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Revised list of topics
Revised list of topics

Revised Jan. 10, 2009

Welcome to the list of topics. You can call them subject headings or tags - they offer you another method of searching the Franklin County Publication Archive site. Interested in accident victims in Athol? Click on the tag below for Accident Victims and find a list of articles dating from Jan. 1, 1870 to August , 1875. Once on the page of articles, then use your Find command to  pull up all articles mentioning Athol.

The search engine is being revamped by the wonderful and highly overworked Mik Muller. Once it is completed, you will be able to search for multiple subjects or terms by simply dividing terms with a comma in the search box. Example: Jones, Deerfield, Births   That should give you a nice listing of all Joneses born in Deerfield during the time period mentioned above. Another way to search it will be to choose the terms Deerfield and Births from the drop down box and add Jones to the search box. Voila!

ACCIDENT VICTIMS     Here reside the fatalities, not the regular every day deaths. Industrial accidents, drownings, death by fire, train, loose circus animals, accidental shootings, and freak accidents.

     Much more run of the mill stuff here, and not even fatal, at least in most cases. Many of these articles concern runaway horses, falls and narrow escapes.

   One of my favorite sections. Classified ads are also included here.

   Everything is covered here. Articles deal with slavery, racism, lynchings, and the like, but it is noteworthy to see that many articles are not racist in content.

AMUSEMENTS  is kind of a catch-all, but primarily concerns fun stuff done for amusement - picnics, parades, croquet games, tableaux, taffy pulling, sleigh rides, masquerade parties, sociables, shadow pantomimes - you get the idea.

ANIMALS / REPTILES  From the barnyard to the circus, to the hunted, to cats and dogs. Horses have their own category. I regret now that I did not create a subject heading for cruelty to animals, but those articles are also included here.

ARABS  Exotic stuff here. Turkey, Palestine, harems, whirling dervishes, reflecting the fascination for the Middle East and all its customs and traditions in the 1870s.

  is a mixed bag of accidental findings - like the dinosaur footprints in the Connecticut River bed in Turners Falls, to old burial sites of Native Americans [which were treated with appalling lack of respect]. "Humbugs" like the Cardiff giant are also included here, as well as accidental finding of treasure.

ARCHITECTURE / CONSTRUCTION  Styles of buildings, as well as the building of houses, larger buildings, bridges, train tracks, etc.

ART    contains the sublime, and the mundane. Famous statues and portraits are always being commissioned. It was also during this time period that art classes began to be required in the schools.


    Post Lincoln.

ASTRONOMY   Rare astronomical events, aurora borealis, miracles, meteors, solar eclipses - and the more mundane, references to the sun, moon, stars, planets, etc.


   includes not only the establishment itself, but also all references to hair, wigs, bald heads, medicine to grow hair, hair dyes, etc.

   Pretty much portrayed as den of iniquities. The Gazette & Courier is very much pro temperance.



   Anything drinkable. Includes water, milk, soda, coffee, tea, cider, as well as beer, liquor, etc.

BICYCLES AND BICYCLING - The craze hasn’t hit yet.  When it does, though, we’re on top of it!

BIRDS   All kinds of birds, many articles related to hunting. Hen stories abound as well, with some hens laying eggs that are 8 inches wide! [I pity the poor bird].

   A really sad section, since birth control in this time period only relates to mothers killing their newborns, to botched illegal abortions, etc.

   Are prolific. Many names, usually only of the proud father, are repeated each year. Of course the matching obituaries contain many of these infants as well. All cases of multiple births worldwide are listed.


   Free bridges, toll bridges, railroad bridges, etc.

   Any new business, old business, capitalist venture, etc. is covered.

    Women are people too!


CANALS - past their heydey (1830’s and 40’s) but still around and of interest.

CARICATURES AND CARTOONS - Haven’t started yet but I am awaiting them with great anticipation.


CHARITY   One of the main reasons fraternal clubs and organizations came into being.


  Only the very worst cases ever make it into print.

CHILDREN - They’re everywhere of course - families are huge, 15 children being a normal size. But the youth culture has not taken hold - one mostly hears about children having accidents or dying, or around Christmas time, or in school.

CHINA AND CHINESE   None locally as yet, but plenty of interest in the national news.

CIRCUS - One of my favorite sections. The hype, the sound, the fun! The ads are exceptional.

CLUBS   There are clubs for everything; they serve a major community function. Remember, no TV’s, no radios, etc.




CONNECTICUT RIVER - The important one. All others are in one section entitled RIVERS.

CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES - Hasn’t dawned on them too much, even though they are familiar with Thoreau’s work.

   Base ball games (we call ’em baseball) becoming popular. Bets and wagers always a part of our society. We’ve got walking contests, horse races, tobacco stripping contests, girls splitting hard wood slabs, which hen can lay the biggest egg, who can grow the tallest corn stalk, etc.


- Soaps, hairdyes, perfumes, face creams, etc.

COURTS  One of the largest sections. Look here for all criminal activity.

- The path of true love did not run smoothly, even in the old days. Poems and stories abound, even personal ads (very high-toned ones, of course). Murders and scandals are not uncommon, as well.

- Ah crime! There’s some of everything here, some of it salacious, much of it fines for drunkenness.

- Not everyone who commits a crime is a criminal. I reserved this area for people like serial poisoners, bank robbers, desperados, outlaws [like Red-Handed Dick and Henry Berry Lowery].

CULTS - Oh yes, they existed back then, and were just as troublesome. Read about Adventists, proponents of Free Loveism, Millerism, the Shakers, the Christian Israelites, the Nazarites, and the Howling Dervishes [Hmm, great name for a rock band].

is a great catchall section, and one of my favorites [of course]. Here you will read about human and animal abnormalities - a youth with three legs and four feet, a lizard living in a man’s stomach, a three horned and three eyed ox, a living skeleton, a four legged chicken - well, you get the idea ;-).

- Very important to Greenfield and Turners Falls history.

DANCE - Many kinds of dancing available for the young and the old. From Balls to Belly Dancers.


- We always have them. However, they don’t have the immediacy that they do nowadays in today’s news. Read about the great Chicago fire of 1871, the great Boston fire of 1872, shipwrecks, earthquakes, floods and explosions.

DISEASES - We’ve got a million of ’em.

- the Court makes you jump through hoops, wait years, etc., but divorces do happen.

DREAMS AND SLEEP - Sleep and sleep disorders also included here.

- From sulphuric ether, to tobacco, chloral, opium and laudanum.



ECONOMICS - Not one of my favorite subjects, but you will find here any articles about money, banks, every day economics, etc.

- a special place for UMass, then the Agricultural College.

ELECTIONS - only the major ones.

EMIGRATION AND IMMIGRATION - New England still pretty unhomogenous, but there are sections about German, Chinese and Irish migrations.

- Still a strong connection to the homeland.


ETIQUETTE - Always a topic of interest for the Victorians.


EXECUTIONS AND EXECUTIONERS - A morbid but interesting section.

EXPLORERS - A great time period for exploration. We have Dr. Livingston, Arctic explorers, and more.

EYE - Blindness, accidents, eyeglasses, sore eyes, etc.

FAIRS - held bout once a week - the favorite moneymaker of the women’s church groups. Then there’s the County Fairs, which are covered as thoroughly as possible.

FAMILY - Family reunions, loving families, insane families, incest, and more. Very useful for genealogists.

FARMERS AND FARMING - A hot topic in the 19th century. Also covers tobacco and fertilizers.

- A fun section. Sunbonnets, French kid gloves, waterproof dress goods, garters, corsets, wigs, demi-trains, false insteps, shawls, plaid poplins, striped stockings, chignons, Chinese grass cloth, kilting, etc.

FIRES - There are so many, and so few ways to put them out, that it’s a wonder that any buildings survived the 19th century at all. I had to be very exclusive, and only cover those fires of local and international interest.

FISHES AND FISHING - You can get a barrel of oysters delivered right to your door, andthey are "the" Sunday breakfast.

FLOODS - Also quite prevalent.

FOOD - For the gourmet and the every day eater. This section is large and all inclusive. Includes some recipes and all restaurant ads.

FREEMASONRY - A group deserving of their own section.

- Many influences here, from the Mansard or "French" roofs, stationary, corsets, pottery, jewelry, the Franco-Prussian War, etc.

- Wooden items, [and what wood! Black walnut, solid ash, walnut, chestnut] beds and sofas [occasionally covered with haircloth], and some interesting articles about Gardner, Mass., the "chair capital of the world".

GAMBLING - One of the oldest vices. Chinese gambling houses, dog-pits, bets, every day chance taking.

GANGS - Not the Bloods and the Crips, but the homegrown Tough End boys, roughs and rowdies, brigands and juvenile delinquents.

GARBAGE - Remember that this is pre-plastic (in most respects) and that the necessity for community trash dumps is not an issue yet. Most, or all farmers, keep an iron and glass scrap heap somewhere in the back forty - a practice which still occurs today. Some articles do concern garbage - rubbish littering the streets, a city without sewers, ash barrels, etc.

GAYS - ah, this is a tough but rewarding section, where I’ve had to "read between the lines" quite a bit. Included here are men who dressed as women, and women who dressed as men [with the understanding that, especially in women’s cases, this could have been done for economic and other reasons]. Famous figures like Oscar Wilde, Susan B. Anthony and Anna Dickinson are the meat and potatoes of this section.

- one of the more recent additions, includes topographical surveys, maps, tourist type articles, etc.

GERMANS - Nice to see this ethnic group portrayed in such a positive light. Local Germans are hard working, athletic, happy, beer drinkers who do not get drunk, like to compete in gymnastic contests, love to dance, etc.


GLASS - a particular favorite of mine, since I dig for, and collect old glass embossed bottles. Bottles, window glass, demi-johns, looking glasses, etc. As time allows, I will scan in some of my "dug" antique bottles for your viewing pleasure.

- usually Presidents, Congress, and taxes, new states and territories. Many other government related articles will be found under POLITICS.



GYPSIES - always a few passing through, telling fortunes, trading horses, stealing chickens, and kidnapping local children.

HAMPSHIRE & HAMPDEN COUNTIES (MA)    A catch all section for all those towns not privileged to be in Franklin County, and yet covered fairly thoroughly here. So look for articles on Amherst, Northampton, and the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the earlier name of the University of Massachusetts).

HANDICAPPED - the blind, the deaf, the lame, the insane - all find a home here. Cork legs, poor houses and alms-houses, deformed infants, hunchbacks, etc.



HERITAGE ACTIVITIES - will come into their own a little later. For now, centennial celebrations are included here.

HISPANICS - another catchall heading. Latin American activities, as well as Spanish Peninsular items. This subject heading will probably be combined with LATIN AMERICA eventually.

HISTORY - well, it’s all history to us, right? But included here are items which were of historic interest to the inhabitants of the 1870’s - the early days of Greenfield, Deerfield, and Montague; the founding of historical organizations, like the Pocumtuck Valley Memorial Association, and genealogical family histories.

HOLIDAYS - not much different from today’s celebrations. Of course the 4th of July was a maelstrom of fireworks and severed limbs, and Christmas advertising did not occur untilthe two issues before Dec. 25th. Sabbath Schools all had their holiday celebrations, complete with Christmas trees and a song fest, and Valentine’s Day had already started its decline into ignorant and joke cards. Washington’s birthday, All Fool’s Day, May Day, Thanksgiving, New Year’s Day, and Memorial Day are all represented. No sign of Halloween yet.

is rapidly nearing completion. Read about the 19th century version of the "Big Dig".

- I find this section absolutely fascinating. The vital importance of horses for all transportation needs is clearly shown, especially during the "Horse Disease"(Epizootic) of 1872. You either rassled up an oxen or goat, or you walked - in those places not accessible by train, of course.

HOTELS - There’s not that many of them, but they know how to do it up in style, and are a vital part of the town’s culture. This is the era when enormous resort hotels are springing up, and the concept of vacations are taking hold in the middle and upper classes.

is a broad subject; I mainly went by the rule of thumb of what occurred inside a dwelling. Houses were the domain of women, and so items made specifically for women, like sewing machines, find a home here. Hints on cookery and thrift, as well as kitchen appliances also find a home here ;-). Ah yes, the world of washing, ironing, canning, and child rearing.

HUNGARIANS - Why the Hungarians, you say? Well, this is one of those personal interest type headings, since I am half Hungarian.

ICE - a big business, back in the days of pre-refrigeration. Ice was "harvested" from local lakes, and kept cool in warehouses, to be sold in blocks throughout the warm months. Also included here are frozen over rivers and ponds, ice skating, and ice used for drinks and preserving food.




















Jun 30, 2022
Franklin County (MA) News Archive
The Franklin County Publication Archive Index

To search for a particular subject term, click on the highlighted link containing that term at the bottom of the article. For example, if you are seeking more articles about animals, click on the highlighted link which says Animals/Reptiles/Amphibians.

Article Archives: Articles: Vigilance Committees

Showing 25

Posted by stew - Sun, Jan 18, 2009

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 30, 1875
News of the week

Two men jailed for rape in Pensacola, Fla. were taken out and lynched Sat. morning before day.

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Prisons, Rape, Sex Crimes, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 21, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 9, 1875
News of the week

A man named Hurst killed his wife at White Cloud, Kan. last week. They had been married only about 6 months and had separated. On Thurs. aft. he went to the house where his wife was staying, called her out to the fence, put his arms about her, kissed her affectionately and then cut her throat with a large pruning knife. He was arrested, and the officers had great difficulty in preventing the populace from lynching him. He is now in jail at Troy, and pretends to be crazy. http://www.legendsof.../OZ-WhiteCloud2.html

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Households, Insanity, Marriage and Elopement, Murder, Prisons, Wife Abuse, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sat, Dec 13, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 26, 1875
News of the week

Lewis Thomson, [also seen as Lewis Thompson], colored, who brutally outraged a young lady at Iuka, Miss. last May, and was sentenced last Mon. to imprisonment for life, was taken from jail Tues. night by disguised men and hanged.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Murder, Prisons, Racism, Rape, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 8, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, July 19, 1875
News of the week

A most inhuman murder, committed in Wake County, N.C. in March last, has just come to light. Scott Partin [actually Albert Winfield "Scott" Partin, Jr.], a white man, cut his wife’s throat, then cut her head off, unjointed her at every joint, then cut the flesh off her bones, and attempted to burn her body up, but did not succeed. Then he murdered his little boy, a child 8 months old, in the same manner, and buried the two bodies in a marsh, where they were found last week by neighbors. Partin was in Raleigh last Sat., but has not been arrested. Circumstances show that Partin’s father and one of his brothers were accessories to the murder. Great excitement prevails in the community, and if caught, Partin’s demise will be quick. No motive for the murder is known, except that Partin was tired of his wife and child.

Subjects: Cemeteries, Crime, Criminals, Family, Fires, Murder, Police, Wife Abuse, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Mon, Dec 1, 2008

Gazette & Courier - Monday, May 10, 1875
News of the week

As expected, Judge Lynch [i.e. a lynch mob] succeeded in trying the case of the colored murderer, Joe Reed, who killed Policeman Frazier at Nashville, Tenn. Fri. night. The jailer did his best to protect his prisoner, but without avail. The mob, after several hours' work, forced their way in, seized Reed, fastened a rope around his neck, and hurrying him to the suspension bridge, threw him over with the intention of hanging, but the rope broke and he fell to the rocks below, a distance of 90 ft., and from thence into the river. He was shot once on the way and again at the bridge. [A policeman shot by a colored ruffian in Nashville - see the May 1, 1875 article in the New York Times].

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Bridges, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Gangs, Literature / Web Pages, Murder, Police, Prisons, Racism, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Work, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Fri, Aug 4, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 22, 1875
A desperate and bloody affray occurred near Helena, Col. on the 8th. Some 8 vigilantes went to the house of one Gibbs, recently acquitted of murder [of A desperate and bloody affray occurred near Helena, Col. on the 8th. Some 8 vigilantes went to the house of one Gibbs, recently acquitted of murder [of George Harrington ], and proposed to take summary appeal from the decision. Upon refusing to deliver himself up to be hanged, they set fire to his house, in which were Gibbs, two women and several children. Gibbs [ Elijah Gibbs ] leaped out through the flames with a revolver, and shot 3 of the party dead, and wounded another, when the rest fled.

Subjects: Children, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Family, Fires, Households, Murder, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Mon, Mar 6, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 1, 1875
A terrible case of murder

A terrible case of murder - The murder of Mrs. John P. Emerson on Fri., which occurred at Piermont, 2 or 3 miles from Bradford, Vt., and not at Bradford, was one of the most terrible ever perpetrated in the State, and circumstances point so strongly to Moses B. Sawyer, a man employed by Emerson, as the murderer, that he has been arrested. Sawyer, it seems, went to the door yard to cut wood, when Emerson went to the barn, and he doubtless returned immediately and discharged the gun within an inch or two of the woman’s head, as her head was blown to atoms. The supposed murderer returned to his work at once, as if nothing had happened and has since appeared very indifferent. He at first tried to convince others that the woman had committed suicide, but subsequently charged the crime upon her husband. When pointed to the horrible sight of the mutilated body, he remarked, "That’s nothing. I have seen worse sights than that". He tried to explain that she fired the gun by placing one of her feet upon the trigger, but both of her feet were upon the grate and she sat in a natural position in a chair. The theory of murder by the husband is too absurd to be entertained for a moment. In addition, some spots resembling blood have been found on Sawyer’s clothes, which are to be sent to a chemist in Boston for examination. The motive of the crime is a great mystery, but the most probable account of it is that Sawyer had some time been a rejected suitor of the woman. Sawyer is 59 years old, and his home has recently been at Lowell, Mass. Mrs. Emerson was about 25 and had been married 3 months. Sawyer had been acquainted with her many months before she went to Piermont. The feeling of the people against Sawyer is so great that there has been some danger that he would be lynched. Sawyer has confessed that he killed her, but claims that the shooting was accidental, a statement which is generally discredited.

Subjects: Boston (MA), Crime, Criminals, Furniture, Households, Mail, Marriage and Elopement, Murder, New Hampshire, Science, Suicide, Trees, Vermont, Women, Work, Vigilance Committees, Clothing

Posted by stew - Tue, Feb 14, 2006

Gazette & Courier - Monday, January 25, 1875
G.W. Ellery was arrested for rape on a girl aged 9 years old near Urbana O. on Thursday the 12th, was hanged Sun. morning the 17th, by a mob of 4

G.W. Ellery was arrested for rape on a girl aged 9 years old near Urbana O. on Thursday the 12th, was hanged Sun. morning the 17th, by a mob of 40 men who went to the jail, captured and bound the guards, battered down the doors, took out the prisoner, and after giving him a chance to pray, hanged him to a tree...A large crowd gathered...hung for an hour before removed by the coroner.

Subjects: Children, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Medical Personnel, Police, Prisons, Rape, Religion, Sex Crimes, Trees, Work, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sat, Nov 12, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, December 21, 1874
Lynch law at Des Moines, Iowa

Lynch law at Des Moines, Iowa - A body of about 150 disguised men entered the jail about 2 o'clock Tues. morning, knocked down the jailer, bound him, took the keys to the cells from his pocket, overpowered the guard and entered the cell where Charles Howard , the murderer of Johnson, sentenced on Mon. to imprisonment for life, was confined. His wife who was sleeping with him, clung to him, uttering horrible shrieks, and it was all that half a dozen men could do to drag him from bed. A rope was then placed around his neck and he was dragged through the halls and courthouse yard to a lamp post and hung. All the men had their faces blacked and were divided into squads, each doing its allotted work without a word spoken. Afer Howard had been fastened to the post, the mob dispersed as silently as they came. It is supposed the work was done by members of the vigilance committee of that county.

Subjects: Courtship, Crime, Criminals, Dreams / Sleep, Furniture, Gangs, Law and Lawyers, Light, Murder, Prisons, Women, Words, Work, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sun, Apr 17, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 30, 1874
A serious shooting affray occurred at Tahlequah, Indian Territory Mon. morning. Over 40 shots were fired, and one man was fatally w

A serious shooting affray occurred at http://www.geocities...n/histtahlequah.html Tahlequah, Indian Territory Mon. morning. Over 40 shots were fired, and one man was fatally wounded and two injured. The council suspended business and all the stores were closed. http://libweb.uorego...l/guides/native.html Major Ingalls [ http://www.geocities...ndian_Territory.html George W. Ingalls ], the United States agent, is investigating the affair, and at the request of the principal chief a special messenger has been sent to Fort Gibson for the United States Marshals and a posse to protect the innocent and secure the arrest of the murderers, who are said to belong to the sheriff's party. The sheriff is reported to have sent runners out to gather in his friends to prevent arrest.

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Government, Murder, Native Americans, Police, Stores, Retail, War / Weaponry, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sat, Mar 5, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
While a constable and posse of 4 men were bringing James M. League Jr., a horse thief, from Auburn to Troy, Mo. Saturday, they were attacked by 4 masked men, who shot League through the back and then

While a constable and posse of 4 men were bringing James M. League Jr., a horse thief, from Auburn to Troy, Mo. Saturday, they were attacked by 4 masked men, who shot League through the back and then tied him to a horse, which took fright and galloped through the woods, followed by a mob who kept up a rambling fire. League’s clothes were torn from his body, and he was horribly mutilated by the brush. He was rescued by the posse alive, and his wounds are not considered fatal, but it was feared the mob would hang him Sat. night.

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Etiquette, Fashion, Horses, Murder, Police, Robbers and Outlaws, Transportation, Trees, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Thu, Mar 3, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
A murderer's confession

A murderer's confession - Nathan Burgess , who was arrested Oct. 20, for the murder of Joseph Robbins, bridge watchman at Kaskaskia River , on the Vandalia Railroad, confessed, in court, at Terre Haute Indiana, that he did the deed. He says: I knew the Vandalia pay car had passed that aft. and had paid Robbin's his month's wages. I got that shot gun and went to the bridge. As I approached the watch house I looked through the window, and saw Robbins sitting inside. I raised the gun and fired. I then hesitated a few moments to listen if the report of the gun had aroused anyone. I then went up to the watch house door and found Robbins on his knees praying. I plainly heard him say "Oh God, have mercy on the one who did this. Spare him, for Jesus' sake". I was horrified, and turned and ran, I don't know where. I did not enter the house, nor touch the door. His words haunt me still - The amount for which Robbins was murdered was $31.50. There is great excitement in Fayette County, and threats are made of lynching Burgess.

Subjects: Bridges, Connecticut, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Glass / Windows, Murder, Noise, Police, Religion, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Trains, Work, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Thu, Mar 3, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 23, 1874
Horrible wife murder in Illinois

Horrible wife murder in Illinois - A horrible case of wife murder has just come to light in Monroe County, Ill. On the 9th of August last, the wife of Barney McMahon, a farmer, well advanced in years, living near Burkeville, suddenly disappeared, and has not been heard of since. The day before, McMahon, sent the children away on a visit and upon their return the following day, they were told that their mother had started for Burkeville. On the day of the alleged disappearance of his wife, McMahon fired a log heap some distance from the house, and kept it burning 2 weeks. It emitted a terrible stench, which, when questioned, he attributed to chickens which had died of cholera .

Suspicion having recently been aroused, detectives were employed to work up the case. They found that after the log heap was burned, the ground had been plowed over, but on examination a few days ago, several hair pins, small buttons and bones which looked like finger bones, and part of an upper jaw bone with the teeth attached, were found, and on the strength of this evidence McMahon was arrested and held to answer the charge of murder. There is considerable excitement in the neighborhood, the opinion being strongly against McMahon, and he is likely to experience the summary justice of Judge Lynch.

Subjects: Barber / Hair, Birds, Children, Connecticut, Crime, Criminals, Diseases, Family, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Fires, Marriage and Elopement, Missing Persons, Murder, Old Age, Police, Trees, Women, Work, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Wed, Jan 26, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Tuesday, November 10, 1874
A beast of a negro named Jock Phillips outraged the wife of a planter near A beast of a negro named Jock Phillips outraged the wife of a planter near http://www.arkansas....-heritage/famous.asp Osceola, Ark. early Thurs. morning, and from the treatment she received she will probably die, as she was within 4 weeks of confinement. The negro was arrested and brought to Osceola, where the citizens, both black and white, improvised a court, and after hearing the evidence took the prisoner out and shot him dead.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Animals / Reptiles, Births, Connecticut, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Farmers & Farming / Flowers, Police, Racism, Rape, Sex Crimes, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Fri, Jan 14, 2005

Gazette & Courier - Monday, November 2, 1874
One of the most atrocious murders ever perpetrated on American soil was enacted a few weeks ago in Holt County, Mo. A lad of 17 years, who had been arre

One of the most atrocious murders ever perpetrated on American soil was enacted a few weeks ago in Holt County, Mo . A lad of 17 years, who had been arrested on the charge of horse stealing, and had by the novice of his attorney pleaded guilty, was lynched by a party of disguised men. He was in charge of a constable at the time, and was being conveyed from Bigelow to the county seat at Oregon. The party gave him a mock trial and hanged him. Next day a coroner's jury, before whom Rice, the constable, testified, found that he had come to his death at the hands of persons unknown. The sheriff of Holt county has procured indictments against 8 of the leading citizens of that county. Their chief apparently was Mr. Barnes, the attorney who appeared for the poor lad's defense, and urged him to plead guilty; a second was the son of the justice before whom the preliminary trial was held; a third was one Catron who was foreman of the coroner's jury; a fourth, the constable who had aided in the murder and testified before the jury; a fifth, the officer who made the original arrest. These men actually met together and hanged the lad for wanton sport. They are now in jail, deny the charge, and threaten that every witness who appears to testify against them, shall share the fate of the murdered lad. Barnes claims to have served on Robert E. Lee's staff, and H.H. Simpkins, another of the gang, says he was a member of Gen. John A. Logan's staff.

Subjects: Connecticut, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Gangs, Horses, Law and Lawyers, Medical Personnel, Murder, Police, Prisons, Robbers and Outlaws, Transportation, War / Weaponry, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 28, 1874
The Coushatta massacre

The Coushatta massacre - Mr. D.J.M.A. Jewett , U.S. Commissioner for Louisiana, sends to the Boston Journal, under date of the 11th, an intelligent account of the recent Coushatta massacre. He says: "At short dates following the close of the war, now the country seat of Red River Parish , then in the parish of De Soto, and an abandoned little hamlet of half a dozen ruined houses, was resettled by a few northern men, prominent among whom were M.H. Twichell [i.e. M.H. Twitchell ] and H.J. Twichell [i.e. http://ftp.rootsweb....history/redrivht.txt H.J. Twitchell ], formerly of South Framingham, Mass.; Edward W. Dewees, also of Massachusetts, John T. Yates, Clark Holland, Gulbert Carne [sic], each of whom from time to time invested money in lands, sawmills and other improvements. A flourishing little town was shortly built up on the east bank of the Red River, and in 1870, emigration having been thereby attracted to the surrounding country, and a separation of interests having occurred between the new community and the neighboring parishes, the new parish (or county) of Red River was created and attached to the 21st senatorial district. At the election of that year, M.H. Twichell was elected Senator and E.W. Dewees to the lower House fro the adjoining parish of De Soto. In 1872, Mr. Dewees having moved back to the new parish, was therein re-elected to the lower House; John T. Yates was elected Sheriff, and having resigned last Spring was replaced by Frank G. Edgerton, also a northern man. A.O. Pickens, an old confederate soldier, was elected parish judge in 1872, but having resigned in order to accept the attorneyship of the 17th judicial district, was replaced in the legal manner by A.G. Penny. Mr. C. Willis was elected justice of the peace in 1872. W.H. Howell was appointed parish attorney in the legal manner. Clark Holland, a merchant of Coushatta, was one month ago appointed supervisor of registration in the usual manner. The facts state that these gentlemen, or such of them as held offices required to be elected by the people, were duly elected, are admitted by the democratic party. The Warmoth and Forman boards of returning officers, both run in the interests of the ku klux [i.e. ku klux klan] democracy of Louisiana, both returned the Republican candidates, for all the offices in Red River parish, in pursuance of a preconcerted and general plan, demanded of these officers the resignation of their several offices. They refused to resign...About the middle of last month the White League [i.e. http://70.1911encycl.../KU/KU_KLUX_KLAN.htm Ku Klux Klan ] of Red River Parish attacked the officers in the discharge of their duties. The white league , alone, summoned from the surrounding parishes every desperate scoundrel, who, for a drink of whisky, and the chance to steal a horse, would commit a murder, to rally at Coushatta, and about 100 howling, drunken desperadoes assaulted there from Nachitoches, De Soto, Caddo, Bienville, Bossier, Grant, Jackson, Webster, Claiborne and Lincoln parishes and overpowered the sheriff's posse. After killing Gilbert Carne [this appears to be http://www.rootsweb..../coushatta_times.htm Gilbert Cone ], deputy sheriff, and 6 colored men, to save the lives of their political friends then in the power of the desperate mob, the officers of Red River parish and R.A. Dewees, a collector of De Soto, who was present, offered to resign their several offices and leave the State. The white league on their part released the captured posse comitatus, and pledged themselves to guard the officers out of the State, via Shreveport that night. H.J. Twichell, R.A. Dewees, M.C. Willis, Clark Holland, W.J. Howell and F.G. Edgerton were lodged in Coushatta jail, guarded by the league. The next day a guard was selected to take them to Shreveport. They actually took them by an unfrequented road into Bossier Parish, and there, 25 miles below Shreveport toward the scene of the murder the night before,, were foully murdered by the guard given them for their protection, assisted by about 40 men who rode out from Shreveport. I state nothing that I do not know to be true. The murdered men had married in Louisiana, all had property in Red River Parish, and had young families here, and to them and their friends...all the great prosperity of Red River parish is due. A few men fortunately escaped, being absent from the parish at the time of the murders. The history of Red River is the history of many North Louisiana parishes...At each recurring election these scenes of blood disgrace nearly every parish in this portion of the State. In each of these northern parishes some Yankee dies for his old flag and for the freedom of the slave at each occurring conflict. I could name many dear old northern comrades whose blood has reddened the soil of Louisiana; could give you a history of blood which would scarce find credence among our law abiding Northern friends, but what I tell you of Red River may be accepted as a specimen of political conflicts in this bloody State...

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Boston (MA), Business Enterprises, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Elections, Emigration and Immigration, Family, History, Horses, Households, Law and Lawyers, Liquors, Literature / Web Pages, Marriage and Elopement, Massachusetts, Murder, Names, Old Age, Police, Politics, Prisons, Racism

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 21, 1874
Two negro men named West and Jim Lovelace, recently stole a bale of cotton from an old white man in Columbia County, Ga. The negros were arrested and voluntarily submitted to whipping. Subsequently a

Two negro men named West and Jim Lovelace, recently stole a bale of cotton from an old white man in Columbia County, Ga. The negros were arrested and voluntarily submitted to whipping. Subsequently an armed party called at Lovelace’s house, but not finding him, they proceeded to a house where an old negro was staying and shot him. They also shot a negro named Griffin and killed Griffin’s wife.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Crime, Criminals, Households, Murder, Old Age, Police, Racism, Robbers and Outlaws, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sun, Dec 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 21, 1874
The outbreak in New Orleans

The http://76.1911encycl...N/NE/NEW_ORLEANS.htm outbreak in New Orleans - The details which we publish in another column of a "conflict of arms" in New Orleans, read more like the outbreaks and mob violence of Paris than any thing we have before known in this country. The http://www.historyte...bMeserve-Chrissy.htm White Leagues , secret organizations that have become general throughout the South, are responsible for the disturbance. A summary of the affair is this: An armed mob assembles in the public square, listens to a harangue, adopts some fiery resolutions, and sends a delegation to demand the abdication of the Governor. This favor being refused, the mob is requested to separate, only to meet again at a later hour more thoroughly equipped and organized to execute the plans that would be arranged for them. What these plans are shortly appears. The mob, when it next comes on the scene, assumes the aspect of a military force, evidently well organized and drilled detachments are sent out to guard the principle streets, and barricades are quickly constructed to serve as impromptu fortifications. As soon as the police appear they are fired on; what is at first a skirmish becomes a general attack, and a formidable list of killed and wounded is piled up on both sides. Immediately a pretended Governor puts in an appearance, issues a proclamation after the most approved Mexican pattern, and appoints Generals to officer the mob. The result is the seizure of the State House, of all the State and city property, the shutting up of the Governor and General Longstreet in the Custom House, and the taking of the reins of government by the so called Lieut. Governor Penn , backed up by his 10,000 rioters. The prompt action of the President shows that he is not a man to be intimidated or trifled with, and the way in which the disturbance was squelched meets with hearty approval. He found Kellogg in office, sustained by the State courts and recognized as governor even by those who most bitterly hated him, and his only course was to sustain him by the strong arm of the Government.

Subjects: Accident Victims, Accidents, Clubs, Courts, Fires, French, Government, Latin America, Police, Politics, Racism, Riots, Roads, War / Weaponry, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Sun, Oct 31, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, February 17, 1873
A Vigilance Committee in Dodge City made a raid on a dance house Sun. and killed Charles Hill, alias Texas, and Ed Williams, both desperate A Vigilance Committee in Dodge City made a raid on a dance house Sun. and killed Charles Hill, alias Texas, and Ed Williams, both desperate http://www.geocities...lace12/frontier.html frontier characters.

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Dance, Law and Lawyers, Murder, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Thu, Oct 21, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 7, 1874
Outrages in the south

Outrages in the south - There have been received at Washington several well authenticated cases of outrages upon the negroes in the Southern States. One of these, of which there is official confirmation, is the deliberate murder of a colored mail messenger. This murder was committed by a gang of Ku Klux, who stopped the railroad train on the Alabama and Chattanooga Railroad near York station, by false signals of danger, and then shot down the colored government officer while at his duty. Another outrage equally authentic was performed in Lee County, Alabama. A band of Ku Klux fired into a colored church without provocation and killed 4 colored persons. Congressman Hayes of Alabama, who is now here, states that he is also in danger of his life in Sumpter County, the strongest Republican county in the State; that his district, which has hitherto returned him by 10,000 majority, would now cast only white votes, as the black voters are so intimidated that they would not go to the polls. Mr. Sloss, an employee of the House of Representatives, who is speaking in Alabama, has just been warned by a band of Ku Klux, who entered his bedroom with cocked pistols, to leave the country. Representative Pelham of Alabama had fled from one of the counties in his own district for his life. The Chairman of the State Republican Committee of Texas, who is here, states that since the inauguration of Gov. Coke in that State there has been 600 political murders. Mayor Stephens of Desoto parish La., who arrived at Shreveport Tues., furnishes the following account of the recent troubles in Red River parish, which resulted in the inhuman butchery of the Coushatta prisoners , on Sun. It seems that in the Red River parish, where the negroes are largely in excess of the whites, much apprehension and alarm has been felt by the latter on account of a threatened outbreak of the negroes, instigated as it was generally believed, by Edgerton, Dewees, Twitchell, Howell, Willis, Holland and others. The lives of several white residents had been threatened by the negroes, and a few days ago, Mr. Williams of http://ftp.rootsweb....history/redrivht.txt Red River parish , was threatened with assassination by two notorious and desperate negroes near Brownsville; he having been fired at by them with double-barreled shotguns. Last Thurs. night a small party of white men went to the cabins of these negroes, with a view of aresting and lodging them in jail, when they were fired upon and one killed. The negroes then attempted to run into the woods, when they were both shot and killed. The next day (Friday) a large body of armed negroes, numbering between 300 and 400, assembled near Brownsville, swearing vengeance against the white race, and declaring that they would not leeve a white man, woman or child alive in the parish. This created great apprehension and excitement at Coushatta and throughout the surrounding country, and Fri. night, the roads leading into town were picketed. During the night, two young men named Dickson and Pickens halted a negro coming into town with a sack of buckshot, but he paid no attention to their command to halt, and ran off into the darkness, being fired at by one of the party without success. They immediately went into town to report what had occurred, and were returning to their post when they were accosted in the streets of Coushatta by http://www.rootsweb..../coushatta_times.htm Homer Twitchell and two negroes named Andrew Bosley and Bob Smith, all of whom were armed. They had a few moments' conversation, not of a violent nature, and had turned round to proceed to their posts, when they were fired upon twice by the Twitchell party from the rear without warning. Dickson was dangerously wounded, and now lies in a very critical condition. The firing party then ran off, Bosley and Smith escaping altogether, and Twitchell for the time being. That night and the next morning F.S. Edgerton , http://ftp.rootsweb....ita/obits/ot1874.txt Homer I. Twitchell , R.A. Dewees, W.F. Howell, C. Holland and M.C. Willis, all white, besides a number of negroes, were arrested and placed under guard. All of the party who held office then voluntarily tendered and wrote out resignations and they, with others, voluntarily proposed that, if a guard be furnished them to Shreveport, they would leave the State and return no more. This was at once assented to, and the prisoners requested John Carr, a reliable and trustworthy citien, to take charge of the guard for their protection. On Sun. morning at 10 o'clock Mr. Carr, with a guard of 16 men, started with the above named prisoners, except the negroes released afterward. A party of between 40 and 50, supposed to be Texans, who came to Coushatta, started in pursuit with the avowed purpose of lynching the prisoners. Later in the day, Carr was apprised of this fact, and put his horse and those of the prisoners to the top of their speed to avoid being overtaken. While nearing Hutchinson's plantation on the Red River, some 30 miles below Shreveport, with a view of crossing there and destroying the flat boat to prevent further pursuit, he was overtaken by the pursuing party, the guards were overpowerd and the prisoners taken away from him. Three of them, Edgerton, Twitchell and Dewees were shot on the spot, and the other three, Howell, Holland and Wilis, carried back a short distance to near Ward's store, and there shot. The citizens of the neighborhood assembled Mon. night, and buried the parties killed, the first three in a graveyard near Hutchinson's plantation, and the last three on the spot whee they were killed near Ward's store. The St. Louis Republican learns from gentlemen just arrived from Galveston Texas that on Fri., Agu. 28, at Corsicana in that State, the wife of a negro living three miles from town was grossly insulted by a white desperado. The husband went to Corsicana and made a complaint against the offender before a Justice of the Peace. In attempting to arrest the desperado, the negro husband and two others were shot. Some 300 negroes then armed themselves with the intention of capturing the white man who, with 5 or 6 companions took possession of a cabin in the suburbs of the town, and barricaded it and determined to resist arrest. When the informant left, the whites were counseling the negroes not to besiege the cabin, as its occupants were well armed and would kill many of the besiegers. The colored citzens of Boston held a meeting Wed. eve. to "give expression to their indignation at the recent outrages upon the black and white citizens of the South". Speeches were made by William Wells Brown , http://www.masshist....icipation/judges.htm George L. Ruffin , Joshua B. Smith , E.G. Walker and others. They believed that there had been shown altogether too much leniency to ex rebels, and that the old slave holding power was still struggling for the supremacy. Resolutions were passed calling upon the President to take prompt measures for the suppression of the present state of affairs, and if he had not the power to do that, to convene an extra session of Congress. President Grant has caused troops to be stationed within call of the localities where the recent troubles have occurred in the south, in order to protect both white and colored citizens wherever the local authorities are powerless. Gov. Kellogg has issued a proclamation reciting the recent murders and offering a reward of $5000 per head for the perpetrators. Senator West of Louisiana states that there have been a hundred political murders in the South within 3 weeks.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Assassination, Boston (MA), Cemeteries, Charlemont (MA), Children, Clubs, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Economics, Government, Horses, Households, Literature / Web Pages, Mail, Murder, Police, Prisons, Racism, Rape, Religion, Riots, Rivers / Lakes / Oceans, Roads

Posted by stew - Sun, Aug 29, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 14, 1874
Governor Brown of Tennessee has given another earnest of his determination to straighten things out in his state, by going himse

http://www.rootsweb....papers/gazette7.html Governor Brown of Tennessee has given another earnest of his determination to straighten things out in his state, by going himself to http://ftp.rootsweb....per/gazette-1874.txt Trenton to assist in bringing to justice the parties who recently murdered the negro prisoners. It is asserted that 10 of the negroes taken from jail escaped. Although no trace of their leaders has been found, the report lacks confirmation.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Crime, Criminals, Government, Murder, Prisons, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Tue, Jul 6, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 14, 1874
A fresh case of outrage and its swift punishment by Judge Lynch occurred in Kentucky last week. On Tues. a young white girl named Strange, living in Jessamine co

A fresh case of outrage and its swift punishment by Judge Lynch occurred in Kentucky last week. On Tues. a young white girl named Strange, living in Jessamine county , was outraged by a negro named http://users.bestweb...NG%20CENTURY%201.htm Lewis Oates [listed here as an unknown black man], who was subsequently arrested and taken to Nicholasville for examination. He pleaded guilty and was remanded for the action of the circuit court. Soon after, the [?] was overpowered by a mob headed by the father of the girl, and the negro taken outside the town and hanged. The sheriff endeavored to protect the prisoner but received no support from the citizens.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Courts, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Family, Police, Prisons, Racism, Rape, Sex Crimes, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Wed, May 26, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, September 7, 1874
A man at Shenandoah Pa. shot a boy for stealing fruit Sat. night, and the popular indignation was so intense that he was glad to retreat to the jail to avoid being lynched.

A man at Shenandoah Pa. shot a boy for stealing fruit Sat. night, and the popular indignation was so intense that he was glad to retreat to the jail to avoid being lynched.

Subjects: Children, Crime, Criminals, Food, Prisons, Robbers and Outlaws, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Tue, May 11, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 31, 1874
Three negroes, Dick Cooper, Anthony Grant and Silas Johnson, who last week forcibly entered the residence of Mrs. Burnley of Mississippi, and violated her person, were taken from the jail and hung by

Three negroes, Dick Cooper, Anthony Grant and Silas Johnson, who last week forcibly entered the residence of Mrs. Burnley of Mississippi, and violated her person, were taken from the jail and hung by citizens, about 1000 of whom were present. They all confessed their guilt on the gallows.

Subjects: African-Americans / Blacks, Crime, Criminals, Executions and Executioners, Households, Prisons, Rape, Sex Crimes, Women, Vigilance Committees

Posted by stew - Mon, May 10, 2004

Gazette & Courier - Monday, August 31, 1874
In Oregon recently, a woman and her son, hearing rumors of an improper intimacy between the schoolmaster and the woman's daughter, went to the schoolhouse with cudgel and shot gun, and killed the sc

In Oregon recently, a woman and her son, hearing rumors of an improper intimacy between the schoolmaster and the woman’s daughter, went to the schoolhouse with cudgel and shot gun, and killed the school master. After the murder it was discovered that he was innocent, and at last accounts, the people were threatening to lynch both the woman and the boy.

Subjects: Crime, Criminals, Education, Executions and Executioners, Family, Murder, Sex Crimes, Women, Vigilance Committees

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