine arts were not in the least neglected, and first we must mention the designs and object drawing of the pupils of the High and the 1st and 2nd rooms of the Grammar Schools. These scholars have been, until recently, under the instruction of Miss Mary P. Wells, who has now been succeeded by Miss H. Elizabeth Carleton. Every visitor at the fair who saw these designs must have been thoroughly convinced of the wisdom of teaching drawing in our public schools.

The children do not measure from patterns, but use their eyes only...and copy generally from objects. They are encouraged to bring in original designs, and their ingenuity and skill is quite wonderful. The specimens exhibited at the fair embraced a great variety, and included contributions from the little chicks of 10 years old. Miss Carleton showed some fine specimens of oil paintings from her own brush. H.F. Root of Montague had on exhibition his fine large crayon portrait of Sumner, accompanied by that of a New York lady in state costume. There was a fine game piece in oil by Miss Nellie Ward of Greenfield, and a fine picture by Mrs. B.S. Parker, and a crayon by Miss H.B. Wiley of Greenfield.

Mrs. E.J. Wing of Conway had a beautiful wreath, Mrs. F.E. Jones of Greenfield a wax cross, Mrs. B.S. Parker of Greenfield, white roses, Miss Lula Richmond of Greenfield, woodbine, Mrs. W.F. Root of Greenfield a cross; a beautiful agricultural wreath was the cunning handwork of Mrs. C.P. Miner, Charlemont, and Mrs. F.W. Chapin of Gill had a delicate feather wreath, and there was another by Miss Emina L. Weatherhead of Bernardston; Miss Lucy Washburn of Greenfield had on exhibition an exceedingly pretty worsted wreath, and there were others by Mrs. G.O. Peabody of Turners Falls and Miss Ella Chapin of Greenfield. A very pretty http://www.liveaucti...ons/ebay/279410.html bead towel rack was exhibited by Mrs. A.F. Hawks of Greenfield. The entries of domestic manufacture were 42, an unusually large amount of carpeting, rugs, frocking, flannel, yarn, stockings, and mittens, all of which, we dare say, were very well made.

We can speak only of a few articles here and there, as it would be an endless task to praise them all separately. Mrs. A.F. Hawks had on exhibition a silk bed quilt of 3280 pieces, of the "Job’s puzzle [i.e. Job’s Puzzle] pattern, which, if the patient hero of Bible history had tried his hand at, would have blasted his enviable reputation before it was half completed. Mrs. Elisha Alexander of Northfield had a beautiful white spread of 741 pieces. Mrs. Julia Cowing of Deerfield, who always contributes largely to our fairs, had among other things a splendid carriage blanket; Mrs. F.H. Hawks of Charlemont a fine white quilt, Miss E.D. Williams a crochet scarf that was as pretty as anything of the kind we have ever seen. T

he fancy articles embraced 112 entries, besides the 64 that were in the youth’s department. But we are not going to be so foolish as to pretend to make selections, and pour out our exhausted supply of adjectives in trying to do them justice. The fair fingers that have wrought these marvels in needle work might be in our hair if we omitted to say the handsome thing by all; and we will leave the committee to take the responsibility and distribute the $50 - and it ought to be $500 - where their judgment may think best. Thurs. eve. the hall was open, and thronged by hundreds of beautiful ladies and gallant gentlemen, who enjoyed a promenade between the richly loaded tables, while the Greenfield Band, in the gallery, delighted the audience with some of their choicest selections. Friday’s horse show - Fri. too was a beautiful day and the attendance larger than on Thurs., and we might as well say here that the extra train for the accommodation of the eastern towns of the county should have run on Thursday.

For if there is anything we are proud of, or have to exhibit above others, it is our Cattle Show, and we boast a good deal about the good influence...the exhibition of horses was up to the average of former years, and perhaps in some respects better. The colts bore evidence of good blood...[Many men are mentioned, and many horses]...Society’s dinner, served at Franklin Hall by Landlord Doolittle of the Mansion House, was at half past 12. This was an institution of our early fairs, but for some reason of late has been omitted from the programme. The Band, followed by distinguished guests of the society - half a dozen poor gentlemen who thought that it was necessary to put on martial airs, and stepping through the dusty street, followed by a rabble of bare-footed boys and noisy dogs, because it was so ordered in the exercises. This marching in procession on great occasions was an institution of the past, and it hasn’t been attempted at our fairs for half a dozen years without proving a perfect burlesque. Some 163 ladies and gentlemen were in attendance at the dinner, which consisted of cold meats, tea and coffee, not an elaborate fare, but plain and substantial, and as good as could have been afforded for the price.

Blessing was invoked by Rev. J.F. Moors, and when it came for the toast of season, etc., President Brown opened the ball by thanking the ladies and gentlemen of the society for their many efforts in getting up such a creditable exhibition. He then called upon Maj. S.B. Phinney of Barnstable, the visiting member of the State board. That gentleman modestly excused himself by saying that he came from a manufacturing community, and did not feel quite at home among such eminent agriculturists. He made some pleasant allusions to his former acquaintance with Senator Washburn and others present, and then spoke in the highest praise of the exhibition, or so much of it as he had seen, for he was not present at the cattle show on Thurs...Senator Washburn was called upon to respond to a toast to the State of Massachusetts. He hadn’t been in town for our fairs for several years, and was pleasantly surprised to find the exhibition so good.

We should have to look far and long before we should find such stock as was produced here in little Franklin County. It was much ahead of that shown at the New England fair, where much of the best came from this county. So too in regard to fruit...A toast to the old officers of the society brought up Austin De Wolf, Esq. [Austin DeWolf], a former Secretary, who gave some pleasant reminiscences of the fairs of other days, and of those who had been active in the society... http://www-unix.oit.umass.edu/~amae000/anrpt84.htm Leander Wetherell , editor of the Boston Cultivator came next. This gentleman has an extensive acquaintance with the agricultural interests throughout New England, but says there is no place he likes to go so well as here, because it is a genuine Cattle Show, and the only one he knows of.

The herdsmen here have thoroughly bred cattle, they know their business, and he pointed out the superiority of many features. He had a good word to say for horse shows and horse trotting - and closed with the sentiment - Franklin County, the banner county of Massachusetts, for she not only furnished the best cattle but has the best Governors and Senators. S.O. Lamb Esq. was now called out and spoke at considerable length, alluding more particularly to taxation, and the laws that should govern it as he looked at it. He was followed by James S. Grennell, who for many years was Secretary of the Society, and has always been identified with its interests...He had never been absent from a single fair, and said there was never a more satisfactory show than that of the present year...In the evening the exhibition hall was open, and another large assembly in attendance, music being furnished by the Bernardston Band.

Some of the gentlemen who did not have a chance to air their eloquence at the dinner table were permitted here to relieve themselves. D.O. Fisk of Shelburne was the master of ceremonies. W.L. Warner, Superintendent of the hall, said among other things that the number of plates of fruit exhibited 8 years ago was 350, while this year there were over 1160, which showed how we were progressing...The sports of Saturday - "Old Prob deserves the thanks of this community for 3 bright beautiful days in succession...[very blurry]. Next came the foot race [more blurred text]...After an hour’s intermission there was a trial of traveling horses over 4 years old.

The entries were E.S. Smith of Ashfield and H. Couillard of Shelburne Falls, best 3 heats in 5. The first was won by Smith, the second by Couillard, but as the latter did not conform to the rules of the Society in making his entry, the premium was awarded to Smith. Both made good time but no record was made. The balloon ascension - The time now approached for the great event of the fair, the balloon ascension, and the crowd gathered around the Monster, or "Belle of France", we should call her, for that was her name. She is the same balloon that made the famous voyage from Plymouth N.H. 3 or 4 years ago, the longest trip ever made in this country, and she has made many other successful voyages since. She now towers to a height of 75 ft., anchored fast by her ballast of sand, waiting very patiently for the word "Go". Prof. http://www.centennia...light_in_US/LTA2.htm Samuel A. King , the veteran aeronaut, was not however to have her in charge, but he had sent his son, http://archiver.root...L/2004-02/1078113819 Frank K. King , a young man of Boston, who was now to make his 7th ascension.

Mr. Holden, the Boston Journal reporter, who had proposed to accompany Mr. King, had found it necessary to give it up, and the latter finally decided to take along with him at the last moment his younger brother, Randolph Z. King, who had been present to assist in the preparations. Everything was in readiness. Mr. King put in provision enough to last two 24 hours, extra clothing and the few necessaries that might be required. He had tested the direction of the wind by previously sending up two small balloons which floated off to the north-east. The young aeronaut was perfectly cool, his nerves apparently not in the least disturbed at the thought of making his perilous ascent. He chatted cheerfully with the gentlemen allowed inside the rope, which had been stretched around a circle to keep off the crowd.

The two fellows couldn’t have been happier if they had been about to start on a little pleasure drive. It is estimated that least 8000 to 10,000 people were watching and waiting for the final going up. Not only was the park crowded, but the adjacent house tops and every hill or point that could command a view was covered with human beings, straining all their eyes in the same direction. Finally the bags of ballast were thrown out, and the dozen or more gentlemen in attendance held the balloon down by a rope. Precisely on the stroke of 3 o’clock, the hour advertised, the rope was cut, and up the "Belle of France" rose, with a graceful, steady motion, amid a thousand huzzas from the multitude, the waving of handkerchiefs and hats, and wishes of a safe and pleasant journey, while the two bands, as had been previously arranged, played http://www.bardon-en...cian_Looks_Back.html "Up in a Balloon Boys" .

It was a grand sight, and called forth unbounded admiration. A red, white, and blue streamer was thrown out from the basket, which hung down for 60 or 70 ft., and when up a little higher, Mr. King let drop a bunch of http://palimpsest.st...s/cdl/1999/0015.html gilt paper , which separated and glistened in the sun like a myriad of stars. Higher and higher the balloon arose, its motion hardly perceptible, and smaller it grew in the distance, and still the people stood and watched its flight over the village. It took a north easterly direction, which if continued would have carried it through the south-eastern corner of Vermont, and over the boundary into New Hampshire.

Mr. King proposed at starting to take a long trip if everything was favorable, and promised that when he landed he would telegraph his whereabouts. At 4 o’clock, one hour after the ascension, the balloon could still be seen about as large as a man’s head, and dimly fading from sight. The "Belle of France" did not, however, make as long a trip as the navigator had hoped. After being up two hours and a half, a final landing was made at Allen’s Quarry, Northfield Farms, near the Erving line, and some two miles from Grout’s (Millers Falls), whither the balloon was taken and brought back to Greenfield on the 9 o’clock train. Mr. King says that the air was almost calm the higher he got, and he went to an altitude of 7000 ft. (higher than Mount Washington) the stiller it seemed, and therefore he was forced to make his journey a short one. The aeronauts previously alighted in Montague, threw out some ballast and went up again.

They passed over Bernardston, and turning, came down the course of the Connecticut, went north again and then east to the point of landing, which was reached without trouble. They describe the view of the country over which they passed the finest they had ever seen, and regret that their journey could not have been prolonged. The stallion race - The grand round up of the fair was the special trial of stallions for prizes amounting to $100. Entries were made by J. Stockwell of Buckland, http://www.pinnacle-.../ppages/ppage46.html "Buckland Boy" [of course the photo linked to is a much newer "Buckland Boy"], H.N. Wilde of Guilford Vt., "Morgan Empire"; Luther Wells of Greenfield, "John G. Saxe"; F.S. Hagar of Greenfield, "Tommy Dott"; Samuel Leonard of Greenfield, "Erie Abdelah". The trot came off in the old course in Petty’s Plain immediately after the balloon ascension. "Morgan Empire" and "Erie Abdallah" [sic] were withdrawn before the race was closed.

The first heat was won by "John G. Saxe" in 2:52, the second and third by "Buckland Boy", best time 2:39. The latter was given the first purse of $50, the former the second of $35, and "Tommy Dot" took the third of $15. There was then a private purse, the first money of which was taken by Ed. Everett’s "Seed Leaf" in 2:50, and the second by E.S. Smith’s "Nettie Rude". Miscellaneous - All premiums awarded will be paid according to the regulations of the Society after Wed next, at the office of the secretary, F.M. Thompson, in the Court House.

The receipts of the 3 days was about $1650. Including life member tickets, and there is due from the railroad a percent on tickets sold, say $100, and from advertisers in the aeronaut some $345, making a total of $2100, enough to pay all expenses and leave a handsome balance. The average receipts of the last 8 years have been about $900. There were arrests for drunkenness, the State Constables and other officers being on the alert, but considering the great number of people there was little rowdyism. One lady from Halifax Vt. lost her wallet, probably picked from her pocket. Among the amusing things that was noticed at the Secretary’s office, was the effort of one life member to get a new ticket.

The reason given for the loss of the old one was that he had just married a new wife, and things had got so much mixed, he couldn’t find it anywhere. Of course, under the circumstances, a new one was issued at once...On Sat. a horse, belonging to George Taylor of Shelburne, became frightened by the music of the bands in front of the Mansion House, and rearing, fell upon his head sustaining fatal injury. It was one of a fine pair and valued at $250. List of premiums awarded - [an extremely long list of prizes - several columns]...
 

Subjects: Accident Victims, Advertising, African-Americans / Blacks, Amusements, Animals / Reptiles, Art, Ashfield (MA), Astronomy, Barber / Hair, Bernardston (MA), Beverages, Birds, Births, Boston (MA), Business Enterprises, Businesspeople, Charlemont (MA), Children, Chinese, Clubs, Conway (MA), Connecticut River, Contests, Cosmetics, Courts

Posted by stew - Sun, Jun 27, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 14, 1874
The opium habit

The opium habit - its evils and its cure - by David Rice, M.D., Leverett, Mass. I propose in this article, as a physician of 30 years’ experience, to lay before the readers of this paper the evils of the opium habit with some advice as to its cure. Opium is a product of the white poppy ( http://www.botanical...mgmh/p/popwhi64.html papaver somniferum ) and is raised principally in Turkey, China, and the East Indies, and at least 250,000 lbs. of this drug are imported into this country annually. Only about 1/3 of this is used as medicine. The rest in various forms, either as tincture, powder or the various salts of morphine is used as a direct intoxicant. It is not of its use by the medical faculty or as a medicine that I propose to speak, but of the opium habit, a regular disease, engendered by its protracted use as a medicinal agent, or by taking it as many are in the habit of doing, for its exhilarating effects, the same as they would ardent spirits. In one of these two ways the habit is most often contracted, and then the victim goes on until the end of life, which will not be many years, being obliged to increase the dose week after week, until the quantity taken in a single day is almost fabulous, being enough to destroy the lives of 3 or 4 persons who were not used to taking the drug. It is a singular fact that the confirmed opium eater must continually increase the quantity of the drug to realize its peculiar effect. Every month requires a larger dose, until the quantity contained each day is enormous. At first if the article used is the sulphate of morphine, 1/4 of a grain is the ordinary dose. In time 2, 3, and even 5 grains a day will produce no more effect than half a grain did in the beginning of its use. I know a young man today, living in an adjoining town who takes the enormous quantity of two drams, or 120 grains , a week or about 17 grains a day! He takes 3 doses daily of almost 6 grains each or about 24 ordinary doses 3 times a day. He began the use of this drug about 10 years ago, taking it to ease the pain of an abscess of the hip, causing a seated neuralgic pain in that part. The disease being a lingering one and the pain very severe, he continued the use of the anodyne week afer week, until at last, when the ailment ceased, the habit was so fixed upon him that he could not leave it off, and today he is a poor, broken down invalid, his health ruined, not by disease, but by this slavish habit of opium eating...Let me say here, that medical men cannot be too cautious in the giving of this drug, especially in chronic ailments, lest by its too long use, although they may alleviate pain and cure the disease, they leave a habit almost as much to be deplored, and far more difficult to cure, than the most inveterate disease that can be named. The day has come when opium can be much less used than formerly. New remedies have been discovered and these can take its place, so that there can be no possible excuse for medical men if the habit owes its origin to them...the opium habit is very easily formed. It soothes the victim with its vampire wings, while it slowly sucks his blood. It lulls him to sleep and soothes his pains, while day by day it is eating up his very life. It saps his energies, blunts his finer sensibilities, and while he revels in dreamland, leads him blindfolded down toward the gates of death...Who are the victims of the opium habit? Not the lower class of society - not the obtuse, dull minded - not the under strata of people. No, but most often the more delicately, highly organized class, sensitive, and feeling acutely. In a word, opium victims are most often found among the better class of society...First I will speak of a graduate of Brown University. He was converted under the preaching of Dr. Hawes, and contemplated studying for the ministry, but he got into the habit of taking morphine, and it crippled all his better and finer sensibilities. He finally studied medicine and got a degree (as by fire). When the war broke out he was at St. Louis, and he then made himself a name as a first class surgeon. He entered the Union Army as ?Brigade Surgeon, and went through the war with honor; but, poor fellow, he died in one year after it ended, his constitution ruined by the opioum habit. Many times he tried to break it off, and went through days of torment; but alas the trial was too great, and he only suffered in vain...A few years ago I knew a clergyman, a graduate of Amherst college and Andover, who was settled in a neighboring town. During a year he used to call on me once a week regularly and ask for 30 grains of morphine. I gave it to him for a long time, but at last was lead to ask him how he made use of so large a quantity of the drug. He said he began to take it one year before, for sciatica, and now he could not do without it...although the struggles was a fearful one he threw off the awful nightmare that crushed him down, and came up to the surface a saved man!,,,In a town near me, 10 years ago, was Dr. ____. He was a highly educated, Christian gentleman, http://elbourne.org/baptist/lumpkin/ sensitive as a woman , and withal a skillful physician, beloved by everybody. His practice was a large one, and fatiguing. Probably to ease his tired and excited nerves, he began the use of morphine...He died in middle life, in the prime of his manhood - they said, in charity, of consumption - so it was, but not consumption of the lungs. It is much more difficult to break off the confirmed opium habit than the use of alcohol or liquors. Let me tell you how I manage such cases. No opium inebriate can under any circumstance break off at once. It must be done gradually, I might say with mathematical precision, and in no other way without the most intense bodily and mental suffering...(Congregationalist).
 

Subjects: Charity, Chinese, Diseases, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Education, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Hampshire / Hampden Counties, Leverett (MA), Liquors, Masculinity (Machismo), Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Names, Obituaries, Religion, Vendors and Purchasers, War / Weaponry, Women, Arabs

Posted by stew - Sun, May 23, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 31, 1874
Receipts for making Receipts for making http://ftp.rootsweb....eps/1999d/v99-53.txt Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy and Dr. Pierce's golden medical discovery - Something over a year since, a periodical issued in Berlin, Prussia, and laying claims to a scientific character, published what was represented as being the formula or receipts for making Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy and Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery. The people were left to infer that these had been deducted from a careful chemical analysis of the medicines, which are rapidly growing in popular favor in that as well as in this and most other civilized countries. The receipts were evidently invented by those jealous of the reputation and large sale which these medicines are rapidly acquiring, and who are particularly endeavoring to check their sale. So ridiculously preposterous are those receipts that medicines compounded after them could never have gained any reputation or sale in any country, for they would be so caustic, poisonous, immediately and positively injurious, as in every case to be properly condemned by the people on the first trial as miserable, dangerous, and wicked humbugs. Whereas, it is a well known fact that all my medicines enjoy the reputation, honestly earned, of being not only efficacious, but perfectly mild, pleasant and harmless in effect...Strange as it may seem, a paper of high scientific pretensions, published in this country, copied the fictitious receipts from the German paper...To clear myself from the imputation of being guilty of perpetrating a wicked fraud upon the people...I, as proprietor and manufactuter of the aforesaid celebrated medicines, went before a magistrate and made oath to the fact that the said receipts were utterly false...But notwithstanding such correction and denial, certain individuals, who lounge around and infest our large cities, gaining a livelihood by perpetrating all kinds of http://www.mbeinstitute.org/SAHI/1875ch2.htm catch penny frauds upon the credulous, were thereby given the hint that, as medicines were universally popular, by advertising for sale bogus receipts for making them, they could get los of ignorant people to bite at their bait! One Frank M. Reed, of 139 Eighth Street, New York, who publishes http://www.vintagedance.info/dance/c2.pl?book=009 "Love and Courtship Cards" , a "Fortune Tellers and Dream Book", "The Mysteries of Love Making", "How to Woo and How to Win", and various other swindles, sends his dupes the following in exchange for their stamps. It is copied from the papers alluded to and is as follows: "For Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy, take 8 grains of common salt, the whole to colored with a little Prussian Blue". This makes a powerful caustic mixture as unlike Dr. Sage's Catarrh Remedy...is from darkness. As "A burnt child dreads the fire", if any have been so foolish as to have burned their noses sore with this caustic compound, thinking that they were using the same as Dr. Sage's...they will, it is hoped, profit by this lesson thereby taught them and not be so ready next time to bite at every http://www.hyperdict...ictionary/catchpenny(a) catch-penny advertising dodge that swindlers may offer them. For Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery the bogus receipt reads: "Take 4 drachmas purified honey, 15 grains extract poisonous lettuce, 30 grains of opium, 3 1/4 ounces diluted spirits, 3 ounces water. Mix." Of this ridiculous bogus formula I will say...that I will defy all the chemists in the world to ascertain, by chemical analysis, that composition of any of my Family Medicines, as they cannot be anlyzed to determine their ingredients, many of which are new in medicine, and, like nearly all vegetable extracts, there are no known reagents or chemical tests by which their presence can be determined...Taking a dose of [their] medicine will be found to produce drowsiness and stupor, whereas my discovery, in ever so large doses, produces no such effect...One [bogus receipt] sent out by a villainous knave, located in chicago, gives the chief ingredient of Dr. Sage's...as being Blue Vitriol, which is only equaled by another issued by parties in Philadephia who say that the ingredients composing Dr. Sage's are "burnt Alum, white Vitriol, Sugar of Lead, and Prussiate of Iron" and that my Golden Medical Discovery is "simply syrup and tincture of ginger"...I have felt warranted in contracting for hundreds of thusands of dollars worth of advertising in the newspapers of this and other countries, feeling perfectly assured that the merits of my remedies were so great as to insure a financial success out of such a bold undertaking. And in this I have not been disappointed, for my sales have increased steadily year after year, until they will this year largely exceed half a million dollars worth of my medicines... http://ah.bfn.org/a/main/651/source/10.html R.V. Pierce M.D .... http://ah.bfn.org/a/main/651/source/8.html World's Dispensary , Buffalo, N.Y.
 

Subjects: Advertising, Business Enterprises, Charlemont (MA), Children, Courts, Courtship, Dreams / Sleep, Drug Abuse, Economics, Family, Fires, Food, Gambling, Germans, Inventions, Literature / Web Pages, Mail, Medical Personnel, Medicine / Hospitals, Poisoning, Prophecies, Quacks and Quackery, Robbers and Outlaws, Sales, Scandals

Posted by stew - Wed, May 19, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 31, 1874
It is now asserted that the late It is now asserted that the late http://dspace.dial.p...t/france/napdead.htm Emperor Napoleon was killed by chloroform.
 

Subjects: Drug Abuse, French, Murder, Royalty


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